The Role Of Information And Communication Technology In References Services Of Library Users In Nigeria (A Case Study Imo State  Public Library)

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Project and Seminar Material for Library and Information Science

Project and Seminar Material for Library and Information Science


In appreciation to the love of the Almighty God. His gracious upon me during the process of making this work a reality. I will ever remain grateful to him for all his goodness upon my life.


Acquiring wisdom and knowledge is built on standing by the words of the wise. Success is always achieved by standing of efforts rendered selflessly on a pierce of work in order to make it a reality.

I acknowledge the selfless efforts and encouragement rendered towards achieving this work by my project supervisor, Mr. Anyanwu Emmanuel Uwazee

I also acknowledge all my fellow students in the department, friends and well wishers. May God Almighty bless you all.

I will not also forget my good lecturers in the department especially my (HOD) Dr. Umunna N. Opara Phd and others. I may not be able to call your names one after the other, but may the good lord be your strength and refuge.


The study explores the “The role of information and Communication Technology in references services of library users in Nigeria, Imo State Public library.

The survey method of research was used in which twenty – four (24) questionnaire containing eighteen (18) questions in two (2) sections were administered on the respondents with a high rate of return. The research was presented in five chapters. The introductory aspect appears in chapter one, with chapter two centered on review of related literature and the methodology used for the research was fully explained in chapter three. The presentation and analysis of data was the focus of chapter four (4) with conclusion, summary of findings, recommendations and suggestions for further study in chapter five (5).

The major findings of the study shows that Imo State Library board is yet to be computerized and the inadequacy of ICT facilities, lack of skilled manpower, erratic power supplies and constant breakdown of equipment remains an impediments to full implementation of ICT in the reference service of library users, however recommendations on training/retraining of personnel and provision of fund were made as means of solving the identified problems.

List Of Tables

  • Table 1: Distribution and Return Rate
  • Table 2: Gender Distribution of Respondents
  • Table 3: Age Distribution
  • Table 4: Qualification of Respondents
  • Table 5: Years of Experience of Respondents
  • Table 6: Imo State Library board automation/computerization
  • Table 7:Provision of ICT Equipment
  • Table 8: Adequacy of ICT Equipment
  • Table 9: Areas ICT is Applied in Imo State Library board
  • Table 10: Availability of Skilled Technical Manpower
  • Table 11: Availability of Standing ICT Training Programme
  • Table 12: Impact of Training on ICT Application
  • Table 13: Adequacy of Fund
  • Table 14: Extent Fund Provided Affected ICT Application
  • Table 15: Attitude of Management Towards ICT Application
  • Table 16: General Problems Affecting ICT
  • Table 17: Solutions to Identified Problems of ICT Application

Table Of Contents

  • Title page  i
  • Certification ii
  • Dedication iii
  • Acknowledgement iv-v
  • Abstract vi
  • List of tables vii
  • Table of contents  viii-x

Chapter One

  • 1.1 Introduction
  • 1.2 Statement of the problem
  • 1.3 Objectives of study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Scope of the study
  • 1.6 Significance of the study
  • 1.7 Definition of operational basic concept
  • References  16

Chapter Two

  • Literature Review
  • 2.0 Introduction
  • 2.1 Concept of special and the reference service of library users
  • 2.2 Concept of automation and computerization in library user of reference service
  • 2.3 History and concept of ICT
  • 2.4 ICT application in reference service operation
  • 2.5 Manpower and training needs and ICT application in reference service
  • 2.6 Funding and management attitude and ICT application in reference service
  • 2.7 Problems and approach to ICT application in reference service
  • References

Chapter Three

  • Research Methodology
  • 3.0 Introduction
  • 3.1 Research design
  • 3.2 Population of the study
  • 3.3 Sample size and sampling techniques
  • 3.4 Instrument for data collection
  • 3.4.1 The questionnaire
  • 3.5 Procedure for data collection
  • 3.6 Method of data analysis

Chapter Four

  • 4.0 Data presentation and analysis

Chapter Five

  • Summary of findings, conclusion
  • 5.0 Introduction
  • 5.1 Summary of findings
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendations
  • 5.4 Suggestions for further study
  • Bibliography
  • Appendix I
  • Appendix II

Chapter One

1.1 Introduction

Information and communication technology has been evolving rapidly the last half of the 20th century particularly since the 1960s and 1970s. It has revolutionalize the media and modes of computing, storing and communicating information. The changes in the processing and distributing of information made with enthusiasm and by necessity have affected society in many ways.

The use of information and communication technology in university libraries has tremendously increased because it provides enhanced user satisfaction, cost effectiveness, faster and simpler programmes, the rapid responses and easier operational procedures. The application here connect to internet in library and information organizations and it has some areas including catalog, access, document delivery, searching national and international datowerrise, and the use of personal computers. Ekejiuba, (1993).

