The Role Of The Federal Government In Co-Operative Financing (A Case Study Of Nigeria Agricultural Co-Operative Rural Development Bank, Imo State Branch Office)

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Project and Seminar Material for Cooperative Economics and Management CEM

Project and Seminar Material for Cooperative Economics and Management CEM


This work specially dedicated to My Dear Father Mr. T. Osuafor and My Mother of late Mrs. Beatrice and the entire member of Esomonu family. And the mercy and protection of Almighty God for his immeasurable love, on me throughout the time of writing this research project.


My sincere gratitude goes to my project supervisor Mr. Okafo Okoreaffia who assisted my work and gave corrections where necessary. I will also remain indebted to him for his timely correction.

I am also grateful to my head of department Ugwuanyi Lillan for her lectures from the time I spent in this school my gratitude also goes to my beloved brothers Mr. Obinna Esomonu, Mr. Izumna Esomonu, Mrs. Esther Esomonu, Mrs. Anulika Esomonu and My Father Mr. T Osuafor. Who in their own way contributed very much to make sure that my academic struggle is not jeopardized by materials and finance.

I will not fail to acknowledge the efforts of my academic friends here on campus, like oguchi, chimeze. Above all, my thanks go to Almighty God who protected and guided me from my first year to final year may he receive all glory, praise and adoration


The desire to make this humble contribution grew out of the to meet the fell need of promotion in Nigeria, this work has three potential aims

Firstly is to accreting the importance of co-operative to the national economy. Secondly is to determine the best method in promoting co-operative production. Thirdly, it solved them. Most countries of the world are studying very had to achieve the overall development of their countries they lend to adopt various development strategies. One common development strategy adopted by most development countries is diversifying of economy.

This is more reason one co-operative like Nigeria should emphasis on co-operative production as means diversifying their economy they should not depend on oil alone to avoid an adverse unforeseen circumstance bearing this in mind, the writer of this book have emphasize on the best ways of encouraging farmers to continues with co-operative production through incentives and other necessary are that promote co-operative production.

Table Of Contents

  • Title page
  • Approval
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of contents

Chapter One

  • 1.0 Introduction
  • 1.1 Background of the study
  • 1.2 Statement of the problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the study
  • 1.4 Scope and limitation of the study
  • 1.5 Research question
  • 1.2 Significance for the study
  • 1.3 Definition of terms

Chapter Two

  • 2.1 Historical development of co-operative
  • 2.2 Roles of co-operative in National development
  • 2.3 Co- operative financing
  • 2.4 Government roles in co-operative financing
  • 2.5 Problems in financing of co-operative

Chapter Three

  • 3.0 Research methodology 
  • 3.1 Research method and Design
  • 3.2 Sample design
  • 3.3 Methods and sources of date
  • 3.4 Procedure for processing data

Chapter Four

  • 2.0 Presentation and analysis of data
  • 4.1 Presentation of data
  • 4.2 Analysis of data
  • 4.3 Discussion of interpretation

Chapter Five

  • 5.0 Summary conclusion and recommendation 
  • 5.1 summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • Bibliography
  • Appendix
  • Questionnaire

Chapter One

1.1 Introduction

The choice of this topic, the role of the federal Government is co-operative financing can not be over liked at the present Economic situation of the country.

This is because of the fact that the issue of co-operative financing has reached all the likes and corners of Nigeria. The past and present regime emphasized on the best way of encouraging co-operation development through this does not mean that is needed for co-operative developments have been achieved. Rural and co-operative development has been strategies and plans in under way to articulate and executer of well to help improve the living standard of the rural population.

Development and economic growth is essential determine by the standard of living of both the rural and urban dwellers. We can not take of development and growth of Nigeria economy, neglecting the development of our rural one the experience and successes achieved by Israel, china, Tanzania and our spirits, interest enthusiasm and determination towards the development of our co-operative base.

A well planned rural development is the answer to rural poverty ignorance superstition and congestion in city centers. A well articulated and planned rural condition to natural integrates co-operative development and economic growth. This will also create awareness and increase the economic standard of the rural population. And it eliminates such plagues as ignorance, poverty, poor standard of living and general backwardness associated with under development.

