The Role Of Effective Communication On Organizational Performance (A Study Of Abia Broadcasting Corporation And Abia Transport Company Limited)
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This project is dedicated to God Almighty, the Universal of whole knowledge through him that dramatized the language of communication being effective and to Udekigbo family.
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I wish to thank the Almighty God for providing me with the spiritual, physical and material empowerment which I needed for the actualization of my academic pursuit.
I express my profound gratitude to my matrimonial and patrimonial home especially my parents Hon. Aloysius Udekigbo and beloved mother Mrs. Lucy Udekigbo (Eziuche Nwanyi) for their indisputable and indispensable unique effort which grant crown. I will not forget the enablement and encouragement of my siblings comprising Mr. Ifeanyi, Ebuka, Somtochukwu, Ekene, Chibueze and Miss Chinyere for all their good doing.
I am indebted to people and acknowledge my uncle; Mr. Eugene Udekigbo and his family, John Okafor, David, Beatrice, fellow noble colleague and to other people. It is not possible for me to bestow adequate recognition on all who provided assistance due to space and time constraints during my academic pursuit.
It is often said that learning is a too way traffic” their innumerable contributions are not despised. I say kudos and Bravo must be given to you all.
I owe greater part to my supervisor Mr. D.C. Ohadinma whose supervision, correction had suggestion and I was able to complete this project. Your positive dispositions towards creative endeavour of all manner of people that come around you are unprecedented. I say may God reward you all a million.
Communication is effective when a message is properly passed by the encoder and understood by the decoder and expected response received by the sender. However, effective communication is found to be lacking because of poor communication system.
This investigation, is therefore aimed at identifying those problem order has brought the need for developing countries to make a scientific study of communication to international relation. As a result communication studies within the last decade, become the forces of attention of many researchers and educators.
The main instrument used in gathering data for the study was the use of questionnaire designers for sample size. Consequently, certain findings were made which is that efficient communication can only be achieved when information or message is conveyed accurately in brevity, clarity. Whether in oral, written form expression, devoid of ambiguities, complications and other forms of barriers.
Table Of Contents
- Title page i
- Approval page ii
- Dedication iii
- Acknowledgement iii
- Abstract vi
- Table of contents vii
- 1.0 Introduction 1
- 1.1 Background of the study 1
- 1.2 Statement of the problem 2
- 1.3 Objectives of the study 3
- 1.4 Research questions 4
- 1.5 Research hypotheses 5
- 1.6 Significance of the study 5
- 1.7 Scope of the study 6
- 1.8 Limitations of the study 6
- 1.9 Definition of terms 8
- 2.0 Literature review 9
- 2.1 Introduction 9
- 2.2 Conceptual framework 10
- 2.3 Theoretical base/framework 13
- 2.4 Other issues 16
- 2.5 Conclusion/researcher’s view/position
- 3.0 Research design and methodology 23
- 3.1 Introduction 23
- 3.2 Research design 23
- 3.3 Sources of data 24
- 3.4 Methods of data collection 25
- 3.5 Population and sample size 26
- 3.6 Sampling techniques 30
- 3.7 Validity and reliability of measuring instruments 31
- 3.8 Methods of data analysis 32
- 4.0 Presentation and analysis of data 35
- 4.1 Introduction of data 35
- 4.2 Presentation of data 36
- 4.3 Test of hypotheses 50
- 5.0 Summary, conclusion and recommendations 62
- 5.1 Introduction 62
- 5.2 Summary of findings 63
- 5.3 Conclusion 64
- 5.4 Recommendations 65
- 5.5 Suggestion for further research 67
- Reference s 68
- Appendix I 71
- Questionnaires 72
1.1 Background Of The Study
Communication is the basic to an organization existence. It is one of the most common activities people engaged, in facts, feedings and idea must be communicated before meaningful decisions can be made, and it must continue if the objectives of the organization is to be achieved.
Managers spend more of their time communicating to coordinate human and physical elements of the organization in effective and efficient working unit. Communication is also pertinent that without it an organization cannot function. Since an organization is a group of people associated for business, politics, religion, social and other purpose, its activities requires human beings to interact and react to changes, information, idea, plan and proposals, to coordinate and to make decision both within and outside the organization. In order to create communication must be clear, precise, unambiguous and undistorted.
