The Role Of Health Safety Measures In Preventing Organizational Hazard In Manufacturing Companies

Project and Seminar Material for Public Health

The Role Of Health Safety Measures In Preventing Organizational Hazard In Manufacturing Companies


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine the role of health safety measures in preventing organizational hazard in manufacturing companies using WAPCO Nigeria Plc as a case study. The study was specifically set to find out whether health and safety measures play a significant role in the prevention and management of organizational hazards, find out whether the management demonstrate committed processes on health and safety in the organization, ascertain are the safety management system that contribute to the success of an occupational safety and health within the context of an organizational structure, and find out the challenges affecting the implementation of health and safety programmes at workplace. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of staff of WAPCO Nigeria Plc. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 119 respondents and 100 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables and mean scores. While the hypotheses were tested using Pearson Correlation statistical tool, SPSS v23. The result of the findings reveals that health and safety measures play a significant role in the prevention and management of organizational hazards. Further findings showed that the safety management system that contribute to the success of an occupational safety and health within the context of an organizational structure include; adequate provision of safety tools, training and education, timely inspection, and employees involvement. Therefore, it is recommended that management should put in place policies and structures for improving occupational health and safety within the organisation. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Occupational health and safety (OHS) is concerned with policies and mechanisms that promote a positive work environment by safeguarding, maintaining, and encouraging the health, safety, and well-being of staff. OHS is critical to the overall development of working environments for workers as well as any person or group of people involved with employment and the work climate (WHO, 2007).As a result, OHS is an effective policy that leads significantly to growth, organizational reputation, and social change in addition to maintaining the safety and well-being of employees (Alli, 2008; Songstad, Moland, Massay & Blystad, 2012).Simply put, healthier employees are more driven, have higher job satisfaction, and contribute more to efficiency and services (Gilbreath & Karimi, 2012; Seidler et al., 2014). As a result, OHS improves the general standard of life for employees, their communities, the company, and culture, and its importance cannot be overstated.

OHS is based on the International Labour Organization’s (ILO) Conventions all over the world (Alli, 2008; WHO, 2007). Works’ health and welfare issues have prompted the International Labour Organization (ILO) to establish rules and institutes for their member countries (Jensen, 2005).The conventions have standards that serve as the foundation for national OHS policies. Furthermore, national safety laws or regulations are used by organisations or agencies to develop their OHS policies or regulations (Alli, 2008). Nations and employers are required by ILO legislation to put in place policies that ensure the welfare and well-being of their employees and other persons impacted by the activities of their companies or organizations. As a United Nations (UN) body, the ILO is in charge of labor, ensuring the health and welfare of workers all over the world. In order to accomplish their goal of job health, the ILO collaborates with other UN bodies such as WHO, FAO, and UNICEF.Such national institutions, such as the United States’ Occupational Protection and Health Administration (OSHA), the National Institute of Health and Safety (NIHS), the United Kingdom’s Health and Safety Executives, and others, collaborate on workplace health, safety, and well-being topics in various countries (Cooper, 2006).

In all organisations, a national OHS program is critical for the advancement of occupational health and safety. As a result, companies adopt national programs that benefit the welfare of their employees. Furthermore, some national policies may provide agencies that act as enforcers for the policies’ execution in order to improve employees’ well-being (Annang, 2014).Organizations have a legal obligation to protect and encourage the wellbeing and well-being of their most precious assets [the worker] even when national health and safety laws do not exist, as in Nigeria (Clark, 2008). (Anderson, & Chun, 2014).OHS not only protects the worker’s and society’s personal health and safety, but it also boosts organizational image and competitiveness (Chau, et al., 2008), since a stable workforce is a prosperous workforce. Every country, including Nigeria, requires a robust national OHS policy as well as solid, well-resourced institutions to carry it out. Furthermore, organisation must take practical action to ensure the appropriate health and safety policies are in place to protect employees’ well-being. Staff, on the other hand, must protect their health and welfare by following worksite safety measures.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

The workplace accidents, injuries, illnesses and diseases continue as a significant problem in manufacturing industry (Paivi Hamalainen, 2006).Every task that humanity undertakes is fraught with danger. These dangers have varying chances of causing crashes, deaths, near-misses, and diseases (Ana, & Sridhar, 2009).