Information and communication technology has been define as “the application of computers and other technologies to the acquisition, organization, storage, retrieval and dissemination of information.” This definition implies that information and communication technology is restricted to systems dependent on a microelectronics based on combination of computing and communication technology.

It is also means that information and communication technology is broad-based term that encompassed the gathering (acquisition) organization (packaging) storage and retrieval (dissemination) of information data can be in textual and vocal forms (audio visual) or a combination of all the above (multi-media) using combination of computers and telecommunication (telephones). American Library Association (1992).

In as much as information and communication technology is today a widely accepted phenomenon in information gathering and dissemination, it has been observed that it’s application in teaching hospitals or reference service has not be fully appreciated. This is so because most of these libraries are neither automated nor computerized, lack of equipment, no skilled technical manpower, no training programmes, inadequate training poor management attitude towards library matters and general environmental problems.

All these are however mere speculations in relation to the issue of the reference service of library users of Imo State University Teaching Hospital. It is therefore the interest of this study to empirically investigate the role of information and communication technology at the reference service of library users of ISLB. Solutions would be proffered to identify problems.

1.1 Background Of The Study

Historical Background Of Imo State Public Library

The imo state library board, owerri was founded in June 1986 alongside other institution that were founded that time. Formerly the institution was temporally located at Okigwe road secretariate Owerri before it was located to federal secretariate at port-harcourt road, in September 1996, under the leadership of Mr. E.I. Nsoro, who was its pioneer archivist

On its establishment in 1986, imo state library board, owerri was under the ministry of Education. Later it was attached to ministry of youths, sports and culture before it finally found itself in the ministry of information and culture later in year 2001, “culture was remove from information and it comes known as ministry of information and National orientation.

The Imo state library board, has the following sections

  1. Administrative Section
  2. Account Section
  3. Search room Section
  4. Repository Section
  5. Library Section
  6. Binding Section

The History Of Imo State Library Board

Imo state archives was established by Imo state government in 1981. However, it did not commence operation immediately as a result of delay in re lease of logistics and infrastructure formely, the institution was under the ministry of education, information, culture youth and sports until when information and culture was carried out as a suppurate ministry, Imo state archives because of this development the become a division under culture department. It remained so until year 2001 when the department of archives was carved out from culture, department of Imo state archive then became a full fledged department.

1.2 Statement Of The Problem

Information and Communication Technology has greatly been acknowledged to influence the operations and activities of man and his organizations. But its acquisition has been so greatly slow in most of the institutions needed, hence the foot dragging in its application to the operations of organization including reference service.

In as much as there are difficulties in the effective realization of the desires of ICT application as a result of the non-automation/computerization of libraries, manpower need and training programme, that of Imo State Library board has not been ascertained.

Yet to be ascertained also are the contributions of funds and management attitude to ICT application in reference service in Nigeria. Hence the imperatives of the present study to investigate on the application of ICT to the operations of ISLB The reference service of library users and the problems that could militate against it and proffer solutions accordingly.

1.3 Objectives Of The Study

  • To effectively carryout this research, the following objectives are formulated.
  • To identify whether Imo State Library board is automated/ Computerized.
  • To ascertain whether ICT equipment are provided for Imo State Library board operation.
  • To find out whether Imo State Library board has the skilled technical manpower for ICT application.
  • To determine whether there is standing ICT training programme at Imo State Library board for ICT application
  • To find out whether Imo State Library board is adequately funded for ICT application
  • To determine attitude of management towards Imo State Library board matters and ICT application.
  • To identify the general problems of ICT application at Imo State Library board.
  • To proffer solutions to identified problems of ICT application at Imo State Library board.

1.4 Research Questions

  • Is Imo State Library board automated / computerized?
  • Are ICT equipment provided for ABSUTY library operation?
  • Has Imo State Library board got the skilled technical manpower for ICT application?
  • Is there a standing ICT training programme at Imo State Library board for ICT application?
  • Is ISLB adequately funded for ICT application in its operations?
  • What is the attitude of management towards ABSUTY library matters and ICT application?
  • What are the general problems of ICT application at Imo State Library board?
  • What are the solutions to identified problems of ICT application at Imo State Library board?

1.5 Scope Of The Study

This study is basically on the role of information and communication technology in references services of library users in Nigeria The reference service of library users Services, Abs. It covers only a particular library.

The study will reflect on the progress of ICT application in Imo State Library board and to have an in-depth study of the technologies available for the library operation.

1.6 Significance Of The Study

This study is to provide the readers with a critical analysis of the present situation of information and communication technology application in libraries particularly the Imo State University Teaching Hospital Library (ISLB).