The absence of clear information machinery may cripple the activities of an organization. The study therefore, aims at findings out how effective communication is to organizational performance.
1.2 Statements Of The Problem
Basically there are problem that occur when communication is not effective in the running of an organization. Some of them are: poor communication in some case has led to breakdown of law and order in organization. Poor communication may affect harmonious industrial relationship between employees and management.
The cast of poor communication includes, misunderstanding, waste, inefficiently, poor moral, feeding, confusion and many others.
Poor communication might lead to breakdown in labor relations which might cause industrial actions and disruption of productions. The problem s posed but poor communication shall be studied, with a view to improve communication in organization, hereby reducing, the dangers associated with gaps in information flow.
1.3 Objective Of The Study
The purpose of this study is to establish and examine the flow of communication or information on organizational performance.
Other specific objectives are as follows:
- To evaluate the impact of poor communication that led to breakdown of law and order in Nigeria.
- To evaluate the impact of poor communication that led harmonious industrial relationship between employees and management in Nigeria.
- To evaluate the impact of poor communication that led to confusion among employees in Nigeria.
- To evaluate the impact of poor communication that led to poor moral between employees and management in Nigeria.
- To evaluate the impact of poor communication that led to actions and disruption of production in Nigeria.
1.4 Research Questions
In order to achieve the purpose of this study, the following research questions are deduced:
- Does effective communication enhance productivity in your organization?
- Does effective communication led to breakdown of law and other in Nigeria?
- Does effective communication have any impact in your organization?
- Does effective communication have any impact to the confusion among employees and management in your organization?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
Ho: There is no significant relationship between effective communications and the achievement of organization objectives in Nigeria.
Hi: There is no significance relationship between effective communication and achievement of organization objectives in Nigeria.
Ho: Breakdown of law and order has no significance on the quality of effective communication in Nigeria.
Hi: Breakdown of law and order has significance on the quality of effective communication in Nigeria.
1.6 Significance Of The Study
This project work will be relevant in various ways:
- The outcome of this project will be useful to the role of effective communication on organizational performance.
- The project work will also serve as reference material to other researchers wishing to examine the findings of this research work critically.
- The students of business administration will also find this research very useful.
- The research work will also help other firms in the communication sub section to know the importance of communication in the global world.
1.7 Scope Of The Study
The study was carried out to find the role of effective communication on organizational performance. The study is focused in Aba, Abia State. The work covered different actions of the organization, from the top management, middle managers and other workers.
1.8 Limitations of the Study
Not with standing the areas of study covered during this which includes:
1. Present course of study: the combination of lectures and this research work did not afford me enough time to carryout a through study of the subject matter.
2. Cost factors: the present prevailing economics predicament posed to a problem in procuring the whole materials, information needed and other relevant statistical data.
3. Time constraint: the research was constrained by coverage intended in the course of study.
4. Non-availability of research materials also limited me from getting enough information for the literature reviewed.
5. Non-challant: attitude of the respondents in giving answer to the questionnaire made it difficult to end the work, however, the above, mentioned constrains did not in any way invalidated the findings of the study.
1.9 Definition Of Terms
is a process of sharing or exchange of ideas, information, knowledge, attitude or feeling among two or more people in an organization.
this consists of two or more people coming together for a purpose.
Downward communication: this is a system in which communication flow from supervisor (upper) to the subordinate (lower) level.
this refers to information that flow from subordinate (lower) levels in the organization.
problems that prevents or make it impossible communication to be effective.
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How to nail it on the head during your project / seminar defence
You are through with writing that project / seminar like “The Role Of Effective Communication On Organizational Performance (A Study Of Abia Broadcasting Corporation And Abia Transport Company Limited)“. Now what?
You have found yourself at that point where you have to defend. Of course you have to stand in front of your supervisor and other literary personalities to prove that you know what you wrote in your project paper. Unfortunately, the more you think about it, the more it looks like you are about to face a legion. It is not a war. But the emotion of dread welling up inside of you makes it look like one. So now you are asking yourself questions.
- How am I going to start?
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You really want to nail it, but you need to come to terms with exactly how to get everything in perfect control. Especially your emotions of fear that seem to make a wreck of you every time you think about public speaking.