The hazards and risks are as a result of worker behaviours associated with work processes, work procedures or less compliance with workplace policies or regulations (Tsai, & Salazar, 2007).Worker behaviors related to work processes, work procedures, or a lack of compliance with workplace policies or regulations are the sources of hazards and risks (Tsai, & Salazar, 2007).Workplace hazards such as unguarded equipment, improper housekeeping, exposure to hazardous chemical materials, and inadequate lighting and ventilation have put workers at risk. These issues of occupational health and safety (OHS) influence not only the worker, but also his or her family, business, and society as a whole. As a result, workplace welfare becomes more of a corporate social responsibility problem than an issue of employee worker health protection (Health and Safety Professionals Alliance, 2012).


1.3 Objective of the Study

  1. Find out whether health and safety measures play a significant role in the prevention and management of organizational hazards.
  2. Find out whether the management demonstrate committed processes on health and safety in the organization.
  3. Ascertain are the safety management system that contribute to the success of an occupational safety and health within the context of an organizational structure?
  4. Find out the challenges affecting the implementation of health and safety programmes at workplace.

1.4 Research Questions

  1. Does health and safety measures play a significant role in the prevention and management of organizational hazards?
  2. Does the management demonstrate committed processes on health and safety in the organization?
  3. What are the safety management system that contribute to the success of an occupational safety and health within the context of an organizational structure?
  4. What are the challenges affecting the implementation of health and safety programmes at workplace?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

  • Ho: There is no significant relationship between health and safety measures, and the prevention of organizational hazards.
  • Ha: There is no significant relationship between health and safety measures, and the prevention of organizational hazards.

1.6 Significance of the Study

This research will be useful to manufacturing companies in identifying hazards and putting in place preventative steps. Furthermore, the research would be beneficial to students and researchers who would do similar research.


1.7 Scope of the Study

This study generally focuses on the role of health safety measures in preventing organizational hazard in manufacturing companies. This study will be carried out in WAPCO Nigeria Plc.


1.8 Limitation of Study

In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, language barriers, and the attitude of the respondents. However, the researcher were able to manage these just to ensure the success of this study.

Moreover, the case study method utilized in the study posed some challenges to the investigator including the possibility of biases and poor judgment of issues. However, the investigator relied on respect for the general principles of procedures, justice, fairness, objectivity in observation and recording, and weighing of evidence to overcome the challenges.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Health Safety:

Health safety are regulations and policies aimed at preventing accidents and injuries in the workplace and in public spaces

Organizational Hazard:

Organizational hazard is a hazard experienced in the workplace.

Manufacturing Company:

A manufacturing company is a company that uses raw materials, parts, and components to assemble finished goods.


1.10 Organization of the Studies

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the role of health safety measures in preventing organizational hazard in manufacturing companies using WAPCO Nigeria Plc as a case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to examine the role of health safety measures in preventing organizational hazard in manufacturing companies using WAPCO Nigeria Plc as a case study. The study was specifically set to find out whether health and safety measures play a significant role in the prevention and management of organizational hazards, find out whether the management demonstrate committed processes on health and safety in the organization, ascertain are the safety management system that contribute to the success of an occupational safety and health within the context of an organizational structure, and find out the challenges affecting the implementation of health and safety programmes at workplace.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 100 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are staff of WAPCO Nigeria Plc.


5.3 Conclusions

In the light of the analysis carried out, the following conclusions were drawn.

  1. Health and safety measures play a significant role in the prevention and management of organizational hazards.
  2. The management demonstrate committed processes on health and safety in the organization.
  3. The safety management system that contribute to the success of an occupational safety and health within the context of an organizational structure include; adequate provision of safety tools, training and education, timely inspection, and employees involvement.
  4. The challenges affecting the implementation of health and safety programmes at workplace include; poor management support, high cost to train, low-level of employees involvement, powerless HR-department, no identified safety standards and legislation.

5.4 Recommendation

Based on the findings the researcher recommends that;

  1. Management should put in place policies and structures for improving occupational health and safety within the organisation.
  2. Employer should provide safe working environment since feeling safe at workplace.
  3. Organizations should put in place active health and safety committees which should be given full mandate to implement their recommendations. Moreover, copies of organizational health and safety procedures should be given to employees in order to make them aware of the laid down policies, rules and safety precautions to reduce accidents in the organization.

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