It will also be relevant to ISLB for the information technological studies in general and their library in particular. This study will stimulate library students to freely undertake research work in the academic libraries in Nigeria and the role they play in development of information in the country.

In addition, the study will tend to examine the problems associated with computerization of libraries, benefits derived from computerized service by both library users and their staff and also suggests to the library authorities meaningful ways of the improving the efficiency and effectiveness of the information and communication technology service in libraries.

1.8 Definition Of Operational Basic Concepts


It is a Programme that enable the computer to do specific jobs in different fields of human endeavors. (Akukwe, 2003).


The meaning a human being assigns to data by means of the conventions applied to that data. (Drubbel, 2003).


The flow of information from one point (the source) to another (the receiver). (Drubbel, 2003).


The application of Science to practical human ends particularly to increase productivity and availability of leisure and to improve the quality of life. (Drubbel, 2003).

I bet you, the complete material is fully loaded. This is just an excerpt. The Material is in MS-Word Format which you can easily edit and is comprehensive for a complete research work for this topic

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How to nail it on the head during your project defence

You are through with writing that project. Now what?

You have found yourself at that point where you have to defend what you have written. Of course you have to stand in front of your supervisor and other literary personalities to prove that you know what you wrote in your project paper. Unfortunately, the more you think about it, the more it looks like you are about to face a legion. It is not a war. But the emotion of dread welling up inside of you makes it look like one. So now you are asking yourself questions.

  • How am I going to start?
  • I hope I will do well enough to get an A.

You really want to nail it, but you need to come to terms with exactly how to get everything in perfect control. Especially your emotions of fear that seem to make a wreck of you every time you think about public speaking.
So here is the deal. I want to help you avoid that feeling that would ruin your precious moment if you dare to let it. And we are going to do it together.

I am going to highlight some very important tips to help you get in control for you to be comfortable enough to move from that feeling of DREAD to CONFIDENT; and making an awesome Impression for that great rating your supervisors should be giving to you so freely.

Consider these tips as you prepare for your defence. We will be taking them one after the other so here we go.

Watch Your Body Language And Keep It Confident:

Can you tell that a person is falling apart if they look confident? … If I can second guess you rightly, am sure you answered no to that question. Remind yourself that you need to come out that way. Now this might seem like a huge big deal when you are dealing with the foreboding. Maintaining a poise of confidence is very important. So find your most comfortable position, sitting or standing and draw up your body. You must exude confidence. It is something you need to do for yourself. People can only see what you allow your body language to show. So you must endeavour to put that out. Remember the story of David and Goliath? … At the end of your defence day, you want to be David.

Dress In Your Most Comfortable And Impressive:

Am sure this one is a no brainer. However I must highlight that you choose comfortable pieces. You don’t want to look so good and yet look like you were forced to wear something that does not belong to you. It’s great to ensure that as impressive as your clothes are on you, that they are also very comfortable.

Speak With Authority:

Going hand to hand with that aura of confidence is your most powerful asset:your words. If you look that confident, your words must not come out like whimpers. To be able to pull this off, you definitely need to speak as deliberately as possible in expressing yourself. Let them also hear what they see.

Use, Your Gestures:

I have often found this to come to my rescue in dealing with shyness and conveying my confidence. Usually it gives you an edge to also drive home your point. You must, however, ensure that you do not over use it. It doesn’t mean that your hands should be flying all over the place. That would be absolutely unnecessary. If you do this well, after a while you will realize that you are not as self-conscious as you used to be at the very start. For most situations, it would have completely disappeared altogether; leaving a really confident you talking.

Have A Good Opening And Closing Line:

Make sure you have perfected a good opening line. You should also be armed with a good closing line too. Try and rehearse it to a friend. If for the first time you presented it, your friend does not say “wow, that’s beautiful” or something like that; just know you need to keep refining it until you get the perfect line. Both opening and closing lines will go a long way in how impressed your panel gets to rate you high.

Make Sure You Know Your Work:

Certainly you should understand how important it is to know your own work from start to finish. Not having in-depth knowledge of your own work is tantamount to a suicide mission. Why should you kill yourself?
When all is said and done, this is what you came to defend in the first place. You should know your work from A to Z.

Prepare For The Questions:

Now this part is truly essential. You must be sure you do not floor all the good work you did on your presentation by not answering correctly. You must pay attention to the questions you are asked to be sure you will give the right answer. Many people get it wrong at this stage and spoil their good presentation. When you do not understand any question do endeavour to ask the person to expatiate what they mean before you answer.

These tips are by no means exhaustive, but applying these tips will give you some necessary advantage you need for a great outcome. Of course that outcome would mean that you eventually earn all your points on this project.