So here is the deal. I want to help you avoid that feeling that would ruin your precious moment if you dare to let it. And we are going to do it together.
I am going to highlight some very important tips to help you get in control for you to be comfortable enough to move from that feeling of DREAD to CONFIDENT; and making an awesome Impression for that great rating your supervisors should be giving to you so freely.
Consider these tips as you prepare for your defence. We will be taking them one after the other so here we go.
Watch Your Body Language And Keep It Confident:
Can you tell that a person is falling apart if they look confident? … If I can second guess you rightly, am sure you answered no to that question. Remind yourself that you need to come out that way. Now this might seem like a huge big deal when you are dealing with the foreboding. Maintaining a poise of confidence is very important when defending “The Role Of Effective Communication On Organizational Performance (A Study Of Abia Broadcasting Corporation And Abia Transport Company Limited)“. So find your most comfortable position, sitting or standing and draw up your body. You must exude confidence. It is something you need to do for yourself. People can only see what you allow your body language to show. So you must endeavour to put that out. Remember the story of David and Goliath? … At the end of your defence day, you want to be David.
Dress In Your Most Comfortable And Impressive:
Am sure this one is a no brainer. However I must highlight that you choose comfortable pieces. You don’t want to look so good and yet look like you were forced to wear something that does not belong to you. It’s great to ensure that as impressive as your clothes are on you, that they are also very comfortable.
Speak With Authority:
Going hand to hand with that aura of confidence is your most powerful asset: your words. If you look that confident, your words must not come out like whimpers when defending “The Role Of Effective Communication On Organizational Performance (A Study Of Abia Broadcasting Corporation And Abia Transport Company Limited)“. To be able to pull this off, you definitely need to speak as deliberately as possible in expressing yourself. Let them also hear what they see.
Use, Your Gestures:
I have often found this to come to my rescue in dealing with shyness and conveying my confidence. Usually it gives you an edge to also drive home your point. You must, however, ensure that you do not over use it. It doesn’t mean that your hands should be flying all over the place. That would be absolutely unnecessary. If you do this well, after a while you will realize that you are not as self-conscious as you used to be at the very start. For most situations, it would have completely disappeared altogether; leaving a really confident you talking.
Have A Good Opening And Closing Line:
Make sure you have perfected a good opening line for The Role Of Effective Communication On Organizational Performance (A Study Of Abia Broadcasting Corporation And Abia Transport Company Limited). You should also be armed with a good closing line too. Try and rehearse it to a friend. If for the first time you presented it, your friend does not say “wow, that’s beautiful” or something like that; just know you need to keep refining it until you get the perfect line. Both opening and closing lines will go a long way in how impressed your panel gets to rate you high.
Make Sure You Know Your Work:
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Prepare For The Questions:
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These tips are by no means exhaustive, but applying these tips will give you some necessary advantage you need for a great outcome defending The Role Of Effective Communication On Organizational Performance (A Study Of Abia Broadcasting Corporation And Abia Transport Company Limited). Of course that outcome would mean that you eventually earn all your points on this project.
The structure of a good project work e.g The Role Of Effective Communication On Organizational Performance (A Study Of Abia Broadcasting Corporation And Abia Transport Company Limited)
Undergraduate projects in Nigeria is a prerequisite for graduation amongst Nigerian tertiary students just like this topic “The Role Of Effective Communication On Organizational Performance (A Study Of Abia Broadcasting Corporation And Abia Transport Company Limited)” who will which to obtain bachelors degree in their respective courses of study such as accounting, banking and finance, business administration and a host of others. Writing an undergraduate project in Nigeria for final year students entails a lot both financially and otherwise. Being able to develop any final year project depends on getting a researchable topic whether it is Accounting Undergraduate project topics, Banking and Finance research topics or banking and finance project topics and materials and it all requires diligent hard work of students who are willing to develop best undergraduate projects in Nigeria and graduate in flying colors.
