The Role Of Cooperative In Employment Generation (A Case Study Of Nchara Oloko In Ikwuano L.G.A.)
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This project is dedicated to the Glory of our Lord and saviour, Christ Jesus. The author of all truth wisdom and eternal life.
I also dedicate this project to my Beloved parents (Rev. and Mrs. Onyenwe Anaba.)
I am eternally indebted to the most high God my father and creator, Jesus Christ my lord and savoir whose name and precious blood is ever ready to defend and protect me in all my physical and spiritual warfare And the holy spirit my counselor and teacher.
I also acknowledge the sacrifices, concern and understanding shown by my parents Rev. & Mrs. Onyenwe Anaba, and also my siblings Mrs. Ogechi Adele, Mrs. Kelechi Ekwuliefe, Chinechere Onyinyechi, Deberechi, Mmesomachi and master Samuel Onyenwe Anaba for their moral support and encouragement towards my academic pursuit.
May I most respectfully acknowledge the assistant of my supervisor, Mrs. Ego J.Obi-Okogbuo. My lecturers, Mr. Ozitem Dickson Onwuchekwa, Mr. Pius Bendola, Mr. Mmaduwuike,A.c, Mr. Okonkwo, M.C.,Mr. Clement I. Uba (Esq), Mr. Innocent F. Teteh, whose criticisms and comments have greatly helped to improve the quality of this project.
I wish to thank my friends who encouraged me to embark on this project. Emeana Kenneth, Nwogu Oluchi Gift, Nwogu Prisca, Acho Tessy, Princess, Obilou Ekeoma, Bishop Chinyere, Ugwom Osondu, Ezeuru Chiamaka.
I wish to acknowledge my HOD Ms. Ugwnayi Lilian for her encouragement towards my project.
My special thanks go to my beloved and wonderful friend Mr. Igwe Emmanuel M. for his financial support and encouragement all through my stay in school.
This study evaluate the role of cooperative in employment generation in Nchara Oloko in Ikwuano L.G.A Of Abia state Nigeria. according to some authors they see cooperative as an organization which comprises a group of person in the sociological sense, who operate individual, private business households in which one or more common aims/problem have arisen and has/have brought the group together in self & or mutual help towards solving the common problems by means of a business enterprise which is jointly owned/maintained by the group and is meant to produce not just any goods/services but rather good and services as required by and made available directly to the business household of the members in response to a special charge to promote the (economic) welfare of the members as individual private businessmen, owners of private households and in the special case of the productive cooperative, employees of the cooperative enterprises.
TWO resources of data namely, primary and secondary data were used.
Questionnaires were also used as a research instruments to supplement information while the hypothesis testing was conduced using chi-square (x) 2 at the end of the study, it was deduced that problem such as:the following hinders cooperative business viz:
- Lack of capital
- Lack of member’s commitment to cooperative business.
- Poor management ability etc
On the basis of the above findings, and conclusion the following recommendations were made to improve the performance viz:
- Exploring all available opportunities was made to expand their fund raising ability.
- Cooperative should mobilize and move funds so as to be involved in more economic activities, that will generate more employment with the above recommendations, it is hoped that the performance (Role of cooperative within the L.G.A. and beyond especially on their employment generation will improve).
