Role Of Continuous Assessment In Teaching And Learning Of Government In Public Secondary Schools In Owerri Municipal Council In Imo State

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Role Of Continuous Assessment In Teaching And Learning Of Government In Public Secondary Schools In Owerri Municipal Council In Imo State


Abstract


The study sought to assess the role of continuous assessment in teaching and learning of government in public secondary schools in Owerri Municipal Council in Imo State. The research will work towards introducing the topic and the case study, i.e. as the study advance aims, objective significance of the study will follow. Added to this literature review, will be extensively examine by measuring the degree of performance of students using continuous assessment through the work of previous authors. In chapter three, the research team will describe the research methods to be use, the population, the sampling procedure instrument use, the data gathering and data analytical procedure in order to collect information relevant to the topic. Data will be presented and analyzed the information gathered i.e. the findings that could be obtained. The project will be finally closed by summarizing the text, making possible conclusions, provide suggestions and recommendations base on the findings.


Table of Content


Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Background to the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objectives of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Question
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisation of the Study

Chapter Two

2.0 Literature Review

  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.2 Conceptual Background of Continuous Assessment
  • 2.3 Meaning of Continuous Assessment
  • 2.4 Characteristics of Continuous Assessment
  • 2.5 Reasons for Continuous Assessment
  • 2.6 Techniques of Continuous Assessment
  • 2.7 Problems and Solutions of Implementing Continuous Assessment in Schools
  • 2.8 Motivation and Stimulation of Students Interest
  • 2.9 How to Motivate Students’ Interest
  • 2.10 Importance of Continuous Assessment

Chapter Three

3.0 Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Sample Size
  • 3.3 Method of Data Analysis

Chapter Four

4.0 Results and Discussion

  • 4.1. Results

Chapter Five

5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendations
  • References
  • Appendix

Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Assessment of students’ level of academic performance is vital to teaching and learning process as it provides the necessary feedback about the outcome of educational goals and objectives. The assessment of learning outcomes provides objective evidences necessary in the decision-making process in education. As pointed out by Bassavanthappa (2009), good measurement resulting in accurate data is the foundation of sound decision making about educational endeavor. In education, assessment aims at determining the level of students’ mastery of a body of knowledge and skills in a subject (Airasian, 2006).

Continuous assessment is a classroom strategy implemented by teachers to ascertain the knowledge, skills and understanding attained by students at a particular point in time. Teachers administer assessments in a variety of ways in order to observe multiple tasks and information about what students know, understand and can do. The assessments are curriculum-based tasks previously taught in classroom. Continuous assessment is a method of evaluation carried out periodically or at a predetermined interval of the school year. It is aimed at finding out how much students have acquired in a subject matter. It is a consistence monitoring of students’ progress in school. It involves collecting data with a view to making value judgement about the quality of a person, object, group or event (Ajuonuma, 2007).

The continuous assessment grading system requires the assessment of the change in behaviours, in terms of cognitive, affective and psychomotor domains. The students are evaluated from one stage to the other through tests, assignments, projects and other school activities. At the end of the term or session, the tests are used for determining the performance of the students in a particular subject. Race (2007) stated that continuous assessment is more useful to the students, as it provides them with on-going feedback on their performance, helps them to become more self-critical, and encourages them to attempt mastering material as they actually work through a course, thus, achieving success in their academic goals. According to Adegbeye (2003), CA is more relevant as it allows students to demonstrate their ability and development on a periodical basis, so that students who have studied hard but is not very good at sitting for examinations is not placed at a disadvantage compared with lazy students who engage in minimum amount of work needed to pass such examinations.

