The Role Of Guidance And Counselling In Obviating Suicide In Nigeria Tertiary Institutions

Project and Seminar Material for Guidance and Counselling

The Role Of Guidance And Counselling In Obviating Suicide In Nigeria Tertiary Institutions


Abstract


The study was carried out to determine the role of guidance and counseling in obviating suicide in Nigeria tertiary institutions from 2010-2019. Descriptive survey research design was utilized for the study. Five objectives with five corresponding research questions were formulated to give direction to the search for information. The instrument for data collection was documented records and a researcher-constructed questionnaire. The co-efficient of homogeneity of the instrument was established through a split-half method using thirty (30) students from Imo State University, Owerri, Imo State.

The data collected from the split-half method were analysed and the coefficient of homogeneity (r) of .67 was obtained. The sample for the study consisted of 891 undergraduates of universities drawn through the multi-stage sampling procedures from a population of 17,825 undergraduates using means, percentages, t-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA). The findings of the study were summarised thus: there was very low prevalence of completed suicide in 2010-2011 (27.47%); in 2012-2013 (23.07%); in 2014-2015 (19.80%); in 2016-2017 (15.48%); and in 2018-2019 (13.18%).

There was very low prevalence of suicidal attempts in 2010-2011 (27.21%); in 2012-2013 (23.53%); in 2014-2015 (18.38%); in 2016-2017 (16.91%); and in 2018-2019 (13.97%). There was a low prevalence of suicidal ideation among the students studied ( x = 1.47;SD= 0.62). There was also a low prevalence of indirect selfdestructive behaviours among the undergraduates studied ( x = 1.47; SD=0.59). Preventive measures against suicidal behaviours included: seminars for students at risk of drug abuse and possession of lethal weapons (71.10%); ban on the use of lethal weapons in the university (66.7%); and dismissal from the university of students found with dangerous weapons (61.30%). There was no significant influence of gender on the prevalence of suicidal behaviours (tcal,=.38<.05) among undergraduates of universities in South Eastern States of Nigeria.

It was recommended that since suicide is a social health problem, research should be conducted in Nigeria on the causes of suicidal behaviours. This will help in formulating a blue print for preventive intervention strategies and service delivery in Nigeria. There should be the teaching of suicide education and prevention in schools and colleges in Nigeria. For this to be meaningful, suicide education should be capable of loading its contents with topics such as signs, myths and facts about suicide, factors associated with suicide and the possible ways of helping the suicidal persons; among other recommendations. Finally, the implications of the study were proffered.


Table of Contents


Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title page i
  • Certification page ii
  • Dedication iii
  • Acknowledgement iv
  • Abstract v
  • Table of content

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background to the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objectives of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Organization of the study

Chapter Two:

Review Of Related Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Studies on Prevalence of Suicidal Behaviour
  • 2.4 Summary of Literature

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Area of Study
  • 3.3 Population for the Study
  • 3.4 Sample and Sampling Techniques
  • 3.5 Instrument for Data Collection
  • 3.6 Validity of the instrument
  • 3.7 Reliability of the instrument
  • 3.8 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.9 Method of Data Analysis

Chapter Four:

Results And Discussion

  • 4.1 Result
  • 4.2 Summary of major findings
  • 4.3 Discussion of the findings

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusions And Recommendations

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusions
  • 5.3 Implications of the Study
  • 5.4 Recommendations
  • References
  • Appendix

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background Of The Study

Suicide is the act of intentionally causing one’s own death. Mental disorders, including depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, personality disorders, anxiety disorders, and substance abuse—including alcoholism and the use of benzodiazepines—are risk factors. Some suicides are impulsive acts due to stress, such as from financial difficulties, troubles with relationships, or bullying. Those who have previously attempted suicide are at a higher risk for future attempts. Close to 800 000 people die due to suicide every year, which is one person every 40 seconds. Suicide is a global phenomenon and occurs throughout the lifespan. Effective and evidence-based interventions can be implemented at population, sub-population and individual levels to prevent suicide and suicide attempts. There are indications that for each adult who died by suicide there may have been more than 20 others attempting suicide. Suicide occurs throughout the lifespan and is the second leading cause of death among 15-29 year old globally.