Table Of Content
- Title page i
- Approval page ii
- Dedication iii
- Acknowledgement iv-v
- Abstract vi-vii
- Table of contents ix-x
- 1.0 Introduction 1
- 1.1 General overview of the study 1-4
- 1.2 Statement of the study 4-5
- 1.3 Objective of the study 5-6
- 1.4 Scope of the study 6-7
- 1.5 Research hypothesis 7-8
- 1.6 Statement of hypothesis 8
- 1.7 Significance of the study 8-9
- 1.8 Limitation of the study 9-10
- 1.9 Definition of terms 10-11
- 2.0 Literature review 12
- 2.1 An overview of cooperative business 12-20
- 2.2 Problem related to cooperative business 21-24
- 2.3 The employment creation potential of Cooperatives 24-27
- 2.4 The comparative advantage of cooperatives in the field of employment generation/creation and stabilization. 27-34
- 3.0 Research methodology 35
- 3.1 Introduction 35
- 3.2 Research design 35-36
- 3.3 Sampling design 36-38
- 3.4 Sources and data collection 38-42
- 4.0 Presentation and analysis of data 42-46
- 4.1 Test of Hypothesis 47-49
- 5.0 Summary, conclusion and recommendation 50
- 5.1 Summary of findings 50-53
- 5.2 Conclusion 53-54
- 5.3 Recommendation 55-56
- Bibliography 57-58
- Appendix 59
- Questionnaires 60-63
1.1 Background Of The Study
Cooperative according to Chukwu (1990:1) is a generic term. It implies any form of two or more persons working together to achieve some aim, such working together many be on a formalized or informal basis, economic or non-economic.
However, a cooperative society is an association of person who have voluntarily joined together to achieve a common goals through the formation of a democratically controlled organization, it has long been a human characteristics to fraternize to provide food, shelter, employment and other forms of mutual support, mutual benefits derivable by families and individuals working together at harvest.
More over cooperative has involved as a strategy to generate economic activities in area of high implement i.e. generation of employment, such as Ikwuano L.G.A. or wherever the local economy is work or virtually non-existents.
Furthermore, membership is open to the residents of a particular locality. The establishment of community enterprises will almost certainly be multi functional in that it will be responsible for a member and a number of specific projects at any given time. It will both initiate business idea within the people in Nchara Oloko and help the masses to develop their ideas. It may also intervene in various ways in the local economy of Nchara in particular and national economy at large. It may sponsor projects of community benefits in addition to its own trading activities and business development and local development both holding company and local development agency, with the aim of seeking to provide a communal structure in a particular locality on behalf of the residence such specific enterprises might be floated as self sustaining business life cooperative.
This community is thus more than trading organization it is a means of stimulating new business growth in areas like Nchara Oloko and also among people where there is little or not tradition of entrepreneurial activities and usually a history of long term unemployment and social depreciation.
Community cooperative and community business are established mostly in areas of high unemployment so as to generate employment where their starting is likely to be the question posed by local people. What can we do to get people employed.
They search for forms of self-help by community groups and unemployment themselves have gained considerable momentum in the last decade. As practical experience has been gained more groups have been inspired to do something in their own areas, an action born out of a growing belief that neither public nor private industry will be quick enough to provide the job that are needed and of a preference to do something rather than wait on other action.
1.2 Statement Of Problems
The issue of employment generation can be said to be as old man, since no man can make progress when idle. Now that there is a high rate of employment resulting in comparative high rate of emigration. In 1985 the country’s labour force employed about 14 million, which has increased by 16% over the decade. There are over 250,000 unemployed persons and emigrations again increase (Daily Time Sept 19th 1995).
A cruel twist is that many of our emigrants and the unemployment are the bright graduates or our universities and other higher institutions they were educated with tax payers money.
Nigeria as a nation is segmented into two:
- Those who have the world as their paradise and can secure good employment in civil or private sector etc.
- Over 24 of our population who face poverty everyday of their life and helpless without the following disturbing statistics, more than one quarter of the population of the developing world still lives in poverty as measured by the human poverty index HPI.
Income poverty is more pervasive than human poverty and it continues to grow in other worlds, high unemployment has reduced highly educated people to poverty.
However, there is, no fact that cannot be over emphasized, that is no country can succeed in providing a reasonable standard of long for its citizens without developing its own trade institutions that are relatively large, technically sophisticated and able to complete in the international market, in that respects, cooperative activities must be developed and relatively large to absorb our employed population.
1.3 The Objective Of The Study
The objective or general purpose of the study/research is to investigate the effort of cooperative in generative employment in Nchara Oloko in Ikwuano L.G.A.