In the past, the educational systems of many African nations were dominated by the one-short summative type of assessment (Alausa, 2005). Students were trained to pass examinations so as to move up the education ladder; in order to stop this, suggestions for a broader approach to assessment, which would be flexible and also provide valid and reliable results were made (Federal Government of Nigeria, 2004). In the light of this, CA was introduced to find ways in which academic evaluation impacts on the way teaching occurred and learners learnt; hence, the significance of teachers’ understanding of relevance of continuous assessment to students’ academic success. It is when people know about innovation they are to adopt that they are motivated to embrace its practices.
Through the National Policy on Education (NPE), the Federal Government of Nigeria (FGN, 2004) stated that educational assessment at all levels of education would be liberalized by basing them in whole or part on continuous assessment. This recommendation was based on some deficiencies identified in the nation’s way of assessing students. The traditional system of assessment concentrated only on the cognitive domain, with little or no attempt made to assess the affective and psychomotor domains. This system encourages students to study only during the period of examination. This is done by the memorisation of facts, which are forgotten after the examination (FGN, 2004; Obe, 2005). It was based on these reasons and more that the committee set for National Policy on Education in 1971, recommended the use of continuous assessment in Nigeria Educational System. In pursuance of this policy statement, National University Commission (NUC) allotted 30% and 70% of the total score of the university students to continuous assessment and end of semester examination respectively. Towards this end, this study investigated teachers’ perception of continuous assessment relevance to students’ academic performance in Ilorin metropolis and its implications for counselling in twenty-first century.

Continuous assessment is a relatively new innovation to our education system. It is seen as one of the major outcome of the deliberations of Nigeria National curriculum conference that was held in 1969. It is put in National Policy on Education this “educational assessment and evaluation will be liberalized by using them in whole or part on continuous assessment of the progress of individual” the Nigerian National Policy on Education state clearly in section 3 article 17 (g) that “advancement from one class to another (in secondary school) shall be based on continuous assessment.

According to Yoloye (1985) define continuous assessment as a method of ascertaining what a pupils gains from schooling in terms of knowledge, industry and the development of character, taking into account the pupil performances in tests, assignments, project and other educational activities within a given period of the term, year or during the entire period of an educational level of the pupil. It may be viewed as “a method of finding out what the pupil has gained from learning activities in terms of knowledge, thinking, reasoning, the development of character and industry”.

Anikweze (1987) regards continuous assessment of the learning experiences made as a strategy that offers the teacher an opportunity to ensure that pupils are not merely that pupils are not merely schooled but equally educated. The emphasis here is on the assessment of affective behaviours during the lesson when the pupils is involved in direct participation in the learning process, Anikweze (1995).

According to Falayajo (1979) says continuous assessment is a “system of assessment which is carried out of predetermined intervals (usually coinciding with some identifiable units of instruction or level of educational system) for the purpose of monitoring the progress of otherwise of students and the general performance or educational system” Ezewu and Okoye (1991) define continuous assessment as a systematic and objective process of determining the extent of a student’s learner) performance in all the expected changes in his behaviour from the day he enter upon a course of study in a progressive manner to the end of such course of study, and a judicious accumulation of all pieces of information derived from this purpose with a view to use them to guide and shape the students in his learning from time to time and to serve as basis for important decisions about the child.

Continuous assessment is a mechanism whereby the final “grading of a student in the cognitive, affective and psychomotor domains or behaviour systematically takes account of all his performances during a give period of schooling” Akinade (1996) from these definitions above, continuous assessment can therefore be described as a systematic use of varied and reliable multiple assessment tools at regular interval to determine the performance and the ability of the learner in the three domains of behaviour that is (cognitive, affective and psychomotor) with the aim of getting the true picture of the learner and helping him develop fully his potentials. Continuous assessment also allows teacher greater input into the overall assessment of his pupils through the help of this, the teacher will be able to plan better the curriculum and teaching in order to meet the needs of the pupils.

All these ideas can be easily grappled, but when the phrase standard of education is mentioned. The concept immediately change and become less clear, there is no universally accepted view as to what excellence, criterion established or basis of measurement for education. The important Knowledge on which the acquisition of many kinds of knowledge and understanding of other subject experience in arts and on enquiring and which may form the basis of educational quality

Moreover, degree of excellence in this entire fields cannot be easily achieved, for example in mathematics neatness, accuracy, methods and layout, in reading, relative valve are given to phrases emphasis, in reading, relative value are given to phrases emphasis, accent and understanding while in writing, neatness, accuracy, method, punctuation, layout, spelling of words, idea and imagination. All these are subjective judgment which varies from one individual to another. There is a greater element of subjectivity that is, use in measuring attitude of mind. However, this does not implies that there can be no degree of excellence in these spheres, measurement depend to a lesser or greater extent on the measures that are used and since their measuring rods differ from one another, measurement must also be different. This educational standard will always be a matter of dispute.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

