The Role Of Food Science In Human Nutrition

Project and Seminar Material for Food Science and Technology (FST)

The Role Of Food Science In Human Nutrition


Abstract


In a nutshell, food science is the scientific study of food from the period of harvesting, processing, storage and packaging. Human nutrition now is concerned with the utilization of this food in the human system. Because both cases are referring to food, it shows that both terms are inter-related. Actually, food science plays significant roles in human nutrition as it broadens our horizon on the foods we consume.

Some of the roles of foods science in human nutrition includes: food processing as it as shown variable ways in which one food commodity can be processed into different forms; food fortification and enrichment in which nutrients that were not present or that were present but lost during processing are added to the food at even greater levels; and also food preservation and storage which show us how to keep our foods safe for future use.

KEYWORDS: Food science, fortification, nutrition, preservation, processing


Table of Contents


  • Title Page
  • Table of Contents
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgements
  • Abstract

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Balanced Diet
  • 1.2 Nutrients
  • 1.3 Food Science
  • 1.4 Human Nutrition
  • 1.5 Food Science and Nutrition

Chapter Two

2.0 Food Production and Processing

  • 2.1 Yam Processing
  • 2.2 Cassava processing
  • 2.2.1 Garri Production
  • 2.2.2 Farinha De Mandioca (FDM) Production
  • 2.2.3 Fufu Production
  • 2.2.4 “Abacha” Production
  • 2.2.5 Tapioca Production
  • 2.3 Potatoe Processing
  • 2.3.1 Sweet Potatoe processing
  • 2.3.2 Irish Potatoe Processing
  • 2.4 Banana and Plantain Processing
  • 2.5 Processing of Grain Legumes
  • 2.5.1 Products of Groundnuts
  • 2.5.1.1 Roasted Groundnuts
  • 2.5.1.2 Cooked Groundnuts
  • 2.5.1.3 Kuli-Kuli
  • 2.5.1.4 Peanut Butter

Chapter Three

3.0 Food Fortification and enrichment

  • 3.1 Fortification
  • 3.1.1 Iodine Fortification
  • 3.1.2 Vitamin Fortification
  • 3.1.3 Reasons for Food Fortification
  • 3.1.4 Objectives of Food Fortification
  • 3.2 Enrichment
  • 3.2.1 Vitamins Enriched Food
  • 3.3 Nutrification

Chapter Four

4.0 Food Preservation and Storage

  • 4.1 Sundrying and Dehydration
  • 4.1.1 Spray Drying
  • 4.1.2 Freeze Drying
  • 4.1.3 Roller Drying
  • 4.1.4 Tunnel Drying
  • 4.2 Salting and Smoking
  • 4.3 Canning and Bottling
  • 4.4 Refrigeration and Freezing
  • 4.5 Chemical Preservatives
  • 4.6 Irradiation
  • 4.6.1 Radurization
  • 4.6.2 Radicidation
  • 4.6.3 Radappertization

Chapter Five

  • 5.0 Conclusion
  • References

Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

It is universally accepted that an adequate and well-balanced diet is an essential for the enjoyment of good health but the scientific principles on which this belief is based are by no means widely understood. This is where food science comes in. This chapter bridges the gap between food science and nutrition and shows how they are related (Onimawo and Egbekun, 1998).


1.1 Balanced Diet

Balanced diet is a combination of foods that provide the right amount of energy and nutrients required for normal growth and development of an individual. Therefore, a balanced diet must contain some vitamins, carbohydrates, fats, proteins and minerals in its make-up (Onimawo and Egbekun, 1998).


1.2 Nutrients

Nutrients are substances found in food that must be supplied to the body. Nutrients are found in foods. The six classes of nutrients to ensure adequate nutritional status and to maintain good health are: Fat, Carbohydrates, Proteins, Minerals, Vitamins and Water (Endres and Rockwell, 1994).


1.3 Food Science

There is no single definition that can satisfy the meaning of food science. This is because of its relationship with many other disciplines. However, practical definitions for food science have been developed by organizations whose members are food scientists (Murano, 2003).

The Institute of Food Technologists (IFT) of the United States have defined Food Science as the discipline in which biology, physical sciences, and engineering are used to study the nature of foods, the causes of their deterioration, and the principles underlying food processing (Murano, 2003).

The Institute of Food Science and Technology (IFST) of the United Kingdom has defined Food Science as a coherent and systematic body of knowledge and understanding of the nature and composition of food materials, and their behaviour under the various conditions to which they may be subject (Murano, 2003).


1.4 Human Nutrition

Nutrition is the science that interprets the relationship of food to the functioning of the living organism. In other words, it is the study of food and its utilization within the living system (Onimawo and Egbekun, 1998). Nutrition concerns itself with the action, interaction and balance of foods in relation to health and diseases. The science of nutrition studies the process by which organisms ingest, digest, absorb, transport, utilize and excrete food substances both in health and in disease. It also concerns itself with the social, economic, cultural and psychological implications of food and eating. Nutrition is also regarded as the process of nourishing and being nourished. Nutrition deals specifically with food and nourishment especially in humans (Ojimelukwe et al., 2005).


1.5 Food Science and Nutrition

Food science deals with food manipulations and their consequences on the food components themselves, where as nutrition deals with the consequences the food components have upon the humans who consume them (Murano, 2003).

Food science overlaps not only nutrition but other knowledge areas such as biology, chemistry, engineering and physics. For this reason, food science is not a traditional scientific discipline but it is rather an application or a combination of these other sciences, meaning that food science is an inter-disciplinary field of study (Murano, 2003).

In a nutshell, food science is concerned with all quality and safety aspects of foods before a person consumes them, while nutrition is related to how the body uses foods after we eat them to promote and maintain our health (Murano, 2003).

The study of human nutrition is both fascinating and important for students of food science because the two disciplines are closely related and also because of the significant roles that food science plays in human nutrition.

Food nutritionists apply technology to keep whole and processed foods fresh, nutritious and safe, and accomplishing this requires a fundamental knowledge of food science (Murano, 2003).

Food science ensures that produced food gets to the consumer in the most acceptable, nutritious, safe and wholesome condition. (Ojimelukwe et al, 2005).


Chapter Five


5.0 Conclusion

It is now an established fact that food science has played key roles in human nutrition, and as a result of this, students of food science need to understand human nutrition.

With the knowledge of food science, it is now possible to transform a harvested produce to different food products. Also, it is good to know that food processors should fortify or enrich their food products to bring the nutritional deficiency of a particular food to the barest minimum.

The knowledge of food science has also been able to differentiate closely related terms like preservation and storage, fortification and enrichment, drying and dehydration, etc which to the nutritionists are regarded as same.


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