However, the specific objective of the study is as follows:
- To identify active cooperative societies existing in Nchara Oloko in Ikwuano L.G.A.
- To analyze economic activities of cooperative societies in the area.
- To assess the involvement of members in economic activities of cooperatives.
- To assess the impact of cooperative activities on employment generation in the area.
- To identify problems affecting cooperative in its activities.
- To analyze the problems of cooperative in the area.
- To make recommendations
1.4 Scope Of The Study
The scope of this write up is to know the role of cooperative in employment generation n our community using Nchara Oloko in Ikwuano L.G.A. as a case study.
The scope of this study is very wide if its has to be carried out in all Ikwuano L.G.A. the study is limited based on the fact that there is no time and materials resources to see the whole Nchara Oloko in Ikwuano government areas.
Also the scope have to be shortened in some selected cooperative in Nchara Oloko because of time (duration) finance proximity (distance) also inadequate data non-cooperative altitude of some official visited in limitation to the completion of this work. The phrase role of cooperative employment generation already brings to our attention that there are some other ways of employment generation but this study is religiously restricted to the role of cooperative only.
1.5 Research Question
- How many cooperative are still active in Nchara Oloko in Ikwuano L.G.A?
- Have cooperative impacted education on members and employees?
- Would you say that cooperative have created the much needed employment opportunities in your L.G.A?
- How committed are the members of your cooperative?
- As a member of a cooperative society have you ever applied for loan?
1.6 Statement Of Hypothesis
Ho: Cooperative has not played any role in employment generation in Nchara Oloko in Ikwuano L.G.A
Hi: Cooperative has played a vital role in employment generation in Nchara Oloko in Ikwuano L.G.A
1.7 Significance Of The Study
Cooperative business is the route to the ownership of capital and likewise participation towards the economic and industrial growth of a nation. This research is particularly importance to the growth of people as it provides the following.
- Opportunities to persons who may need to appreciate what constitutes cooperating business in generating employment are expected to be encountered.
- The study is practically significance to the Nigerian government as it affords the government aim opportunity to appreciate the problems facing the establishment which must be looking under laid down rules/principles.
- The profitability process venting in cooperative business.
1.8 Limitation Of Study
This study is limited to Nchara oloko in Ikwuano L.G.A. and the findings may not be valid for the whole local government but by and large, what happens in Nchara can be said to apply in other cooperative in the town.
All human activities are beset with some problems which the researcher encountered during the course of the study. Some of the problems are listed below:-
Firstly, problem of transportation due to the scarcity of fuel during the distribution and collection of the questionnaires for the project.
Moreso, problem of finance this made the researcher to limit the study to Abia state as she could not travel to gather facts outside Abia state.
Lastly, lack of time coupled with crowed semester programmed. The researcher was attending classes at the same time working on her project.
1.9 Definition Of Terms
It is a form of business, which involved the coming together of individuals who have same socio-economic problem to pool their resources together in other to help solve it. The cooperative must be registered and must be working under laid down rule/principles.
A business deals with buying and selling trade or commercial establishment. Also business is viewed as a means of satisfying human want. Because is that vital organ or society that is responsible for providing the society with goods and services.
It is the act of employment or using the state of being employed occupation, business, which one undertakes to occupy her time.
Is said to be an organizational process that is involved in utilizing human and materials resources of the organization for the purpose of accomplishing defined objectives. The need of coordinating efforts, towards attainment of results. It also implies the process of planning, organizing, directing and controlling the effort of organization members by using al other organizational goals.
This is measurement of effort by comparing how much is produced with the resources utilized.
This are short term loans given for production activities the loans are normally small and interest paid on it is not too high.
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How to nail it on the head during your project / seminar defence
You are through with writing that project / seminar. Now what?
You have found yourself at that point where you have to defend what you have written. Of course you have to stand in front of your supervisor and other literary personalities to prove that you know what you wrote in your project paper. Unfortunately, the more you think about it, the more it looks like you are about to face a legion. It is not a war. But the emotion of dread welling up inside of you makes it look like one. So now you are asking yourself questions.