This issue of infrastructure development which pertinent to co-operative development will include out rural dwellers as long as the rural area are not developed. And one imagines what life electricity, pipe borne water, good road, networks, education facilities, viewing centers and other.

As this juncture, I wish to make it clear here that the Nigeria agricultural co-operative rural development bank (NACRDB) which I am studying renders both advisory and financial assistance to any farmer or group of farmers.
What (NACRDB) does includes

  1. Identify the interested farmers
  2. Help them prepare feasibility study
  3. Know their problems
  4. Grant them loans (financial assistance)
  5. Advise farmers on the best project to embank on

In the introduction, I wish to mention that the NACRDB imo branch office has embarked on many programs to educate the farmer within and outside Imo on the best way to promote co-operative development.

1.1 Background Of The Study

Co-operative agriculture is the growth of crops and raring of animals for human consumption. Crops include cash and food crops, seed, seedlings, it also includes those that engage in livestock, horticulture and orderly.

On the ether hand, timber production, forestry conservation etc. are branches of co-operative have on single origin, this is true in the economic history of other countries all over nature and creation as Nigeria existed. Agricultural has farmed and feed them selves, kept flack before the advert of western civilization

According to a famous book, encyclopedia Britannica nineteenth century scholars hypothesized four stages in man as co-operative development. These include.

  1. A savage stage in which all man were hunters and wanderers
  2. A Herdsmen, or normal stage during which the domesticated some animals
  3. A farming stage
  4. Civilization stage

Sources; encyclopedia Britannia vii (A) 1981 pg 304 Botanical, and archeological and zoological researchers have since attempted to determine when and where man first change from hunter wanderers to pasturage cost or agriculturalist. These scholars and research generalized their findings world wide with the generalized the writer assumed that the same should be case with the historical development of co-operative in Nigeria social economic wise took the same turn.

1.2 Statement Of The Problem

Co-operative has always been the subject of critic comments form the general public about the role of will play in the socio economic life of the populace, our issue of rural development, it is the same. In many of our rural areas, people have always been heard civilized government and it is agents of being partial in the provision of social amenities, been responsible for the present rural urban immigration causing poor standard of living in the country
We all know quite will that over 80% of Agricultural activities in the country are done in the rural area. In the village, farmer complain of the non-availability of some essential commodities ( pipe borne water, electricity and road) credit facilities such as loans from banks all these make let tire some and born in the rural area

In general, the people complain the government should diversify its economic strength. Nigeria government and encourage the youths to embank on co-operative agricultural production. This is due to the fact that before the advent of oil bum, the strength of Nigeria economy was vested on co-operative

1.2 Objective Of The Study

The objective of the study is to crudity the collusive nature of government emphasis on co-operative development .It will also help the individual and all agronomists to know how to obtain loans from this financing advice from such federal establishment that love help the individual in planning his Agricultural co-operative investments. By the time any interested person would go through this place of work, it is believed that some objective of federal established financing housing in promoting the economy of the nation will be noted .To cap it up, the person will also see the effort made by the federal government in promoting co-operative development.

1.5 Scope And Limitations Of The Study

The research work is to cover only imo zonal branch operative area of Nigeria Agricultural co-operative Rural development bank (NACRDB) it will not study in detail the activities development time constraints was one of my greatest problems there were constraints and limitation posed by the government bureaucratic.

As a result it made things very difficult for me to get all the information required for the project.

1.6 Research Questions

  1. Does the NACRDB contribute in financing co-operative projects in Imo State
  2. Is there any projects facing co-operative financing
  3. Does the NACRDB financing co-operative through loans or on tending
  4. How much loans has NACRDB given to co-operative over the period of 2002-2006

1.7 Significance Of The Study

The aim of the study is to find the best way of ensuring steady co-operative development in Nigeria or imo state this topic was chosen to be in line with clarion call by the government for a rapid co-operative development in the great country and her states.

This study will also help our development planners and agronomists to lay more emphasis on the programs that will facilitate the rate of co-operative growth this study is also aimed at x- raying the importance of financial institution to Agricultural transformation of life in co-operative finally, it is my be life that if my recommendation reoffered to and considered objectively by the government powers a how answer will be created and our people attitude towards the co-operative development will change positively.

