The Role Of Incentives In Increasing Employee Productivity (A Case Study Of Selected Firms In Aba, Abia State)

Project and Seminar Material for Business Administration and Management (BAM)

The Role Of Incentives In Increasing Employee Productivity (A Case Study Of Selected Firms In Aba, Abia State)


Abstract


In pursuance of the aims of this listed above, the study was organized in five different chapters to enable the researcher to properly execute this task.

Chapter one: this is the introductory chapter that was set out to lay the necessary background on which the entire study was founded.

Chapter two: here, a number of related literatures on the subject matter of the study were extensively explored.

Chapter three: this chapter expounds the research methodology employed in this study. It is pertinent to viz library research and fieldwork.

Chapter four: the chapter forms the test of the research questions formulated in this chapter, the research arrived at the findings that incentive measures enhanced the performance and productivity of employees in Unilever and Coca-cola Nig. Plc.

Chapter five: It has to do with the summary, conclusion and recommendation of work, including findings – forms analysis of this research study; it has led to conflicts which invariably decrease performance and productivity.


Table Of Contents


Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title page
  • Approval page
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of contents

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the study
  • 1.2 Statement of the study
  • 1.3 Purpose of the study
  • 1.4 Research questions
  • 1.5 Significance of the study
  • 1.6 Scope of the study
  • 1.7 Limitations of the study
  • 1.8 Definitions of concepts/terms

Chapter Two

2.0 Literature Review

  • 2.1 Overview of the concepts of incentive
  • 2.2 The Hawthorn studies
  • 2.3 The importance of incentives
  • 2.4 The need for incentive compensation plan
  • 2.5 Classification of incentive/motivation theories
  • 2.5.1 Content theories
  • 2.5.2 Process theories
  • 2.5.3 Reinforcement theories
  • 2.5.4 The contingency approach or dependency theory
  • 2.6 Maslow’s hierarchy of needs
  • 2.6.1 Physiological needs
  • 2.6.2 Security needs
  • 2.6.3 Belongingness and love
  • 2.6.4 Esteem
  • 2.6.5 Self Actualization
  • 2.7 Means of motivating employees
  • 2.8 Researcher’s view and summary

Chapter Three

3.0 Research Design / Methodology

  • 3.1 Introduction
  • 3.2 Research design/methods used
  • 3.3 Sources of data
  • 3.4 Methods of data collection
  • 3.5 Population of study and sample size determination
  • 3.6 Sampling procedure/techniques
  • 3.7 Validity and reliability of measuring instrument
  • 3.8 Methods of data/statistical analysis

Chapter Four

4.0 Data Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation

  • 4.1 Data presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of data and interpretation

Chapter Five

5.0 Summary, Findings, Conclusion, Recommendations and Suggestion for Further Study

  • 5.1 Summary of findings
  • 5.2 Findings
  • 5.3 Conclusions
  • 5.4 Recommendations
  • 5.5 Suggestion for further study
  • References
  • Appendix

Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background Of The Study

Generally, an employee brings to the business organization a set of wants. The satisfaction of these wants to some extent is within the control of the organization. People work in order to make money, to feed their families and enjoy better standard of living. Incentive strategies are those possible instruments which move, impel of induce one to act to satisfy a need or want.

It is therefore defined as a force that pushes one to increase effort to achieve a goal or an objective for reward. Incentive is anticipatory in nature. When one is moved to action, a reward must be expressed. As the names imply, intrinsic satisfaction is the derivation of satisfaction of needs from the work itself; while extrinsic satisfaction is the derivation of the needs satisfaction through reward received for doing the work.

Knootz, et al (1980) has opined that human motives are based on needs whether consciously or subconsciously felt. Management, which s also described as working with people and through people to achieve a desired goal or result needed to stimulated people to do what they are required to do. As a function of management, therefore, giving incentives to employees is the process of stimulating people to work in order to achieve a goal.

If the goals or set objectives are to be achieved, management need people and also motivate the people with good incentives which will help them to work to the satisfaction of the organization especially in the management of human resources so as to achieve optimal results from employees. This is very important since motivation is not a substitute for planning, organizing and controlling but motivation and incentive imply that more power lies with the subordinate who must resist direction in various ways.