According to the World Health Organisation (WHO), while the link between suicide and mental disorders (in particular, depression and alcohol use disorders) is well established in high-income countries, many suicides happen impulsively in moments of crisis with a breakdown in the ability to deal with life stresses, such as financial problems, relationship break-up or chronic pain and illness. In addition, experiencing conflict, disaster, violence, abuse, or loss and a sense of isolation are strongly associated with suicidal behaviour. Suicide rates are also high amongst vulnerable groups who experience discrimination, such as refugees and migrants; indigenous peoples; lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, intersex (LGBTI) persons; and prisoners. By far the strongest risk factor for suicide is a previous suicide attempt. It is estimated that around 20 per cent of global suicides are due to pesticide self-poisoning, most of which occur in rural agricultural areas in low- and middle-income countries. Other common methods of suicide are hanging and firearms. However, In any learning institution, counselors form an essential part of the organization since they serve as key persons to whom students can turn to for help on matters related to general challenges facing a teenager both in school and out of school.

With the too academic oriented education system characterized with exam cheating and results irregularities, students are likely to find themselves faced with difficult decisions to make concerning career choices. Pressure from parents, lack of proper guidance and scarcity of jobs in preferred sectors can be quite overwhelming for a child unless guided appropriately. Apart from career choice, the students are also faced with other adolescent challenges such as relationships, rapid growth and physical changes, peer pressure, addiction to drugs and alcohol, and the need for identity or to “belong”. therefore, the guidance and counselling role can be useful in ameliorating the increase of suicide in our tertiary institutions.


1.2 Statement Of The Problem

The year 2019 has recorded a significant number of death through suicidal actions. The trend is one that cannot be quickly disputed as it is ongoing. The demeaning aspect of suicide attempt in the contemporary Nigeria is that it is carried out by youths. The youths are supposed to be the least affected by suicide but reverse is the case. In the tertiary institutions, the rate of suicide actions is on the increase as records show that nothing has been done to curb this action. Suicide is associated with a lot of negativity as it traditionally depicts a bad omen and signifies weakness on the part of the victim. The continuous increase of suicide by young people has propelled this study to be considered as it examines the role of guidance and counseling in curbing suicide.


1.3 Objectives Of The Study

The primary aim of this study is to examine the role of guidance and counseling in obviating suicide in the Nigeria Tertiary institutions.

Specifically the study will focus on:

  1. The prevalence of completed suicide among undergraduates of universities in South Eastern States of Nigeria;
  2. The prevalence of suicidal attempts among the undergraduates of universities in South
    Eastern States of Nigeria;
  3. The prevalence of suicidal ideation among the undergraduates of universities in South
    Eastern States of Nigeria;
  4. The prevalence of indirect self-destructive behaviours among the undergraduates of universities in South Eastern States of Nigeria; and
  5. Preventive measures against the prevalence of suicidal behaviours based on students characteristics (sex and year of study).

1.4 Research Questions

The following research questions have been posed to guide the study.

  1. What is the prevalence of completed suicide among undergraduates of universities in South Eastern States of Nigeria?
  2. What is the prevalence of suicidal attempts among undergraduates of universities in South Eastern States of Nigeria?
  3. What is the prevalence of suicidal ideation among undergraduates?
  4. What is the prevalence of self-destructive behaviours (alcoholism, drug abuse, sex abuse, cultism, armed robbery and so on) among undergraduates?
  5. What preventive measures are adopted against suicidal behaviours among the undergraduates of universities in South Eastern States of Nigeria?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

The study formulated and developed for testing the following Null hypotheses:

H0: There are no identifiable causes of suicide in Nigeria Tertiary institutions.

H0²: Guidance and Counseling do not play any significant role in obviating suicide in Nigeria Tertiary institutions.


1.6 Significance Of The Study

Nigeria has witnessed an unusual phenomenon among young people especially young people in the tertiary institutions. This study is quite significant as it exposes in factual terms the causes of suicide among young people. The study will also assist guidance and counseling department in understanding what needs to be tackled as it provides insight the need to obviate suicide. The reverse is that this study brings to bare the role of guidance and counseling in obviating suicide,which implies that guidance and counseling can be relied upon to provide assistance to suicidal issues.


1.7 Scope And Limitation Of The Study

This study examines the current appalling trend of suicide in Nigeria, especially in the tertiary institutions. However the study is limited to only Nigeria institutions. The study sampled opinions from respondents across four states (Enugu, Lagos, Jos and Delta states).