I bet you, the complete material is fully loaded. This is just an excerpt. The Material is in MS-Word Format which you can easily edit and is comprehensive for a complete research work for this topic

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How to nail it on the head during your project / seminar defence

You are through with writing that project / seminar. Now what?

You have found yourself at that point where you have to defend what you have written. Of course you have to stand in front of your supervisor and other literary personalities to prove that you know what you wrote in your project paper. Unfortunately, the more you think about it, the more it looks like you are about to face a legion. It is not a war. But the emotion of dread welling up inside of you makes it look like one. So now you are asking yourself questions.

  • How am I going to start?
  • I hope I will do well enough to get an A.

You really want to nail it, but you need to come to terms with exactly how to get everything in perfect control. Especially your emotions of fear that seem to make a wreck of you every time you think about public speaking.
So here is the deal. I want to help you avoid that feeling that would ruin your precious moment if you dare to let it. And we are going to do it together.

I am going to highlight some very important tips to help you get in control for you to be comfortable enough to move from that feeling of DREAD to CONFIDENT; and making an awesome Impression for that great rating your supervisors should be giving to you so freely.

Consider these tips as you prepare for your defence. We will be taking them one after the other so here we go.

Watch Your Body Language And Keep It Confident:

Can you tell that a person is falling apart if they look confident? … If I can second guess you rightly, am sure you answered no to that question. Remind yourself that you need to come out that way. Now this might seem like a huge big deal when you are dealing with the foreboding. Maintaining a poise of confidence is very important. So find your most comfortable position, sitting or standing and draw up your body. You must exude confidence. It is something you need to do for yourself. People can only see what you allow your body language to show. So you must endeavour to put that out. Remember the story of David and Goliath? … At the end of your defence day, you want to be David.

Dress In Your Most Comfortable And Impressive:

Am sure this one is a no brainer. However I must highlight that you choose comfortable pieces. You don’t want to look so good and yet look like you were forced to wear something that does not belong to you. It’s great to ensure that as impressive as your clothes are on you, that they are also very comfortable.

Speak With Authority:

Going hand to hand with that aura of confidence is your most powerful asset:your words. If you look that confident, your words must not come out like whimpers. To be able to pull this off, you definitely need to speak as deliberately as possible in expressing yourself. Let them also hear what they see.

Use, Your Gestures:

I have often found this to come to my rescue in dealing with shyness and conveying my confidence. Usually it gives you an edge to also drive home your point. You must, however, ensure that you do not over use it. It doesn’t mean that your hands should be flying all over the place. That would be absolutely unnecessary. If you do this well, after a while you will realize that you are not as self-conscious as you used to be at the very start. For most situations, it would have completely disappeared altogether; leaving a really confident you talking.

Have A Good Opening And Closing Line:

Make sure you have perfected a good opening line. You should also be armed with a good closing line too. Try and rehearse it to a friend. If for the first time you presented it, your friend does not say “wow, that’s beautiful” or something like that; just know you need to keep refining it until you get the perfect line. Both opening and closing lines will go a long way in how impressed your panel gets to rate you high.

Make Sure You Know Your Work:

Certainly you should understand how important it is to know your own work from start to finish. Not having in-depth knowledge of your own work is tantamount to a suicide mission. Why should you kill yourself?
When all is said and done, this is what you came to defend in the first place. You should know your work from A to Z.

Prepare For The Questions:

Now this part is truly essential. You must be sure you do not floor all the good work you did on your presentation by not answering correctly. You must pay attention to the questions you are asked to be sure you will give the right answer. Many people get it wrong at this stage and spoil their good presentation. When you do not understand any question do endeavour to ask the person to expatiate what they mean before you answer.

These tips are by no means exhaustive, but applying these tips will give you some necessary advantage you need for a great outcome. Of course that outcome would mean that you eventually earn all your points on this project.

The structure of a good project work

Undergraduate projects in Nigeria is a prerequisite for graduation amongst Nigerian tertiary students who will which to obtain bachelors degree in their respective courses of study such as accounting, banking and finance, business administration and a host of others. Writing an undergraduate project in Nigeria for final year students entails a lot both financially and otherwise. Being able to develop any final year project depends on getting a researchable topic whether it is Accounting Undergraduate project topics, Banking and Finance research topics or banking and finance project topics and materials and it all requires diligent hard work of students who are willing to develop best undergraduate projects in Nigeria and graduate in flying colors.