This conceptualization is supported by Tellerman (1967:163) who stressed that incentive strategy can best be understood in terms of the environment influence which people react. Also, according to Robbins, incentives can be seen in terms of some outward behaviour of people who are motivated with good incentive packages to exert a great to perform than those who are not motivated.

Incentives strategy and employee performance are vital tools for achieving organizational goals.


1.2 Statement Of The Problem

The problem of different cadres of employees who respond differently to incentive strategies for example, whereas skilled workers can be highly motivated with good incentives, the unskilled workers may not.

It is possible to motivate an employee who is local to the system or organization in which he/she is employed of to a particular set of people like his immediate boss. An employee can also be motivated in a balance form for loyalty to both the organization and such people or to incline to one side of it.

There are many demands upon every employees: time, loyalty and propensity to cooperate with others, it is not only the organization that makes demand on him, but also his family, friends, community and other organization he belongs to, even nature (natural needs of human).

The employee has a way of sharing his time and loyalty among these forces, but the moss may demand too much out of the balance. The boss or superior while trying to motivate an employee should ensure that his employee’s multiple needs and loyalties are integrated in a balanced fashion.

Another problem of incentive strategies in a small-scale business is that as a commodity that can be purchased, the worker is quite similar to any other machine.


1.3 Purpose Of The Study

This study will generally attempt to contribute to the solution of knowing the best incentives to be used in Unilever and Coca-Cola Nigeria Plc, but specifically:

  1. To ascertain whether the management style has any effect on incentives in Unilever and Coca-Cola Nigeria Plc.
  2. To find out whether highly motivated staff achieve success in the absence of good plans or effective organizational structure.
  3. To find out whether applying good incentives to workers can lead to organizational effectiveness in Unilever and Coca-Cola Nig. Plc.
  4. To offer suggestions on how best to use good incentives strategies on Unilever and Coca-Cola workers to achieve greater output. (Attainment of objectives or goals).

1.4 Research Questions

Sequel to the statement of the problems enunciated in 1.2 of this study, the following research questions have been formulated to achieve the purpose of this research:

  1. Does the supervisory style contribute to low motivation in Unilever and Coca-Cola Nig. Plc.?
  2. Does the organizational structure affect the incentives to workers in Unilever and Coca-Cola workers?
  3. Are there any incentive measures peculiar to Unilever and Coca-Cola workers?
  4. Do incentive measures contributed to lack of organizational effectiveness?
  5. Are there no other measures that can increase performance and productivity except incentives?

1.5 Significance Of The Study

The study is to investigate incentive strategies and employee performance in the private sector with particular reference to Unilever and Coca-Cola Nig. Plc.

It is therefore expected that it will help Unilever and Coca-Cola in no small measures in providing possible solution to their incentive problems.

Moreover, academically, this study constitutes a contribution in the field business studies especially as it studies the role of incentive strategies and performance in the private sector with emphasis in Unilever and Coca-Cola Nig. Plc.

More so, it will help the future researchers who will like to do a research in the role of incentive strategies for further consultation of performance and incentives. And also let the researchers to know about the Unilever and Coca-Cola Nig. Plc.

Thereafter, the study will also be as guideline to the management of Unilever and Coca-Cola Nig. Plc., Aba on how best to use the incentive strategies to increase their employee productivity.


1.6 Scope Of The Study

This study is done with reference to Nigeria workers using the workers of Unilever and Coca-Cola Nig. Plc., Aba plant as the study. It is realized that the workers of Unilever and Coca-Cola Nig. Plc, Aba factories are a minimal fraction in relation to the number of workers in the Unilever and Coca-Cola in particular and people employed in other companies in Nigeria but sue to time and financial constraints, the study is specifically centered on Unilever and Coca-Cola Nig. Plc., Aba.


1.7 Limitations Of The Study

The researcher did not find it easy to get this work done and completed. Foremost of the problems is the difficulty encountered during the collection of data. The relevant data were not accessible to the researcher. The researcher embarked on various travels for collection of relevant data for the study with its attendant transportation problems and risks.
Attention and time used in sourcing of relevant data and information, and consulting books for this study made the researcher top less focus on his studies which is the main thing.
Finally, this time constraints actually contributed to the limitations of the study.


1.8 Definition Of Concepts

Incentives:

These are instruments of material or possible statement used to motivate or encourage employees to higher productivity in an organization.