- How am I going to start?
- I hope I will do well enough to get an A.
You really want to nail it, but you need to come to terms with exactly how to get everything in perfect control. Especially your emotions of fear that seem to make a wreck of you every time you think about public speaking.
So here is the deal. I want to help you avoid that feeling that would ruin your precious moment if you dare to let it. And we are going to do it together.
I am going to highlight some very important tips to help you get in control for you to be comfortable enough to move from that feeling of DREAD to CONFIDENT; and making an awesome Impression for that great rating your supervisors should be giving to you so freely.
Consider these tips as you prepare for your defence. We will be taking them one after the other so here we go.
Watch Your Body Language And Keep It Confident:
Can you tell that a person is falling apart if they look confident? … If I can second guess you rightly, am sure you answered no to that question. Remind yourself that you need to come out that way. Now this might seem like a huge big deal when you are dealing with the foreboding. Maintaining a poise of confidence is very important. So find your most comfortable position, sitting or standing and draw up your body. You must exude confidence. It is something you need to do for yourself. People can only see what you allow your body language to show. So you must endeavour to put that out. Remember the story of David and Goliath? … At the end of your defence day, you want to be David.
Dress In Your Most Comfortable And Impressive:
Am sure this one is a no brainer. However I must highlight that you choose comfortable pieces. You don’t want to look so good and yet look like you were forced to wear something that does not belong to you. It’s great to ensure that as impressive as your clothes are on you, that they are also very comfortable.
Speak With Authority:
Going hand to hand with that aura of confidence is your most powerful asset:your words. If you look that confident, your words must not come out like whimpers. To be able to pull this off, you definitely need to speak as deliberately as possible in expressing yourself. Let them also hear what they see.
Use, Your Gestures:
I have often found this to come to my rescue in dealing with shyness and conveying my confidence. Usually it gives you an edge to also drive home your point. You must, however, ensure that you do not over use it. It doesn’t mean that your hands should be flying all over the place. That would be absolutely unnecessary. If you do this well, after a while you will realize that you are not as self-conscious as you used to be at the very start. For most situations, it would have completely disappeared altogether; leaving a really confident you talking.
Have A Good Opening And Closing Line:
Make sure you have perfected a good opening line. You should also be armed with a good closing line too. Try and rehearse it to a friend. If for the first time you presented it, your friend does not say “wow, that’s beautiful” or something like that; just know you need to keep refining it until you get the perfect line. Both opening and closing lines will go a long way in how impressed your panel gets to rate you high.
Make Sure You Know Your Work:
Certainly you should understand how important it is to know your own work from start to finish. Not having in-depth knowledge of your own work is tantamount to a suicide mission. Why should you kill yourself?
When all is said and done, this is what you came to defend in the first place. You should know your work from A to Z.
Prepare For The Questions:
Now this part is truly essential. You must be sure you do not floor all the good work you did on your presentation by not answering correctly. You must pay attention to the questions you are asked to be sure you will give the right answer. Many people get it wrong at this stage and spoil their good presentation. When you do not understand any question do endeavour to ask the person to expatiate what they mean before you answer.
These tips are by no means exhaustive, but applying these tips will give you some necessary advantage you need for a great outcome. Of course that outcome would mean that you eventually earn all your points on this project.
The structure of a good project work
Undergraduate projects in Nigeria is a prerequisite for graduation amongst Nigerian tertiary students who will which to obtain bachelors degree in their respective courses of study such as accounting, banking and finance, business administration and a host of others. Writing an undergraduate project in Nigeria for final year students entails a lot both financially and otherwise. Being able to develop any final year project depends on getting a researchable topic whether it is Accounting Undergraduate project topics, Banking and Finance research topics or banking and finance project topics and materials and it all requires diligent hard work of students who are willing to develop best undergraduate projects in Nigeria and graduate in flying colors.