The structure of a good project work

Undergraduate projects in Nigeria is a prerequisite for graduation amongst Nigerian tertiary students who will which to obtain bachelors degree in their respective courses of study such as accounting, banking and finance, business administration and a host of others. Writing an undergraduate project in Nigeria for final year students entails a lot both financially and otherwise. Being able to develop any final year project depends on getting a researchable topic whether it is Accounting Undergraduate project topics, Banking and Finance research topics or banking and finance project topics and materials and it all requires diligent hard work of students who are willing to develop best undergraduate projects in Nigeria and graduate in flying colors.

A typical Undergraduate project in Nigerian tertiary institutions can be said to be divided into five or six chapters depending on the format of the school and course of study which are

1. Introduction

The introduction of an undergraduate project states the main research problem and research argument. What precisely the study is all about and why it is important. It looks at the originality of the research work and how it will fill the gap in other studies. Justification for a research undergraduate topic should not be lengthy before it has been explicitly stated.

Below are the contents in chapter one of an undergraduate research project which includes;

  • Background of the study,
  • Statement of the problem,
  • Objectives or aims of the study,
  • The research questions,
  • Research hypothesis,
  • Significance of the study,
  • Scope of the study,
  • Limitations of the study and
  • Operational definition of terms.

2. Literature review

Literature review of any undergraduate research work, be it business administration project topics or Economics project topics just to mention a few is very critical to securing a high grade in one’s project work. The literature review of a research process uncovers what other writers have written about the student’s topic. A student’s undergraduate research work should include a discussion or review of what is known about the subject and how that knowledge was acquired. The review could conclude with a brief summary of the literature and its implications. The contents of the literature review are the theoretical review, conceptual framework, empirical review and summary of literature review.

3. Research Methodology

This section includes a description of the research methods used in the undergraduate research work such as the sample size, data collection methods, measurement instruments, research data analysis procedures and the population from which the sample was selected.  This section also describes the method used in selecting the sample or samples, validation and reliability of the instruments used in the research work. There are different research statistical techniques used in undergraduate research work such as SPSS, e-views etc.

4. Results & Discussion

This section presents and discusses the data analysis results used in an undergraduate research work, the results of each analysis is being summarized, tabulated, and then discussed for each research question.  Then for each research hypothesis, the statistical test of significance selected and applied to the data is briefly described, followed by a statement indicating whether the hypothesis was supported or not supported.  In presenting the result analyses/summary in an undergraduate project tables and figures and or graph are used to add clarity to the presentation.

5. Summary, Conclusions And Recommendations

This section summarizes the findings of the study in an easy to understand manner.  It also explains the practical implications of those findings, and points to recommended directions for future research in that area.


This is where every source cited in the undergraduate research work is being included. Every undergraduate research work must be properly referenced for its authenticity.

Choosing A Good Project / Research Topic

Students in Nigerian universities these days wish to choose a very simple project topic/material. There is no issue choosing a simple project topic; the only problem is your ability to choose a good project or research topic that your supervisor will easily approve for you.

Most project supervisors really want to see how good his or her project student understands his or her surrounding through the kind of topic he or she chooses for their project work.

There are some project topic that are not reject-able; for instance in Nigeria of today; what do you think is the major issue on ground now?

If a project student can choose or craft a topic on the effect of dollar increment on the economy of Nigeria. Such project topic will be very interesting to write on.

Now what are the qualities of a good project topic?

  1. The materials for the project topic must be easily assessable.
  2. The project topic itself must be meaningful.
  3. The variables must be able to give a clear aim of the project topic.

What do I mean by variable?

Well I am deriving my point from the area of project writing; the variables here are those main words in the project topic.

Like the above project topic; the effect of dollar increment on the economy of Nigeria. You can see the main variables that really define this project topic are:dollar, increment and economy.

Before you present your topic to your project supervisor, first of all understand your project topic, and then secondly try to do some research for your topic to see if at least you can get up to 60% of what you need to write the complete project.

I said that above because you might have a very nice topic that the materials are not available online and there are no books as regard the topic; in this case the project topic becomes difficult for you even though the topic is catchy.

What do I mean by your topic being assessable?

Well what I mean is very simple and easy to understand. Simply pick your project topic, type it on google and see if you will have at least a good background for the topic you are writing on.

If you can have a good background for your project topic and you can understand the problem associated with the project topic, then I believe the aim of the project is not far-fetched.



Samuel Obiora Blessed is the CEO and founder of Samphina Academy ( a.k.a Nigeria Students Media, the youngest engineering graduate of Federal Polytechnic Nekede in 2017 and the engine brain behind this great platform. He is the man behind the scene, filled with many potentials, a musician as well as a pro developer with the interest of Nigerian students at heart.

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