The Role Of Computer In Educational Development (A Case Study Of Jos North L.G.A In Plateau State)

Project and Seminar Material for Computer Science Education

The Role Of Computer In Educational Development (A Case Study Of Jos North L.G.A In Plateau State)


Abstract


Integrating technology into classroom practices is one of the challenges in the 21st century. Effectively integrating computer into teaching learning process is much more complicated than providing computers and securing a connection to the Internet. The purpose of the study was to investigate the factors influencing integration of computer in educational development in public primary schools in Jos North L.G.A. The study objectives were to assess the influence of teachers’ computer literacy, to establish the influence of teachers’ attitude, and to examine the influence of availability of computer resources on computer integration in educational development in public primary schools in Jos North L.G.A. The study was anchored on the Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) Model for Technology Integration in educational development and the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). The study adopted descriptive survey research design. The study targeted 70 head teachers and 1053 teachers from 70 public primary schools. Through simple random sampling, 21 head teachers and 105 teachers were selected for the study. Data was collected through the head teachers’ interview schedule and teachers’ questionnaire. To ascertain reliability and validity of research instruments, the Pilot testing was conducted in the neighboring Plateau West Sub County. Reliability of the research instruments was calculated using test-retest technique obtaining a coefficient of 0.84. Content and construct validity were ascertained through the university supervisors’ scrutiny and pilot testing. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data. Descriptive statistics included frequencies, means and standard deviations while multiple regression analysis was used to test the formulated three hypotheses. Qualitative data was put into broad themes for interpretation. However, some qualitative data was used verbatim in order to maintain the power of the participants’ spoken words. The study found that teachers’ computer literacy was low, attitude towards computer integration moderately positive while availability of computer resources was moderate. The study’s three independent variables contributed 62.3 % of variance in the level of computer integration in educational development (R2 = 0.623).Teachers’ computer literacy was the most potent predcomputer or of computer integration (β = 0.568, t(89) = 5.365, p< 0.05). It is hoped that the findings will serve as an important feedback to the government in regard to the National computer policy on Education and Digital Learning Programme which was meant, ostensibly, to entrench information and communication technology (computer) in the educational development process in primary schools in Nigeria. The study recommends that the MOE should organize frequent compulsory in service training to equip all teachers with the appropriate skills and knowledge in computer.


Table of Content


Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Introduction
  • 1.2 Background of the Study
  • 1.3 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.4 Purpose of the Study
  • 1.5 Objectives of the Study
  • 1.6 Hypotheses of the Study
  • 1.7 Significance of the Study
  • 1.8 Scope of the Study
  • 1.9 Delimitations of the Study
  • 1.10 Limitations of the Study
  • 1.11 Assumptions of the Study
  • 1.12 Definition of Terms
  • 1.11 Organization of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Related Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Review
  • 2.2 Theoretical Review
  • 2.4 Summary of Literature and Research Gaps

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Introduction
  • 3.2 Research Design
  • 3.3 Research Site
  • 3.4 Target Population
  • 3.5 Sample and Sampling Techniques
  • 3.6 Data Collection Measures
  • 3.7 Pilot Testing of Research Instruments
  • 3.8 Validity of the Data Collection Instruments
  • 3.9 Reliability of Data Collection Instruments
  • 3.10 Data Collection Procedures
  • 3.11 Data Processing and Analysis
  • 3.12 Legal and Ethical Considerations

Chapter Four:

Data Analysis and Result Presentation

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Hypotheses Testing

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

  • 5.1 Introduction
  • 5.2 Summary of Findings
  • 5.3 Conclusion
  • 5.4 Recommendations
  • 5.5 Suggestions for Further Research
  • REFERENCES
  • APPENDIX

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Introduction

This chapter provides the background to the study and the statement of the problem. The chapter also contains the purpose, objectives, hypotheses, significance, scope, delimitation, limitation and assumptions of the study. The chapter culminates with delineation of the study’s theoretical framework and conceptual framework.


1.2 Background of the Study

The need for development of Information Communication Technologies (computers) has proved to be of great significance to all mankind and as such the need for its development has become a global resolution (Mohammed & Abdulghani, 2017). These technologies have become fundamental to contemporary societies. Use of computer include sending an email, watching the news on television, talking on the phone, booking a plane ticket online, using an e-book and many others. Ghavifekr, Razek, Ghani, Ran, Meixi and Tengyue (2019) regard computer as a shorthand for the software, computers, networks, satellite links and related systems that permit people to create, access, analyze, exchange and use information, data and knowledge in numerous ways.

