The Role Of Effective Communication Towards Organisational Development
The purpose of this study is to study the role of effective communication towards organisational development. The study was conducted in Eket Local Government Area, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. A total of 134 respondents were selected from the population figure out of which the sample size was determined. The primary source of data collected was mainly the use of a structured questionnaire which was designed to elicit information on effective communication. The data collected will be analyzed using frequency table, percentage and mean score analysis while the nonparametric statistical test (Chi-square) was used to test the formulated hypothesis using SPSS (statistical package for social sciences). The results suggested that work-oriented communication is a statistically significant positive predictor of affective commitment and normative commitment. Moreover, vertical social-emotional communication that flows vertically significantly predicts work-oriented communication. In addition, the results supported the relevant assumptions of human relations theory that emphasizes human needs and favors informal communication. Furthermore, the superiors and subordinates who have better quality and larger quantity of communication regarding social and emotional topics tend to have better communication related to work as well, especially the perceived quantity of vertical interaction with management.
1.1 Background of the Study
For sometimes now communication has became so important in business because it is a major and essential part of work of any business organization.
Newman et al (1959) define communication as an exchange of facts, idea, opinions or emotions by two or more persons. Also communication is defined as intercourse by words, letters, symbols, or messages and or way that one organization member shares meaning. Generally, communication is viewed also as that transfer of information form one person to another. This study further reports that, the short comings, are in both oral and written. Oral is by the use of telephone and face to face communication. While written is by the use of letters, telegrams and mass media communication.
The communication short comings of employees in an organization and the important of communication in business development explain why organization should work to improve their communication skills. Communication and distribution needs are varied and may often prove troubles one. The economic service suffer due to unreliability of the delivery systems and has lead to under-developed society which we are today. Effective communication can be described the situation in which the receiver receives the sender’s information with all amount of under study and co-operation, therefore returned a favourable reply back to the sender without any discomfort.
Effective communication is essential ingredients of a thriving business in an organization. Information from the source of target market received, has a direct relationship with productivity in an organization. The more people are informed about their job contents, the more required standard of performance and the technical details backed by good working environment, the higher they become prepared to face the task before them with zeal and determination.
According to Pride et al (1985), without good communication, marketing managers can either motivate personnel for co-ordinate their efforts, marketing managers must be able to communicate with the top level executives, keeps marketing managers aware of the overall company’s plans and achievements. It also guides what the marketing units are to do and how its activities are to be integrated with those of other departments such as finance, production or personnel with whose management the marketing managers must also communication to co-ordinate marketing effort.
The information system should allow for easy and effective communication among a marketing managers and sales personnel. Since communication is the art of transferring information from place or person to another, information system should aid marketers in preparing internal and external reports.
Marketers need an information system to support a variety of activities such as planning, budgeting, sales analysis and performance evolutions. A useful information system should be designed to expedite communication with other departments in the organsiation and to minimize organisational resources. It is important to note that where there is no effective communication, people may not know the current happening in the organisation the work and they will not like to lend their support.
1.1 Statement of the Problem
The research investigates the problems of effective communication in the organization to be lack of enough fund to pay for high cost of telephone charge and lack of adequate facilities like motories. The combine effect of these problems hinder the organization to invest in the latest technology which could help them in tracing out adequate system to enable them to know where about of a particular shipment.
1.2 Objective of the Study
- To know how helpful effective communication is toward organization in their development.
- To know the disadvantages and advantages of communication in an organisation
- To know characteristic of effective communication.
- To identify the existing line of communication in any business organization.
1.3 Significance of the Study
It is true that no organization operates in a vacuum, and that all its decisions are effected by events in the environment can only be influenced but not controlled, business have to compete effectively with one another to attain the desired objectives.
This research is conducted out of the growing desire to stress the important role played by communication towards organization in this country.
The researcher is hopeful that the result of this study shall be helpful to the following:
Services organizations on dealing with on the time of delivery in the discharge of customers services.
It is hoped that it will act as sources of references for the further research in this area.
1.4 Research Questions
- Will the management of Mobil Producing Nigeria Unlimited be able to identify the important of communication toward organisational development?
- Will the management of Mobil Producing Nigeria Unlimited be able to mention the mode of communication employed by their company in delivery of economic services?