A typical Undergraduate project in Nigerian tertiary institutions can be said to be divided into five or six chapters depending on the format of the school and course of study which are
The introduction of an undergraduate project states the main research problem and research argument. What precisely the study is all about and why it is important. It looks at the originality of the research work and how it will fill the gap in other studies. Justification for a research undergraduate topic should not be lengthy before it has been explicitly stated.
Below are the contents in chapter one of an undergraduate research project which includes;
- Background of the study,
- Statement of the problem,
- Objectives or aims of the study,
- The research questions,
- Research hypothesis,
- Significance of the study,
- Scope of the study,
- Limitations of the study and
- Operational definition of terms.
2. Literature review
Literature review of any undergraduate research work, be it business administration project topics or Economics project topics just to mention a few is very critical to securing a high grade in one’s project work. The literature review of a research process uncovers what other writers have written about the student’s topic. A student’s undergraduate research work should include a discussion or review of what is known about the subject and how that knowledge was acquired. The review could conclude with a brief summary of the literature and its implications. The contents of the literature review are the theoretical review, conceptual framework, empirical review and summary of literature review.
3. Research Methodology
This section includes a description of the research methods used in the undergraduate research work such as the sample size, data collection methods, measurement instruments, research data analysis procedures and the population from which the sample was selected. This section also describes the method used in selecting the sample or samples, validation and reliability of the instruments used in the research work. There are different research statistical techniques used in undergraduate research work such as SPSS, e-views etc.
4. Results & Discussion
This section presents and discusses the data analysis results used in an undergraduate research work, the results of each analysis is being summarized, tabulated, and then discussed for each research question. Then for each research hypothesis, the statistical test of significance selected and applied to the data is briefly described, followed by a statement indicating whether the hypothesis was supported or not supported. In presenting the result analyses/summary in an undergraduate project tables and figures and or graph are used to add clarity to the presentation.
5. Summary, Conclusions And Recommendations
This section summarizes the findings of the study in an easy to understand manner. It also explains the practical implications of those findings, and points to recommended directions for future research in that area.
This is where every source cited in the undergraduate research work is being included. Every undergraduate research work must be properly referenced for its authenticity.
Choosing A Good Project / Research Topic
Students in Nigerian universities these days wish to choose a very simple project topic/material. There is no issue choosing a simple project topic; the only problem is your ability to choose a good project or research topic that your supervisor will easily approve for you.
Most project supervisors really want to see how good his or her project student understands his or her surrounding through the kind of topic he or she chooses for their project work.
There are some project topic that are not reject-able; for instance in Nigeria of today; what do you think is the major issue on ground now?
If a project student can choose or craft a topic on the effect of dollar increment on the economy of Nigeria. Such project topic will be very interesting to write on.
Now what are the qualities of a good project topic?
- The materials for the project topic must be easily assessable.
- The project topic itself must be meaningful.
- The variables must be able to give a clear aim of the project topic.
What do I mean by variable?
Well I am deriving my point from the area of ; the variables here are those main words in the project topic.
Like the above project topic; the effect of dollar increment on the economy of Nigeria. You can see the main variables that really define this project topic are:dollar, increment and economy.
Before you present your topic to your project supervisor, first of all understand your project topic, and then secondly try to do some research for your topic to see if at least you can get up to 60% of what you need to write the complete project.
I said that above because you might have a very nice topic that the materials are not available online and there are no books as regard the topic; in this case the project topic becomes difficult for you even though the topic is catchy.
What do I mean by your topic being assessable?
Well what I mean is very simple and easy to understand. Simply pick your project topic, type it on google and see if you will have at least a good background for the topic you are writing on.
If you can have a good background for your project topic and you can understand the problem associated with the project topic, then I believe the aim of the project is not far-fetched.
Structure of a Seminar Paper
I feel like there is a lot of stress out there among grad students about writing seminar papers, especially when we’re told that our goal should be to make an original contribution to the field. That idea can be quite intimidating when we’re just starting out. It feels like you’ve asked us to jump off the deep end of the pool and we don’t know how to swim.