The UNESCO computer Competency Framework for Teachers recognizes the importance of computer in education and highlights that it ensures that the students are fully capacitated in the 21st century (Sutter & Kihara, 2019). With the advent of new technology globally, most countries have adopted digital literacy project with an aim of enhancing the skills of the students’ participation. Behnam (2012) posit that appropriate computer integration into educational development, can improve the quality of education by facilitating engagement and communication in classroom learning, help promote higher-order thinking, active learning, and better understanding of concepts, and in that way increase the student’s motivation.

Global Information Technology Report (GITR) 2017-2018 ranking shows that globally, Sweden and Singapore are at the top in adoption of computer in education and as the most digitized and innovative nations (Ghavifekr et al. 2019). Additionally, the report observed that some countries in Europe, Asia and North American are also in the forefront in leveraging computer to transform their economies. Lee, Kim and Lee (2015) observe that one of Singapore’s education system key pillar has been the focus on integration of computer into the classroom. Thus, school principals, students and teachers’ use of computers form the foundation of Singapore’s education system.
In cognition of the importance of computer in education, the Malaysia government in one of its latest Education blueprint (2013-2025), initiated integration of computer into the national curriculum for primary and secondary school (Ghavifekr, et al. 2019). In South America, the government of Peru initiated frameworks for implementation of digital literacy project in schools by ordering the procurement of over 600,000 laptops for consumption by children in rural primary schools in the country and for future use. The program however faces challenges of not just teacher computer literacy, but also difficulties in infrastructure such as electricity and modern buildings (Warschauer & Matuchniak, 2010).

In Africa, Ghana is one of the countries which has drafted comprehensive computer policies and committed huge investment geared to develop and enhance technology up take in all sectors (Hitachi, 2009). Enu, Nkum, Ninsin, Diabor and Korsah (2018) observe that computer is currently an integral part of the of Ghana education service strategic plan. For instance, Ghana introduced an intervention programeme dubbed “One Laptop per Child Policy” aimed at enhancing educational development as well as cultivating pupils interest towards the use of computer. The programme has resulted in many basic schools furnished with a number of laptop. In Tanzania, the government embraced the Technological Pedagogical Content

Knowledge (TPACK) framework and developed the Information and Communication Technology for Teacher Professional Development (computer-TPD) as espoused in the basic education policy (Swarts & Wachira, 2010). The main aim of computer-TPD was to improve teachers’ computer uptake capacity as they integrate technology in English, mathematics, and science subjects in Tanzania education system.

In Nigeria, the government recognizes the positive effect of computer in making the country a middle level economy as envisaged in Nigeria vision 2030 (ROK, 2012a). In 2006 the government disseminated National computer policy on education with a section promoting acquisition of knowledge through e-learning, connecting schools to electricity grid through rural electrification programme, among other policies (ROK, 2012b). In 2013, the Nigerian government embarked on an ambitious project of supplying all the 1.2 million class one pupils with laptops (Wanzala & Nyamai, 2018). Ostensibly, the one-laptop-per-child digital learning programme was predestined to entrench computer in the educational development process in schools. However, Wanzala and Nyamai (2018) observe that during the onelaptop-per-child programme roll-out in May 2016, the policy shifted from laptops to tablets due to the cost implications. Nonetheless, by July 2018, 19,000 public primary schools had received tablets out of the 23,951 public primary schools targeted (Abuya, 2019; Wanzala & Nyamai, 2018). A survey by the Nigeria Institute of Curriculum Development (KICD, 2018), however, found that, although some public schools were endowed with computer facilities supplied through the digital literacy programme and solicited from other sources, only a few were using computer tools in enhancing educational development. This was attributed to possible teachers’ lack of capacity and unwillingness to integrate computer in the educational development process.
Several studies conducted in developing countries reveal that despite the introduction of computer in education, there has been a slow uptake of technology by teachers (Adebayo & Fagbohun, 2013; Kafyulilo, Fisser, Pieters & Voogt, 2015; Sulemana, Anyanful & Abdulai, 2018; Sutter & Kihara, 2019). Computers are mainly used for teaching basic computer skills and administration purposes but not as tools for instructional delivery (Anyanful & Abdulai, 2018). The low uptake of technology by teachers has been attributed to the limited knowledge and skills of teachers on technology integration in teaching (Kafyulilo et al. 2015). Additionally, Usman and Pascal (2014) posit that most of reforms and initiatives in using computer in teaching in schools fail as a result of top-down approach that hardly consider teachers’ attitude and awareness of computer as a pedagogical tool.