- Will they be able to tell the barriers of effective communication face by their organization?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
- Ho: There is no important role of communication in organizational development
H1: There is important role of communication in organisational development
- Ho: Communication does not affect economic delivery service.
Hi: Communication affect economic delivery service.
- Ho: There is no barrier in effective communication in the organization.
Hi: There is barrier in effective communication system of the organization.
1.6 Scope and Limitation of the Study
This study is limited to Mobil Producing Nigeria Unlimited, Eket Local Government Area, Akwa Ibom State. In addition to the above limitation other natural limitation other natural limitations were encountered, some of which are discussed below:
Time: An academic research work cannot be conducted within few months but the researcher has done a lot of researches. Secondary and primary sources on this topic to an extent that help to solve the identified problems.
Respondents’ response: Since human being cannot be predicted and they sometimes behave and react differently to the same situation. This can hinder a smooth and idea atmosphere for conducing this study. It was anticipated that a favourable response will be received but where the response become negative, virtually the researcher will limited himself to only facts from the response.
1.7 Definitions of Terms:
For the purpose of clarity and better understanding of this paper, the following terms are clearly defined as used technically in the context.
This can be defined as transferring of information between individual or group of individuals through a common system or symbol (Kotler, 1988)
(Stoner 1989) defined it as a set of channel writhing an organisaiton or group through which communication travels.
Lines of Communication:
By lines of Communication, it means the transferred of information from one person or one place to another, Bellow (2017).
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List of Related Works
The results suggested that work-oriented communication is a statistically significant positive predictor of affective commitment and normative commitment. Moreover, vertical social-emotional-oriented communication significantly predicts affective commitment. Furthermore, social-emotional-oriented communication affects work-oriented communication; especially social-emotional-oriented communication that flows vertically significantly predicts work-oriented communication. These results are consistent with the literature regarding the general functions and the features of communication flows in different directions and the features of formal and informal communication. Particularly, vertical communication with both social-emotional-oriented content and work-oriented content plays an important role in enhancing affective and normative commitment. Therefore, communication in the organization serves for transmitting, for instance, commands and regulations, for reducing the ambiguous, and for creating and maintaining social relationships among the members in the organization (Conrad 1985), which contributes to enhancing the employees’ organizational commitment. On the one hand, in the light of work-oriented communication, in an abundant horizontal communication, different members or departments at the horizontal level communicate to coordinate and share information and experiences to achieve theoverall organizational goals. In an abundant downward communication, employees get enough information to accomplish their tasks and receive feedback from managers to improve their performances. In an abundant upward communication, employees can give feedback to superiors about their tasks and give suggestions and critical opinions on how to improve organizational performance. All of these allow employees to know the organization better and it may cause them to form attachments with, identification to and involvement in the organization; good communication also provides an opportunity for employees to achieve their individual goals together with organizational goals; it also educates employees in the importance of obligation. On the other hand, through vertical communication, superiors and subordinates can also communicate about their emotions and social topics, such as their feelings, interests, and problems in families. Therefore they may become emotionally attached. Since managers are the linchpin between workers and the organizational leadership (Kreps 1990, 88-90), the superiors can behave like they represent the organization, and thus the employees form an attachment to the organization as well. Moreover, better vertical social-emotional-oriented communication is predictive of better work-oriented communication. That is to say, the superiors and subordinates who have better quality and larger quantity of communication regarding social and emotional topics tend to have better communication related to work as well, especially the perceived quantity of vertical interaction with management. It might be because they get to know each other better, so the communication barriers are reduced and thereby they know how to communicate during work as well. Furthermore, these results supported the relevant assumptions of human relations theory that emphasizes human needs and favors informal communication. It is important that the organization satisfies employees’ needs for social interaction with management and especially provides opportunities for employees to achieve their self-actualization. Good communication is an essential condition for an organization to achieve the organizational goals, as well as individual goals (Robbins et al. 2010, 288). When the organization works well and cares about employees’ individual development, the employees’ highest level of need – that for self-actualization – can be fulfilled; thereby they can contribute best to the organization. If the organization highlights each individual’s capability and contribution, provides opportunities for them to participate in decision making, and encourages them to be more involved in the organizational operations, then the employees tend to commit at higher levels to the organization because they want to or ought to do so.