Employees:

This simply means people or persons that are successfully employed for wages/salary in an organization.

Productivity:

This can be defined as a measure of the output on organization per unit of input (labour, capital, raw materials, etc.). But simply put as the ration of output to inputs.


Chapter Five


5.0 Summary, Conclusion, Recommendation And Suggestion For Further Study

5.1 Summary Of Findings

The dream of nay employee is to get a good job, have enough salaries and incentive to keep the family going, shelter to protect them and a safe working environment which must be provided before performance will be expected. It is in keeping with this assertion that, this study on the role of incentive strategies in increasing employee productivity was undertaken. The study was thus conducted with the following aims at the back of researcher’s mind.

  1. To find out whether bureaucratic style at the federal level affect good incentive strategy.
  2. To determine if incentive measures can lead to increase performance.
  3. To determine if adopting good incentive strategy cam lead to organization effectiveness
  4. To make recommendation on how to use incentive strategies on Unilever and Coca-Cola Nig. Plc.

5.2 Findings

From the analysis of this research study, it has been found that absence of incentive measures leas to conflicts which invariable decrease performance and productivity.

  1. Also, that wage incentives, staff training and job security have ranked as the highest incentive factors that contributed to increase performance and productivity.
  2. Other findings include the fact that workers in Unilever and Coca-Cola Nig. Plc. React positively to incentive factors.
  3. Also, it was gathered that the management at the federal level disrupts whatever incentives that will be sent to those in the state.
  4. It was observed that Unilever and Coca-Cola workers strictly maintain laid-down policies on staff promotion/development.

5.3 Conclusions

It has been that Unilever and Coca-Cola workers are not adequately motivated with good incentives hence there is low moral, less productivity and less performance. The responses from the questionnaires have proved that people who make use of an organization or corporation are individual with different motives, tests and drives and therefore must be accorded and treated accordingly so as to utilize their potential efficiency in the corporation.


5.4 Recommendations

Based on the expositions and findings of the research study, coupled with the problems identified, and in line with the objectives of this study, the recommendations that follow become necessary.

  1. The process of training and development is a continuous one, but money spent on the training and development of employees is money that is well invested. Employees should be helped to grow into more responsibility by systematic training and development.
  2. Willingness depends upon each individual’s expectation that can satisfy his needs through his work.
  3. Employee must therefore be fairly treated and compensated good incentives for his effort and protected so far as possible against insecurity from illness, accident, old age and unemployment, and against arbitrary actions by his supervisors.
  4. Workers should be given the opportunity to acquire the knowledge, skills, authority and tools for effective performance in their positions.
  5. Employees performance should be appraise and they should be informed periodically of the extent to which they are measuring up to the standards.
  6. Provisions should be made for transfer and training when needed to make the use individuals capabilities, effective. And also to facilitate the prompt replacement of the incompetent.

5.5 Suggestion For Further Study

Right from commencement of this study, the research made it clear that the scope of this study is limited by time and financial constraints. He also made it clear that they study throughout Nigeria as a whole was limited only one town in the eastern district (Aba plant). A sample size of only 400 – 500 was covered by use of questionnaires administered due to the very special nature of the subject matter.

As a result of the above limitations, the research hereby suggests a further study on this subject that a more expansion study covering more towns and greater sample size be undertaken. Also, further study could be on happiness of workers through increasing incentive factors, and whether it may end up with a contented loyal and unproductive workforce.


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Frequently Asked Questions


Do incentive programs actually work?

When incentive programs are designed around what really matters to employees, and implemented in such a way that they can be maintained for a long enough period of time, they work. It’s as simple as that. Obviously, finding the perfect cocktail of high-value rewards and achievable goals can be quite difficult for company leadership.

Why are incentives important?

Incentives are important because they motivate people to get shit done. No one does anything for free, and the amount of work or activity we commit to is very much dependent on the incentives and incentive structures we encounter.

What makes a good incentive plan?

What makes an incentive program successful? Learn about seven traits of incentive programs used by companies that will achieve your desired long-term goals.

Why your company should be using these government incentives?

The government uses tax incentives in order to help increase economic development. Tax incentives make it less expensive and more profitable for a business to function. States can use tax incentives to encourage businesses to operate in their state, according to the University of Central Arkansas. 

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