I think part of the problem is that we’re still working out how to structure seminar papers.** Each paper we write is another step closer to a successful, effective, and effective paper; however, we’re still flailing our arms (and other miscellaneous body parts) around because we’re uncertain of exactly how to go about it. I realize, of course, that there is no one right answer. However, below is my suggestion at sticking your toes in the water.
Section #1 — Introduction
Provide a little bit (or a lot) of motivation for the reader to read your entire paper. Failing that, your reader should know what the paper is going to be about by reading your introduction.
Paragraph #1 — Get some attention.
- Provide a context by citing a recent text in the field — the point that is cited may or may not be the main point of the text — it is what jumped out at you.
- Set-up broader context of what you’re going to do
Paragraph #2-?? — Define issue and the gap.
- Define issue and any key terms
- Limit scope as necessary
- Establish significance of issue
- State problem by defining the gap
- Explain how present research attempts to fill the gap
- Outline contributions (readers will see lit review for more detail.)
- End with thesis and preview organization of the rest of the paper
Section #2 — Literature Review
Give some credit where credit is due.
- Indicate the current state of the issue/problem/topic
- Define or qualify terms
- Engage sources in conversation with each other (don’t just copy in annotated bib)
Section #3 — Argument / Discussion
As stated in the Allyn & Bacon Guide to Writing:wallow in those complexities!!
- Examine issue
- Argue how issue can be mitigated, mediated, or mashed
- Provide evidence and support
- Make some lively commentary along the way
Section #4 — Conclusion
We’re almost done. Don’t quit now.
- Summarize research question
- Qualify argument/discussion if you need to
- Explain where we go now
- End well
Section #5 — Works Cited
Is everything listed on the works cited?
Tips: it’s ok to use sub-headings to keep yourself organized.
Tips On How To Know What Your Supervisor Is Looking Out For In Your Project
Apparently all schools/colleges ask their undergraduates especially the final students to write their final year project before they are certified to be graduates. These projects are mostly discovery activities geared towards problems solving or basically to make new discoveries or better still have a better understanding of a problem with the aim of proffering better solutions.
With this assigned task an undergraduate will need an advisor, a counselor or a supervisor to guide and direct this activity for a desired result and a successful ending and of course, in return the supervisor have factors to look out for in a student project, so that the aim of the project writing will not be defeated.
As a final year student planning to write your final year project, there are some factors you need to consider when trying to have a good working relationship with your supervisor and you must have the below tips at your fingertips to know what your supervisor look at for in your project.
Selecting the right topic or title:
The supervisor would want to know how knowledgeable one is, in a chosen topic and how far one can go with the topic by asking one diverse questions which could be simple or a bit tough. So one thing is to choose a right topic and another thing is to be knowledgeable about the said topic.
The relevancy of the project topic to the degree course:
This is one of the important things a supervisor looks out for in a project. A final year project must have a purpose and objectives and most importantly be problem solving and must be related to the course of study. So a project topic should be relevant and interesting.
The realistic plan for the project:
A project supervisor will always look at how realistic a project topic is. Will the project aims be achieved and at the specified time. If it will outlived the specified time such topic might be dropped and a new topic adopted to run the set time and fulfill its purpose.
Quality of research materials available:
Another factor a supervisor will consider in project writing by a student is the quality of the materials available for research on the chosen project topic, can materials and information be readily available and are those materials of high standard and convincing not just bogus and fictitious analysis but materials that research has be carried out by scholars related to course of study. So a source of materials used for a project is very important and most supervisors look out for this.
The funding channels:
Almost all project writing needs a good amount of funding to achieved the desired aim, A supervisor would always want to find out how the project will be funded, so as not to have hitches when the project is on. So to have a smooth working relationship with ones project supervisor, the funding of the project must be considered and revisited from time to time. Because a supervisor will look out for this aspect too.