1.8 Organization Of The Study

This research is organized into five distinct but related chapters, the first chapter gives an overview of the study as well as highlighting the problem and clearly the objectives. In the second chapter, we reviewed related and relevant literature. In the third chapter, we describe the method adopted and employed in the study. The fourth chapter presents and analyzes the data collected from the respondents, while the fifth chapter includes, summary, conclusion and recommendations


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions And Recommendations

5.1 Summary

This chapter presents the summary of the study, conclusions and recommendations. The research was carried out to determine the role of guidance and counseling in obviating suicide in Nigeria tertiary institutions. The descriptive survey research design was used for the study. The instrument for data collection was a Researcher constructed questionnaire. The multi-stage sampling procedure was used to select 891 undergraduates from a population of 17825 students from the six selected universities in south eastern states of Nigeria using Borg and Gall (1973) method of determining sample size. Descriptive statistics of means and percentages were used for answering the research questions.

There was very low prevalence (27.47 percent) of completed suicide. Majority of the undergraduates had never heard of, witnessed or experienced loss of close friends through suicide (Table 1);

  1. There was very low prevalence (27.21 per cent)ofsuicidal attempts among the undergraduates studied (Table 2).
  2. There was low prevalence (1.47) of suicidal ideation among the undergraduates
    studied (Table 3).
  3. There was low prevalence (1.47) of self-destructive behaviours among the
    undergraduates (Table 4).
  4. The undergraduates (74.0%) accepted that all the enumerated preventive measures were applied in their universities for preventing suicidal behaviours (Table 5).

5.2 Conclusions

On the basis of the findings and discussions, the following conclusions were reached.

  1. There was very low prevalence of completed suicide among the undergraduates.
  2. There was very low prevalence of suicidal attempts among the undergraduates.
  3. There was low prevalence of suicidal ideation among the undergraduates.
  4. There was low prevalence of self-destructive behaviours among the undergraduates.
  5. The undergraduates accepted that all the enumerated preventive measures were applied in their universities for prevention against suicidal behaviours.

5.3 Implication of the Study

The implication of the study may be that what obtains in the developed countries of the world does not occur in developing countries of the world like Nigeria. This was shown by the low prevalence rates of suicidal behaviours in Nigeria as found out from this study. Since there was low prevalence of suicidal behaviours among the students, efforts should be intensified to maintain the tempo through public information and education about the dangers of known risk factors of suicidal behaviours. Health educators should be able to provide preventive and intervention strategies for curbing the ugly situation of suicide in our universities. The theoretical implication is that the finding might help to improve social integration and regulation, and might reduce social isolation and withdrawal. In other words, there might be improvements in the relationship between the individual student and the social setting in which he or she finds him or herself.


5.4 Recommendations

The following recommendations have been made based on the findings and discussions.

  1. Since there was very low prevalence of suicidal behaviours among the students, efforts should be intensified to maintain the tempo through public information and education about the dangers of known risk factors of suicidal behaviours.
  2. Since suicide is a social-health problem, there should be a Nigerian research on the causes of suicidal behaviours, the stigma of suicide victims, and the need for effective reporting of suicidal cases. This will help in formulating a blue print for preventive intervention strategies and service delivery in Nigeria, and effective reporting of suicide cases without molestations.
  3. There should be the teaching of suicide education and prevention in schools and colleges. For this to be meaningful, suicide education should be capable of loading its contents with topics such as signs, myths and facts about suicide, factors associated with suicide and the possible ways of helping the suicidal persons.
  4. Government should provide suicide counselling personnel who will always be available to offer assistance to those in need. A body for coordinating efforts on suicide prevention should be formed in the universities. Seminars on dangers of drug abuse, possession of lethal weapons should be organized regularly for the students.
  5. Bulletins on suicidology should be mounted; prevention centres whose scope should not only be that of preventing suicide but also handling other psychological and emotional problems of crisis nature should be opened. These centres could be staffed through volunteer agencies, mental health services, public health departments and hospitals. Programmes of preventive intervention strategies should be organized in the various universities for the students.
  6. Specific university-based mental health services should be established in various universities in Nigeria. These services should aim at finding out and taking care of depressed and at risk students in order to prevent incidences of suicidal behaviours.
  7. Government should tackle vigorously social health problems. This can be done by sponsoring studies to identify factors that can enhance suicidality and to find solutions to them.
  8. University authorities should ensure that possession of lethal weapons by students in the campuses must be drastically checked and students found with dangerous weapons rusticated or dismissed from the university to serve as deterrent to others.

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