A typical Undergraduate project in Nigerian tertiary institutions can be said to be divided into five or six chapters depending on the format of the school and course of study which are

1. Introduction

The introduction of an undergraduate project states the main research problem and research argument. What precisely the study is all about and why it is important. It looks at the originality of the research work and how it will fill the gap in other studies. Justification for a research undergraduate topic should not be lengthy before it has been explicitly stated.

Below are the contents in chapter one of an undergraduate research project which includes;

  • Background of the study,
  • Statement of the problem,
  • Objectives or aims of the study,
  • The research questions,
  • Research hypothesis,
  • Significance of the study,
  • Scope of the study,
  • Limitations of the study and
  • Operational definition of terms.

2. Literature review

Literature review of any undergraduate research work, be it business administration project topics or Economics project topics just to mention a few is very critical to securing a high grade in one’s project work. The literature review of a research process uncovers what other writers have written about the student’s topic. A student’s undergraduate research work should include a discussion or review of what is known about the subject and how that knowledge was acquired. The review could conclude with a brief summary of the literature and its implications. The contents of the literature review are the theoretical review, conceptual framework, empirical review and summary of literature review.

3. Research Methodology

This section includes a description of the research methods used in the undergraduate research work such as the sample size, data collection methods, measurement instruments, research data analysis procedures and the population from which the sample was selected.  This section also describes the method used in selecting the sample or samples, validation and reliability of the instruments used in the research work. There are different research statistical techniques used in undergraduate research work such as SPSS, e-views etc.

4. Results & Discussion

This section presents and discusses the data analysis results used in an undergraduate research work, the results of each analysis is being summarized, tabulated, and then discussed for each research question.  Then for each research hypothesis, the statistical test of significance selected and applied to the data is briefly described, followed by a statement indicating whether the hypothesis was supported or not supported.  In presenting the result analyses/summary in an undergraduate project tables and figures and or graph are used to add clarity to the presentation.

5. Summary, Conclusions And Recommendations

This section summarizes the findings of the study in an easy to understand manner.  It also explains the practical implications of those findings, and points to recommended directions for future research in that area.


This is where every source cited in the undergraduate research work is being included. Every undergraduate research work must be properly referenced for its authenticity.

Choosing A Good Project / Research Topic

Students in Nigerian universities these days wish to choose a very simple project topic/material. There is no issue choosing a simple project topic; the only problem is your ability to choose a good project or research topic that your supervisor will easily approve for you.

Most project supervisors really want to see how good his or her project student understands his or her surrounding through the kind of topic he or she chooses for their project work.

There are some project topic that are not reject-able; for instance in Nigeria of today; what do you think is the major issue on ground now?

If a project student can choose or craft a topic on the effect of dollar increment on the economy of Nigeria. Such project topic will be very interesting to write on.

Now what are the qualities of a good project topic?

  1. The materials for the project topic must be easily assessable.
  2. The project topic itself must be meaningful.
  3. The variables must be able to give a clear aim of the project topic.

What do I mean by variable?

Well I am deriving my point from the area of project writing; the variables here are those main words in the project topic.

Like the above project topic; the effect of dollar increment on the economy of Nigeria. You can see the main variables that really define this project topic are:dollar, increment and economy.

Before you present your topic to your project supervisor, first of all understand your project topic, and then secondly try to do some research for your topic to see if at least you can get up to 60% of what you need to write the complete project.

I said that above because you might have a very nice topic that the materials are not available online and there are no books as regard the topic; in this case the project topic becomes difficult for you even though the topic is catchy.

What do I mean by your topic being assessable?

Well what I mean is very simple and easy to understand. Simply pick your project topic, type it on google and see if you will have at least a good background for the topic you are writing on.

If you can have a good background for your project topic and you can understand the problem associated with the project topic, then I believe the aim of the project is not far-fetched.