The urgent need to promote learning and improve performance in secondary schools in Nigeria in various subjects such as government, social studies etc. resulted into a range of related but different developments in continuous assessment at classroom levels. The resultant feature has been inconsistent performance of students in external examinations national wide and performance still varies from school to school. This undermines the future of many students that are in schools that persistently perform poorly. What therefore remains disturbing is whether a relationship between continuous assessment strategies adopted by teachers in secondary schools and students’ academic performance in secondary school. Kanno (2006) carried out a research work on the relevance of continuous assessment test to students’ cognitive development in elementary schools in Ilorin metropolis, Dekaiye (2011) conduct a research on the influence of school population on the implement of continuous assessment in secondary schools in Lokoja metropolis, Kogi State, while Yakub (2009) carried out his own study on the problem of continuous assessment implementation in secondary schools in Sokoto State. None of these studies were conducted on the role of continuous assessment in teaching and learning of government in public secondary schools.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The objective of this study is to assess the role of continuous assessment in teaching and learning of government in public secondary schools in Owerri Municipal Council in Imo State.

The specific factors are given as follows;

  1. To determine the role of continuous assessment in teaching and learning of government in public secondary schools in Owerri Municipal Council
  2. To determine the frequency of teachers’ use of continuous assessment in their teaching and learning of government in public secondary schools in Owerri Municipal Council
  3. To identify strategies to improve the use of continuous assessment in teaching and learning of government in public secondary schools in Owerri Municipal Council

1.4 Research Questions

The following questions are to guide the researcher in her study and provide answer to the research questions

  1. What is the role of continuous assessment in teaching and learning of government in public secondary schools in Owerri Municipal Council?
  2. What is the frequency of teachers’ use of continuous assessment in their teaching and learning of government in public secondary schools in Owerri Municipal Council?
  3. What are the strategies to improve the use of continuous assessment in teaching and learning of government in public secondary schools in Owerri Municipal Council?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

The following hypotheses were formulated and tested in the study:

  • HO1: Continuous assessment does not play a significant role in teaching and learning of government in public secondary schools in Owerri Municipal Council in Imo State.
  • HO2: Continuous assessment plays a significant role in teaching and learning of government in public secondary schools in Owerri Municipal Council in Imo State.

1.6 Significance of the Study

It is hoped that a study of this nature will go a long way to educate both the government and the teachers to effectively recognize and make use of continuous assessment as a major factor of promoting and also as a promoter of educational standard especially at the preliminary level that is, secondary level.


1.7 Scope of the Study

This work is focused on assessing the role of continuous assessment in teaching and learning of government in public secondary schools in Owerri Municipal Council in Imo State. The students and teachers will make up the respondents for this study in selected public secondary schools in the study area.


1.8 Limitations of the Study

In the process of carrying out the current study, the researcher encountered some limitations. Firstly, since the focus of this study was on teaching and learning of government in public secondary schools in Owerri Municipal Council in Imo State, the conclusions drawn from this study cannot be generalized to other populations or areas. Secondly, the researcher faced time constraints and financial constraints in the course of this study.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Continuous:

A process going on without been disturbed or interrupted. That is, the existence of something for a period of time without interruption.

Continuous Assessment:

This is a formulative method of evaluation that is in ideal form systematic, comprehensive, cumulative and guidance, cumulative and guidance oriented. It is acclaimed to be a progressive objective method of evaluating learner’s achievement gains from class instruction.

Teaching:

Refers to the process of imparting knowledge, usually carried out by trained experts or professional teachers, to the students or set of learners.

Learning:

Refers to the process of gaining knowledge and receive specific skills to build competence in definite areas of interests from basic levels to more advanced levels.

Government:

Government as an academic field involves the study of political institutions in the state, ideas, values and doctrines about politics, the view of political thinkers of what constituted the welfare of the people.