Just like The Role Of Effective Communication On Organizational Performance (A Study Of Abia Broadcasting Corporation And Abia Transport Company Limited), A typical Undergraduate project in Nigerian tertiary institutions can be said to be divided into five or six chapters depending on the format of the school and course of study which are
The introduction of The Role Of Effective Communication On Organizational Performance (A Study Of Abia Broadcasting Corporation And Abia Transport Company Limited) project states the main research problem and research argument. What precisely the study is all about and why it is important. It looks at the originality of the research work and how it will fill the gap in other studies. Justification for a research undergraduate topic should not be lengthy before it has been explicitly stated.
Below are the contents in chapter one of an undergraduate research project which includes;
- Background of the study,
- Statement of the problem,
- Objectives or aims of the study,
- The research questions,
- Research hypothesis,
- Significance of the study,
- Scope of the study,
- Limitations of the study and
- Operational definition of terms.
2. Literature review
Literature review of any undergraduate research work, be it business administration project topics or Economics project topics just to mention a few e.g “The Role Of Effective Communication On Organizational Performance (A Study Of Abia Broadcasting Corporation And Abia Transport Company Limited)” is very critical to securing a high grade in one’s project work. The literature review of a research process uncovers what other writers have written about the student’s topic. A student’s undergraduate research work should include a discussion or review of what is known about the subject and how that knowledge was acquired. The review could conclude with a brief summary of the literature and its implications. The contents of the literature review are the theoretical review, conceptual framework, empirical review and summary of literature review.
3. Research Methodology
This section includes a description of the research methods used in the undergraduate research work such as the sample size, data collection methods, measurement instruments, research data analysis procedures and the population from which the sample was selected. This section also describes the method used in selecting the sample or samples, validation and reliability of the instruments used in the research work. There are different research statistical techniques used in undergraduate research work such as SPSS, e-views etc.
4. Results & Discussion
This section presents and discusses the data analysis results used in The Role Of Effective Communication On Organizational Performance (A Study Of Abia Broadcasting Corporation And Abia Transport Company Limited), the results of each analysis is being summarized, tabulated, and then discussed for each research question. Then for each research hypothesis, the statistical test of significance selected and applied to the data is briefly described, followed by a statement indicating whether the hypothesis was supported or not supported. In presenting the result analyses/summary in an undergraduate project tables and figures and or graph are used to add clarity to the presentation.
5. Summary, Conclusions And Recommendations
This section summarizes the findings of the study in an easy to understand manner. It also explains the practical implications of those findings, and points to recommended directions for future research in The Role Of Effective Communication On Organizational Performance (A Study Of Abia Broadcasting Corporation And Abia Transport Company Limited).
This is where every source cited in the research work “The Role Of Effective Communication On Organizational Performance (A Study Of Abia Broadcasting Corporation And Abia Transport Company Limited)” is being included. Every undergraduate research work must be properly referenced for its authenticity.
Choosing A Good Project / Research Topic
Students in Nigerian universities these days wish to choose a very simple project topic/material. There is no issue choosing a simple project topic; the only problem is your ability to choose a good project or research topic that your supervisor will easily approve for you.
Most project supervisors really want to see how good his or her project student understands his or her surrounding through the kind of topic he or she chooses for their project work.
There are some project topic that are not reject-able; for instance in Nigeria of today; what do you think is the major issue on ground now?
If a project student can choose or craft a topic on the effect of dollar increment on the economy of Nigeria. Such project topic will be very interesting to write on.
Now what are the qualities of a good project topic?
- The materials for the project topic must be easily assessable.
- The project topic itself must be meaningful.
- The variables must be able to give a clear aim of the project topic.
What do I mean by variable?
Well I am deriving my point from the area of ; the variables here are those main words in the project topic.
Like the above project topic; the effect of dollar increment on the economy of Nigeria. You can see the main variables that really define this project topic are: dollar, increment and economy.
Before you present your topic to your project supervisor, first of all understand your project topic, and then secondly try to do some research for your topic to see if at least you can get up to 60% of what you need to write the complete project.
I said that above because you might have a very nice topic that the materials are not available online and there are no books as regard the topic; in this case the project topic becomes difficult for you even though the topic is catchy.
What do I mean by your topic being accessible?
Well what I mean is very simple and easy to understand. Simply pick your project topic, type it on google and see if you will have at least a good background for the topic you are writing on.