Structure of a Seminar Paper

I feel like there is a lot of stress out there among grad students about writing seminar papers, especially when we’re told that our goal should be to make an original contribution to the field. That idea can be quite intimidating when we’re just starting out. It feels like you’ve asked us to jump off the deep end of the pool and we don’t know how to swim.

I think part of the problem is that we’re still working out how to structure seminar papers.** Each paper we write is another step closer to a successful, effective, and effective paper; however, we’re still flailing our arms (and other miscellaneous body parts) around because we’re uncertain of exactly how to go about it. I realize, of course, that there is no one right answer. However, below is my suggestion at sticking your toes in the water.

Section #1 — Introduction

Provide a little bit (or a lot) of motivation for the reader to read your entire paper. Failing that, your reader should know what the paper is going to be about by reading your introduction.

Paragraph #1 — Get some attention.

  1. Provide a context by citing a recent text in the field — the point that is cited may or may not be the main point of the text — it is what jumped out at you.
  2. Set-up broader context of what you’re going to do

Paragraph #2-?? — Define issue and the gap.

  1. Define issue and any key terms
  2. Limit scope as necessary
  3. Establish significance of issue
  4. State problem by defining the gap
  5. Explain how present research attempts to fill the gap
  6. Outline contributions (readers will see lit review for more detail.)
  7. End with thesis and preview organization of the rest of the paper

Section #2 — Literature Review

Give some credit where credit is due.

  1. Indicate the current state of the issue/problem/topic
  2. Define or qualify terms
  3. Engage sources in conversation with each other (don’t just copy in annotated bib)

Section #3 — Argument / Discussion

As stated in the Allyn & Bacon Guide to Writing:wallow in those complexities!!

  1. Examine issue
  2. Argue how issue can be mitigated, mediated, or mashed
  3. Provide evidence and support
  4. Make some lively commentary along the way

Section #4 — Conclusion

We’re almost done. Don’t quit now.

  1. Summarize research question
  2. Qualify argument/discussion if you need to
  3. Explain where we go now
  4. End well

Section #5 — Works Cited

Double check

Is everything listed on the works cited?

Tips: it’s ok to use sub-headings to keep yourself organized.

Tips On How To Know What Your Supervisor Is Looking Out For In Your Project

Apparently all schools/colleges ask their undergraduates especially the final students to write their final year project before they are certified to be graduates. These projects are mostly discovery activities geared towards problems solving or basically to make new discoveries or better still have a better understanding of a problem with the aim of proffering better solutions.

With this assigned task an undergraduate will need an advisor, a counselor or a supervisor to guide and direct this activity for a desired result and a successful ending and of course, in return the supervisor have factors to look out for in a student project, so that the aim of the project writing will not be defeated.

As a final year student planning to write your final year project, there are some factors you need to consider when trying to have a good working relationship with your supervisor and you must have the below tips at your fingertips to know what your supervisor look at for in your project.

Selecting the right topic or title:

The supervisor would want to know how knowledgeable one is, in a chosen topic and how far one can go with the topic by asking one diverse questions which could be simple or a bit tough. So one thing is to choose a right topic and another thing is to be knowledgeable about the said topic.

The relevancy of the project topic to the degree course:

This is one of the important things a supervisor looks out for in a project. A final year project must have a purpose and objectives and most importantly be problem solving and must be related to the course of study. So a project topic should be relevant and interesting.

The realistic plan for the project:

A project supervisor will always look at how realistic a project topic is. Will the project aims be achieved and at the specified time. If it will outlived the specified time such topic might be dropped and a new topic adopted to run the set time and fulfill its purpose.

Quality of research materials available:

Another factor a supervisor will consider in project writing by a student is the quality of the materials available for research on the chosen project topic, can materials and information be readily available and are those materials of high standard and convincing not just bogus and fictitious analysis but materials that research has be carried out by scholars related to course of study. So a source of materials used for a project is very important and most supervisors look out for this.

The funding channels:

Almost all project writing needs a good amount of funding to achieved the desired aim, A supervisor would always want to find out how the project will be funded, so as not to have hitches when the project is on. So to have a smooth working relationship with ones project supervisor, the funding of the project must be considered and revisited from time to time. Because a supervisor will look out for this aspect too.

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