The Role Of EFCC In Curbing Electoral Malpractices In Nigeria (A Case Study Of EFCC HQ Abuja)

Project and Seminar Material for Political Science

The Role Of EFCC In Curbing Electoral Malpractices In Nigeria (A Case Study Of EFCC HQ Abuja)


Abstract


This study focused on the role of EFCC in curbing electoral malpractices in nigeria using EFCC HQ Abuja as case study. The study is was specifically focused on appraising the level of electoral malpractices in Nigeria; determine the effect of electoral malpractices and determine role of the role of EFCC in curbing electoral malpractices in Nigeria; using EFCC HQ in Abuja as case study. The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 100 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are staff of EFCC Abuja. The questionnaire, research the design used to collect data report from EFCC officials how Nigeria society establish various anti-corruption bodies to cubit corruption with a positive result through the use of (EFCC) to achieve criticized fact that arrest persecutor. EFCC in combating corruption as a necessary step to consolidate political leader in Nigeria by the way extension. A careful examination of the nature of operation and activities of the agency reveals that EFCC instead of lawfully addressing the political corruption in Nigeria has become a very powerful and vital weapons in the hands of presidency and ruling party to black mail harass and intimidate political foes in other words the anti corruption agency (EFCC) has become a patient of the very disease it has set out to be cure by EFCC has become a treat to the politician.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

The level of electoral malpractice in the country is assuming an alarming rate. The fear of possible attacks, box snatching and threats persistently mars many election processes in many parts of Nigeria. An electoral fraud is the illegal interference with the process of election so as to influence the result of the election in favour a particular candidate. Electoral frauds include changing election result, adding more of votes to favor a candidate, reducing the opposing candidate’s number of votes. Use of underage persons to acquire large Votes, using unregistered citizens to acquire mass votes, snatching ballot boxes to add more ballots for the favoured party candidates, compiling results in favour of a candidate, Intimidation, and improper counting of votes. It is as a result of high level of corruption and fraud encountered in electoral processes that led to the introduction of the EFCC to arrest financial and economic crimes.
(EFCC) otherwise referred to as the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission is the second anti-corruption agency set up by the federal government to combat financial and economic crimes. The mandate of the Commission is to empower ,prevent, investigate, prosecute and penalize economic and financial crimes and is charged with the responsibility of enforcing the provisions of economic and financial crimes laws such as : Economic and Financial Crimes Commission Establishment act (2004), the Failed Banks (Recovery of Debts) and Financial Malpractices in Banks Act 1994, the Banks and other Financial Institutions Act 1991 , the Money Laundering (Prohibition) act 2004, the Advance Fee Fraud, the Money Laundering Act 1995 and Other Fraud Related Offences Act, , and Miscellaneous Offences Act.

EFCC has shown some resilience since its inception to tackle economic and financial crimes in the country. Consequently the fight was taken into the political sector due to the increasing wave of electoral fraud in the Nigeria’s electoral process. The powers of the commission included ensuring good governance, transparency and accountability in government. Arrest and investigates cases of abuse of office by public office holders, corruption in the electoral process, bribery of government officials, diversion of public funds through fraudulent award of contracts, money laundering , and promoting good governance. The study seeks to appraise the role of EFCC in curbing electoral malpractices in Nigeria; A case study of EFCC HQ Abuja.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

The consequence of Electoral fraud in Nigeria is fast weakening the democratic process and institution of the nation. This as a result has lessened the people’s confidence and support for democratic institution in Nigeria. The level of political apathy is high, giving way for corrupt politicians to hijack electoral processes to fulfill their ill selfish ambitions to the detriment of the electorate and the nation at large. The Institutions of democracy is expected to encourage the people’s participation in the electoral process so as to exercise their will in a free and fair democratic manner to exercise their votes for the election of the leaders of their choice. This process strengthens and stabilizes democratic development. However the increasing level of organized electoral fraud perpetrated at the national, state and local levels calls for deliberate action by government and other stakeholders to rise up to the challenge so as to revive and enthrone democratic principles , true leadership and governance in the country.

Consequently, the problem confronting the study is to appraise the the role of EFCC in curbing electoral malpractices in Nigeria; A case study of EFCC HQ Abuja.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The main study objective is to investigate the role of EFCC in curbing electoral malpractices in Nigeria; A case study of EFCC HQ Abuja. While the specific objectives of the study include;

  1. To appraise the level of electoral malpractices in Nigeria.
  2. To determine the effect of electoral malpractices.
  3. To determine role of the role of EFCC in curbing electoral malpractices in Nigeria; A case study of EFCC HQ Abuja.

1.4 Research Questions

  1. What is level of electoral malpractices in Nigeria?
  2. What is the effect of electoral malpractices in Nigeria?
  3. What is the role of EFCC in curbing electoral malpractices in Nigeria; A case study of EFCC HQ Abuja?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

  • Ho: There is no significant role of EFCC in curbing electoral malpractices in Nigeria.
  • H1: There is A significant role of EFCC in curbing electoral malpractices in Nigeria.

1.6 Significance of the Study

The current wave of electoral malpractices is fast weakening the democratic principles in the country. This has resulted to a high level of political apathy. The study seek to call the attention of stakeholders to arise and tackle the menace with the view of reviving democratic institution and good governance in the country. It shall also be useful to government policy makers.