1.10 Organisation Of The Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding it is broken down as follows:

  • Chapter one kicks off with the introduction, which consists of the background of the study, statement of the problem, objectives of the study, research hypothesis, scope and significance of the study.
  • Chapter two begins with the conceptual framework on which the study is based, the theoretical literatures and also the empirical literature and thus the review of related literature.
  • Chapter three deals on the research design, the population of the state used as a case study, the sample size and the sampling techniques used, the data collected, data analysis and the limitations of the method used.
  • Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis, interpretation and presentation of finding.
  • Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.

Chapter Five


5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

5.1 Summary

The study sought to assess the role of continuous assessment in teaching and learning of government in public secondary schools in Owerri Municipal Council in Imo State. The research will work towards introducing the topic and the case study, i.e. as the study advance aims, objective significance of the study will follow. Added to this literature review, will be extensively examine by measuring the degree of performance of students using continuous assessment through the work of previous authors. In chapter three, the research team will describe the research methods to be use, the population, the sampling procedure instrument use, the data gathering and data analytical procedure in order to collect information relevant to the topic. Data will be presented and analyzed the information gathered i.e. the findings that could be obtained.


5.2 Conclusion

In concluding this research work, having seen from the findings obtained from the three selected schools, continuous assessment constitutes the use of tests, class work and homework which consequently made it so effective and valid to students. At is also concluded that continuous assessment determines the reliability and guidance to both teachers and students. Added to this, continuous assessment measured the behaviors of students periodically and helps actively in final certification of students. Although, inability to carry out assessment at some predetermined regular intervals hinders record of continuous assessment, yet variety of instruments are used to aid students’ performance and in turn adequate evaluation. In addition, the importance of continuous assessment in economics cannot be over-emphasized as it improve students’ talents, skills, attitudes, creativity and manipulation of objectives.

Finally, continuous assessment brings term’s work progress which the records are considered as a systematic way to arrive at a final performance of the students.

At this juncture, it continuous assessment be seen clearly that the theory and practice of continuous assessment in the entire system of education particularly from the grassroots i.e. economics has been so effective and efficient, while problems that exist in inevitable as been described by majority of the respondents in the findings obtained from the three selected schools, but with the global changes some innovation had started taking place. Students’ faith in future rely solely in policy stabilization and adequate monitoring and supervision in the activities of economics system.


5.3 Recommendations

Despite the fact that the research team has gathered so many information from the findings that continuous assessment play a vital role in the students learning process, the group therefore discovered that there are some areas that can be improved, it is in this regard that the following recommendations are put forward for consideration.

  1. That teachers should improve in test construction i.e. know the essential steps required for constructing test
  2. That teachers should improve in techniques of scoring and grading by reviewing old marking schemes, preparing a stop key for one of the past questions paper and preparing a scoring stencil for a given past multiple choice test.
  3. That teacher should have experience in assessing physical manual skills (psychomotor), this approach would be in conformity with the idea expressed in the national policy on education.
  4. Classroom teachers should improve in record keeping and construction of sample progress charts by way of organizing and storing information in a careful and ordered manner.
  5. That classroom teacher should embark on thorough reporting outcomes of students’ assessments in an avenue called Parent Teachers Association (PTA), Local Education Authority Personnel, the general public and the government at various levels i.e. federal, state and local governments.

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Frequently Asked Questions


How should economics teachers approach continuous assessment?

Most economics teachers are of the opinion that each test should include the earlier her and related materials taught before and after each preceding test. To operate continuous assessment effectively, economics teachers need to spend time on each child helping and observing.

What are the benefits of continuous assessment?

The effective implementation of Continuous Assessment (C.A) has beneficial effects to the learners, Teacher’s Parents or guardian and the educational system general. This is due to the fact that Continuous Assessment is more useful, practical, comprehensive and systematic than the traditional.

What is the liberalization of educational assessment and evaluation in Nigeria?

One of the innovative ideas in the policy is the liberalization of the Educational assessment and evaluation by using them in part or in whole on continuous assessment of the progress of the individual (Federal Republic of Nigeria F.R.N 2004) Prior to the institution of continuous assessment procedure of evaluation, one-short.

Why is assessment important in teaching and learning?

Successful student learning is most effective with an aligned system of standards, curriculum, instruction, and assessment. When assessment is aligned with instruction, both students and teachers benefit. Students are more likely to learn because instruction is focused and because they are assessed on what they are taught. 

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