If you can have a good background for your project topic and you can understand the problem associated with the project topic, then I believe the aim of the project is not far-fetched.
Structure of a Seminar Paper
I feel like there is a lot of stress out there among grad students about writing seminar papers, especially when we’re told that our goal should be to make an original contribution to the field. That idea can be quite intimidating when we’re just starting out. It feels like you’ve asked us to jump off the deep end of the pool and we don’t know how to swim.
I think part of the problem is that we’re still working out how to structure seminar papers.** Each paper we write is another step closer to a successful, effective, and effective paper; however, we’re still flailing our arms (and other miscellaneous body parts) around because we’re uncertain of exactly how to go about it. I realize, of course, that there is no one right answer. However, below is my suggestion at sticking your toes in the water.
Section #1 — Introduction
Provide a little bit (or a lot) of motivation for the reader to read your entire paper. Failing that, your reader should know what the paper is going to be about by reading your introduction.
Paragraph #1 — Get some attention.
- Provide a context by citing a recent text in the field — the point that is cited may or may not be the main point of the text — it is what jumped out at you.
- Set-up broader context of what you’re going to do
Paragraph #2-?? — Define issue and the gap.
- Define issue and any key terms
- Limit scope as necessary
- Establish significance of issue
- State problem by defining the gap
- Explain how present research attempts to fill the gap
- Outline contributions (readers will see lit review for more detail.)
- End with thesis and preview organization of the rest of the paper
Section #2 — Literature Review
Give some credit where credit is due.
- Indicate the current state of the issue/problem/topic
- Define or qualify terms
- Engage sources in conversation with each other (don’t just copy in annotated bib)
Section #3 — Argument / Discussion
As stated in the Allyn & Bacon Guide to Writing: wallow in those complexities!!
- Examine issue
- Argue how issue can be mitigated, mediated, or mashed
- Provide evidence and support
- Make some lively commentary along the way
Section #4 — Conclusion
We’re almost done. Don’t quit now.
- Summarize research question
- Qualify argument/discussion if you need to
- Explain where we go now
- End well
Section #5 — Works Cited
Is everything listed on the works cited?
Tips: it’s ok to use sub-headings to keep yourself organized.
Tips On How To Know What Your Supervisor Is Looking Out For In “The Role Of Effective Communication On Organizational Performance (A Study Of Abia Broadcasting Corporation And Abia Transport Company Limited)“
Apparently all schools/colleges ask their undergraduates especially the final students to write their final year project before they are certified to be graduates. These projects are mostly discovery activities geared towards problems solving or basically to make new discoveries or better still have a better understanding of a problem with the aim of proffering better solutions.
With this assigned task an undergraduate will need an advisor, a counselor or a supervisor to guide and direct this activity for a desired result and a successful ending and of course, in return the supervisor have factors to look out for in a student project, so that the aim of the project writing will not be defeated.
As a final year student planning to write your final year project, there are some factors you need to consider when trying to have a good working relationship with your supervisor and you must have the below tips at your fingertips to know what your supervisor look at for in your project.
Selecting the right topic or title:
The supervisor would want to know how knowledgeable one is, in a chosen topic and how far one can go with the topic by asking one diverse questions which could be simple or a bit tough. So one thing is to choose a right topic and another thing is to be knowledgeable about the said topic.
The relevancy of the project topic to the degree course: The Role Of Effective Communication On Organizational Performance (A Study Of Abia Broadcasting Corporation And Abia Transport Company Limited)
This is one of the important things a supervisor looks out for in a project. A final year project must have a purpose and objectives and most importantly be problem solving and must be related to the course of study. So a project topic should be relevant and interesting.
The realistic plan for the project:
A project supervisor will always look at how realistic a project topic is like “The Role Of Effective Communication On Organizational Performance (A Study Of Abia Broadcasting Corporation And Abia Transport Company Limited)“. Will the project aims be achieved and at the specified time. If it will outlived the specified time such topic might be dropped and a new topic adopted to run the set time and fulfill its purpose.
Quality of research materials available:
Another factor a supervisor will consider in project writing by a student is the quality of the materials available for research on the chosen project topic, can materials and information be readily available and are those materials of high standard and convincing not just bogus and fictitious analysis but materials that research has be carried out by scholars related to course of study. So a source of materials used for a project is very important and most supervisors look out for this.