1.7 Scope of the Study

The study focuses on the role of EFCC in curbing electoral malpractices in Nigeria; A case study of EFCC HQ Abuja. The study is limited to some selected Staff and management of the EFCC. Hence, the respondents for this study will be obtained from and among the organization.


1.8 limitation of the Study

In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, language barriers, and the attitude of the respondents. However, the researcher were able to manage these just to ensure the success of this study..


1.9 Definition of Terms

Electoral Violence Defined

The act of conflict, physical assault, destruction, intimidation which seek to disrupt and influence the electoral process.

Intimidation Defined

The act of exacting pressure on the electorate so that they vote in a particular direction.


1.10 Organization of the Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows.

  • Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
  • Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
  • Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
  • Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
  • Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.

Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Summary

The research centered on the role of EFCC in curbing electoral malpractices in nigeria; (a case study of EFCC HQ Abuja). it investigated how efficient and effective is the EFCC in the quest to curb electoral malpractices and corrupt practices in Nigeria. it highlighted some of the challenges of the EFCC in curbing corruption and electoral malpractices in Nigeria as a whole. it assessed the various government efforts made in assisting the EFCC officials in carrying out their official tasks/duties of combating electoral malpractices.

The study adopted a survey research design and with the aid of convenient sampling techniques, 120 participants who are staff and management of EFCC was enrolled for the study. A well structured questionnaire was issued to the respondent of which a total of 100 responses were received and validated for the study. Data was analyzed using simple percentage as well as frequencies and table.


5.2 Conclusion

Electoral malpractices has proven difficult to fight and address in Nigeria even though an anti-graft agency has been set up through the EFCC to combat it. Although at the initial stage the commission was doing fine in recovering looted funds from past corrupt public official, in recent time have been bedeviled with politicization and acclimatize itself with corrupt practices. The overbearing influence of government presence in the activities of the EFCC has waterloo the performance of the commission and affected the administration of criminal justice fight against corruption..

Findings from the study revealed that some of the challenges the EFCC officials face in curbing among political leaders includes immunity of most polticians, economic power of most politicians via the ability to buy the court decisions in favor to themselves, Lack of focus of the agency personnel as they go after common people in the society and oppress them without evidence and Misplaced priority of the agents as they after youth and indicting them of mere crime which is not as grievous as that of politicians. A careful examination of the nature of operation and activities of the agency reveals that EFCC instead of lawfully addressing the political corruption in Nigeria has become a very powerful and vital weapons in the hands of presidency and ruling party to black mal harass and intimidate political foes in other words the anti corruption agency (EFCC) has become a patient of the very disease it has set out to be cure by EFCC has become a treat to the politician.

Findings from the study also revealed that the ways in which the EFCC can win their fight against corruption include The autonomy of the commission should be enacted without undue interference from federal and state political heads; There should be proper and a more convincing explanation by the EFCC on who is in charge of or where the recovered loots are being channeled to so as to correct the notion of the agency “relooting the loot”. More soThe EFCC ought to be ultra-careful during raids to avoid apprehending the “innocent” alongside the culprit(s).


5.3 Recommendation

From the findings of the study, the researcher recommends thus:

  1. For the EFCC to achieved and surpass her current achievements, some level of independence is required for the commission. Laws guiding the judicial process of the EFCC and preventing the interference of political elite in the activities of the commission should be enacted.
  2. The government, at both federal and state levels, should stare clear off the activities of the EFCC in order for the agency to be fully independent and to be able to fight corruption with a mind devoid of prejudice.
  3. The EFCC should try not to renege any of its promise especially as it regards rewarding whistleblowers. This will further motivate the people to expose corruption and unscrupulous elements in the country.
  4. There should be proper and a more convincing explanation by the EFCC on who is in charge of or where the recovered loots are being channeled to so as to correct the notion of the agency “relooting the loot”.
  5. The EFCC ought to be ultra-careful during raids to avoid apprehending the “innocent” alongside the culprit(s).
  6. The non-conviction based assets forfeiture law should also be enacted because the nation needs to recoup her stolen fund to help revive her growth and development;
  7. Nigerian Judicial Process should also allow the administration of justice of the EFCC been fast and effective through attending to cases brought before the court on a timely basis with unnecessary delay and adjournments.
  8. The anti-graft agency of Nigeria i.e. the EFCC, ICPC, and CCB have grown to the stage of having a separate or special court system in order to achieve the desired goal of fighting corruption and financial crime. The Judicial system and the government should encourage the establishment of the special court.
  9. Anti- corruption agency should immediately work to repeal the IMMUNITY CLAUSE in the 1999 constitution. The clause tends to encourage corruption, both at the federal and state levels. Public officials, especially representatives and state governors have been openly corrupt because they know that they cannot be prosecuted while they are still in office.
  10. The EFCC or judicial commission should be set up to investigate the judicial system in order to find out why cases go through the Nigerian court system in a snail–like speed. There are too many delays and adjournments in the trial of cases. As a result, unfortunate suspects are sometimes locked up in detention for years awaiting trial. A law should be passed which states that if a case is not tried after a certain time period, the suspects in detention should be released.The delays and unnecessary postponements amount to corruption of Justice.

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