The funding channels:
Almost all project writing needs a good amount of funding to achieved the desired aim, A supervisor would always want to find out how the project will be funded, so as not to have hitches when the project is on. So to have a smooth working relationship with ones project supervisor, the funding of the project must be considered and revisited from time to time. Because a supervisor will look out for this aspect too.
Guidelines for Writing Projects
This guideline we are about to list out was also used to write “The Role Of Effective Communication On Organizational Performance (A Study Of Abia Broadcasting Corporation And Abia Transport Company Limited)“
Undergraduate research project is an independent effort required of students in tertiary institutions. The students, though supervised by an academic staff, are to carry out a pre-determined research within the constraints of their study.
The supervisor is primarily to receive proposals of the research interest, approve it, provide guidance and assess the work at the end. An external supervisor is usual, to provide an external and independent assessment of their research work.
The proposal for the topic is to include the intended subject of study, a brief description, justification for the work, aims and milestones, software and hardware to be employed, assumptions to be made, the methodologies involved and the references.
There are standards in the research build-up, actual research, presentation and print submissions. These put the students in shape for the strict rules they are to face after-school.
In developing the content, there are certain guidelines that would be beneficial.
The work is usually divided into five chapters (broadly) before any further divisions.
Hence the typical formats as such:
- Title Page: The Role Of Effective Communication On Organizational Performance (A Study Of Abia Broadcasting Corporation And Abia Transport Company Limited)
- Dedication Acknowledgement
- Table of Contents
- List of Tables
- List of Figures
- List of Appendices
- 1.1 Background of the Study
- 1.2 Statement of the Research Problem
- 1.3 Objectives of the Study
- 1.4 Research Questions
- 1.5 Research Hypotheses (if applicable)
- 1.6 Scope of Study
- 1.7 Significance of the Study
- 1.8 Organisation of the Project Report
- Literature Review
- 2.1 Conceptual Clarifications
- 2.2 Related Theories
- 2.3 Review of Empirical Literature
- 2.4 Theoretical Framework
- 3.1 Research Design
- 3.2 Population of the Study
- 3.3 Sample and Sampling Techniques (if applicable)
- 3.4 Method of Data Collection
- 3.5 Measurement of Variables
- 3.6 Reliability and Validity of the Research Instrument
- 3.7 Model Specification (if applicable)
- 3.8 Method of Data Analysis
- 3.9 Limitations of the Study
Data Presentation, Analysis And Discussion Of Findings
- 4.1 Characteristics of the Sample
- 4.2 Presentation of Data and Test of Hypotheses Relating to Objective 1
- 4.3 Presentation of Data and Test of Hypotheses Relating to Objective 2
- 4.4 Presentation of Data and Test of Hypotheses Relating to Objective 3
- (Continue as in 4.2 to 4.4 until all the objectives are covered)
- 4.5 Discussion of Findings
Summary Of Findings, Conclusions And Recommendations
- 5.1 Summary of Findings
- 5.2 Conclusion
- 5.3 Recommendations
- References (Using American Psychological Association (APA) Style, 7the Edition
Title Page: The Role Of Effective Communication On Organizational Performance (A Study Of Abia Broadcasting Corporation And Abia Transport Company Limited)
Here, the name of the institution is put, the title of the report (The Role Of Effective Communication On Organizational Performance (A Study Of Abia Broadcasting Corporation And Abia Transport Company Limited)), the name of the Author, then the reason for the report (this is why it is required that students add that it is ‘in partial fulfilment of the course requirement required for the award of the B.Sc degree.’ Then the date is added.
The name of the institution and department, then a statement signifying approval for the work by the supervisor, head of department and external supervisor. Space is reserved for signatures of all listed parties as well.
This is where the researcher dedicate the research to a deity, someone, dead or/and alive. This is different from the acknowledgement.
The researcher here writes to appreciate all that contributed, (technical, financial, moral and otherwise) to the success of the research.
This is the synopsis of the research work of The Role Of Effective Communication On Organizational Performance (A Study Of Abia Broadcasting Corporation And Abia Transport Company Limited). It is often written last with the tense in past. Usually less than 100 words summarizing the problem statement, the methodology employed, the findings, conclusion and recommendations. This should be in a single paragraph and the word limit not exceeded.
Table Of Content:
The main headings and sub-headings and page numbers of The Role Of Effective Communication On Organizational Performance (A Study Of Abia Broadcasting Corporation And Abia Transport Company Limited) are listed. This allows for easy page identification and reference. The table of content should be edited at the final stage as well, to correctly capture the reflections in the work.
List Of Tables / Figures / Symbols:
The list is to aid the reader in locating tables/figures/symbols. It should contain the tag numbers, tag which reflects the content and the page numbers. It should be well-numbered and unambiguous. In the main content, the figure/table should be well-labelled.
(The body of the work)
This is the introduction of The Role Of Effective Communication On Organizational Performance (A Study Of Abia Broadcasting Corporation And Abia Transport Company Limited).
This describes the background, scope and purpose of the research. The rest of the report should be tied to the information supplied. The researcher should strive to present sufficient details regarding why the study was carried out. It shouldn’t be rushed, a gradual build-up of the content from bottom to top is ideal. It should be closed with a linking paragraph that would disclose the objectives, constraints and limitations.
This is the literature theoretical review of The Role Of Effective Communication On Organizational Performance (A Study Of Abia Broadcasting Corporation And Abia Transport Company Limited).
This presents basically, the work done by others. It is on the ground work done by others that the current research is to be based, hence the review. It sums up the pros and cons of all past work but due credit should be given to the various Authors (see the guide on referencing on this website). The use of quotations should be less in use, more of paraphrasing (reading and making out meaning in your own words), making comments in the review is great as well, it just depends on the context.
This is the research methodology of The Role Of Effective Communication On Organizational Performance (A Study Of Abia Broadcasting Corporation And Abia Transport Company Limited).
Here the language used should be in past tense. It is a sum-up of the research design, procedures, the area and population of study. The data sampling and data sources are detailed as well. The method used, from all alternatives, should also be justified. The materials and equipment used is also included.
This is for data presentation and analysis (results and discussion) of The Role Of Effective Communication On Organizational Performance (A Study Of Abia Broadcasting Corporation And Abia Transport Company Limited).
The results obtained in the research are presented here. Visual aids like graphs, charts and the likes should be used as well. The results should be discussed then compared with results of past Authors. The effects and applications of the results should be detailed as well.
This part houses the conclusions and recommendations of The Role Of Effective Communication On Organizational Performance (A Study Of Abia Broadcasting Corporation And Abia Transport Company Limited).
From the results of the research, conclusions are made, then suggestions for improvement for other researchers with similar interest. Based on the whole happenings, recommendations are proffered.
This is a list of all the relevant journals, books and all sources of information consulted in the research work, either online or print. Plagiarism should be avoided at all costs, all quoted and exact words of different sources should be properly referenced, in-text and at the references’ list/bibliography. MLA, APA and Chicago style are the commonest referencing styles. (See a comprehensive guide on this blog)
This is for all extra materials that were not added to the body of the work. This encapsulates extensive proofs, official data from case study, list of parameters, et al.
P.S: After writing, the researcher should painstakingly proofread the whole content for grammatical and spelling errors. This could be very distracting while reading the material.
The page numbers are easily distorted by changing font size and type, spacing et al. The final submission should be very clear, error-free(to a large degree) and as required by standard
Understanding Referencing Style When Developing Project Topics like
In developing project topics, it is essential to understand and effectively reference your research. In tertiary institutions, it is also important to note that referencing is a major component of every final year or post graduate research. Most graduating students find it difficult to know which type of reference or citation pattern to deploy.
Reference can simply be defined as a page is the last page of a research, listing It lists all the sources used you’ve used in your research project. The basic reason for referencing is so readers can easily finds what you’ve cited.
In other to properly reference any project or research, one must also understand what reference styles are available and which is appropriate for which or what kind of research being carried out.
Referencing style in research can be said to dictates the research information necessary for a reference and how the research information is ordered, as well as punctuation and other formatting.
How To Choose A Referencing/Citation Style When Developing Project Topics
To effectively reference a research, one must understand that there are many different ways of citing or referencing resources from your research. The citation or reference style sometimes depends on the academic discipline involved. Below are examples of referencing styles, when and how to use them during research:
1. The APA (American Psychological Association) Referencing/Citation Style
The APA referencing style is a kind of referencing that is using used when developing education project topics, Psychology project topics and some other natural sciences. The is the most common type of referencing used in tertiary institutions in Nigeria.
The APA referencing style calls for three kinds of basic/essential information to be included in in-text citations namely; the author’s last name and the date of publication of the work being referenced, and these items must match exactly the corresponding entry in the references list.
Below are Examples of APA Referencing List
When referencing A book in Print;
Baxter, B. (2007). Gender equality in Schools and colleges. Philadelphia: Ballière Tindall.
When referencing An article in a journal;
Scholes, M. W. (2009). How children change their minds: Strategy change can be gradual or abrupt. Journal Developmental Psychology, 35, 127-145.
When Referencing Professional or personal websites
The Famous research Site. (2010, July 7). Retrieved January 5, 2018, from https://www.samphina.com.ng
2. MLA (Modern Language Association) Reference Style
The MLA reference style is majorly used by the humanities especially in language and literature. Final year students who are developing project topics in mass communication, languages and communication project topics, theater Arts research topics, History and international project topics, Media and communications studies project topics are advised to use the MLA in referencing their research.
If you’re referencing a source using the MLA reference style, such as a chapter in a book, a song on an album, or an article in a journal or website, then ensure that you place the title of the piece in quotations and add a full stop afterwards. Follow it with the title of the full research source, in italics, and then add a comma. This second portion is called the container. Containers are key in MLA referencing as it hold the sources.
Below are Examples of MLA Referencing List
Example of Referencing a Song (Container: Album)
Cardy B. “Single Ladies (Put a Ring on It).” I am…Sasha Fierce, Sony, 2009, track 2.
Example of referencing a book (Container: Book)
Wole, Soyinka. “I’m Drifting.” An Anthology of Modern Indonesian Poetry, edited by Burton Raffel, State University of New York Albany, 1965.
Example of referencing Online Journal Articles
Snyder, Vivian. “The Effect Course-Based Reading Strategy Training on the Reading Comprehension Skills of Developmental College Students.” Journal of Research and Teaching in Developmental Education, vol. 18, no. 2, Spring 2002, pp. 37-41. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/42802532.
Example of referencing An Article (Container: Website or Periodical)
Vance, Erik, and Erika Larsen. “Mind Over Matter.” National Geographic Magazine, Dec. 2016, pp. 30-55.
3. Chicago/Turabian Reference Style
The Chicago/turabian Reference style is generally used by students in Business, History, and the Fine Arts disciplines.
The notes and bibliography style is preferred by many students and researchers in the humanities, including those in literature, history, and the arts. This style presents bibliographic information in notes and, often, a bibliography.
Example of Referencing a Book in Print
Note Style: 1. Michael Pollan, The Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals (New York: Penguin, 2006), 99–100.
Duplicate Note: 2. Pollan, Omnivore’s Dilemma, 3.
Bibliography: Pollan, Michael. The Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals. New York: Penguin, 2006.
Example of Referencing an Article in a print journal
Note Style: 1. Joshua I. Weinstein, “The Market in Plato’s Republic,” Classical Philology 104 (2009): 440.
Duplicate Note: 2. Weinstein, “Plato’s Republic,” 452–53.
Bibliography: Weinstein, Joshua I. “The Market in Plato’s Republic.” Classical Philology 104 (2009): 439–58.
Example of Referencing an Article in an electronic journal
Note Style: 1. Gueorgi Kossinets and Duncan J. Watts, “Origins of Homophily in an Evolving Social Network,” American Journal of Sociology 115 (2009): 411, accessed February 28, 2010, doi:10.1086/599247.
Duplicate Note: Kossinets and Watts, “Origins of Homophily,” 439.
Bibliography: Kossinets, Gueorgi, and Duncan J. Watts. “Origins of Homophily in an Evolving Social Network.” American Journal of Sociology 115 (2009): 405–50. Accessed February 28, 2010. doi:10.1086/599247.
Example of Referencing a website
Note: You will need to consult with your project supervisor to determine what is required in your specific course