Srivastava (2016) maintains that there are many benefits to the pupils when computer is integrated into lessons. Some of these benefits include improvement of knowledge retention, encouragement to individual learning, provide more opportunities for children with special needs, and learning and development of special life skills. Likewise, Amin (2019) observes that, while conventional teaching has emphasized content in which textbooks content has been rehearsed and mastered, contemporary settings are now preferring curricula that promote competency and performance. Thus, the emphasis is on capabilities and the concern is inclined to how the information will be used than with what the information is. Amin further observes that computer has greatly enhanced accessibility and the quality of education by increasing the flexibility of delivery such that learners can access knowledge from anywhere at any time. Use of computer has enabled students read ebooks, gain access to educational development aids which were none existent in their schools, and sample past examination papers (Amin, 2019). Moreover, they can also have access to mentors, peers world over, professionals and other resource persons.

The current study focused on Jos North L.G.A public primary schools. Jos North L.G.A comprises of Plateau town and its environs and as such most of the primary schools are in an urban setting while a few are in a rural setting. According to Nigeria National Bureau of Statistics (KNBS, 2018), most of the public primary schools in
Jos North L.G.A have high population and classrooms are normally overcrowded. Regarding computer integration in educational development, the Plateau State schools census report of 2018 shows that even though some schools are well endowed in computer facilities, teachers hardly integrate technology in their teaching (MOE, 2018). The report noted with concern that the rampant use of traditional teacher centered lecture method in overcrowded classes has been detrimental to the Plateau State goal of enhancing education standards through computer uptake. To this end, it was imperative to investigate the factors influencing computer uptake among teachers that could ultimately determine the level of computer integration in educational development in Jos North L.G.A.


1.3 Statement of the Problem

The integration of computer in all sectors of the economy has been emphasized in Nigeria under the country’s Vision 2030 blueprint. It is through computer integration in educational development that the government hoped to overcome the issue of overcrowded classes, shortage of teaching personnel and text books, implementation of inclusion education, disruption of children education in Arid and Semi-Arid Lands (ASAL) and shift from content based to competence based curricula. However, computer penetration rate in the education system in Nigeria remains well below the 50% global threshold (Sutter & Kihara, 2019). In particular, the level of integration of computer in educational development in most public primary schools remains obscure.

According to Plateau State schools census report 2018 (MOE, 2018), use of technology in educational development has been minimal in most public primary schools in Jos North even though majority of schools are endowed with the basic computer resources. Additionally, most of the teachers rely on cyber services to accomplish their computer related tasks such as filing their annual online returns to the Employer-Teachers Service Commission (TSC) and examination analysis. The slow uptake and use of computer by teachers is likely to jeopardize the envisaged provision of quality education in the background of overcrowded classrooms, shortage of teachers and inclusion of children with special needs in Jos North L.G.A. Several studies have investigated the issue of teachers’ computer integration in educational development mainly in secondary schools (Mbithe, 2016; Mingaine, 2013; Mutwiri, Kafwa & Kyalo, 2017; Tanui, 2013). However, these studies present contextual differences since they were all focused on secondary schools in different sub counties in Nigeria and thus, the findings from these studies cannot be generalized to Jos North L.G.A public primary schools. The current study, therefore, aimed at establishing the influence of teachers’ computer literacy, attitude and availability of computer resources on teachers’ level of computer integration in educational development in public primary schools in Jos North L.G.A.


1.4 Purpose of the Study

The purpose of the study was to investigate the factors influencing integration of computer in educational development in public primary schools in Jos North L.G.A.


1.5 Objectives of the Study

The study was guided by the following objectives:

  1. To assess the influence of teachers’ computer literacy on computer integration in educational development in public primary schools in Jos North L.G.A;
  2. To establish the influence of teachers’ attitude on computer integration in educational development in public primary schools in Jos North L.G.A;
  3. To examine the influence of availability of computer resources on computer integration in educational development in public primary schools in Jos North

1.6 Hypotheses of the Study

The study was guided by the following null hypotheses

  • HO1: Teachers’ computer literacy has no statistically significant influence on computer integration in educational development in public primary schools in Jos North L.G.A
  • HO2: Teachers’ attitude has no statistically significant influence on computer integration in educational development in public primary schools in Jos North L.G.A
  • HO3: Availability of computer resources has no statistically significant influence on computer integration in educational development in public primary schools in Jos North

1.7 Significance of the Study

Significance of a study shows how the research benefits or impacts others in part or whole (Simon & Goes, 2013). The study findings may be important to MOE, County directors of education, head teachers, teachers, parents, curriculum support officers (CSOs), Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs), researchers and other education stakeholders.

The study aimed at establishing the level of computer integration in educational development. The generated data may serve as an important feedback to the government concerning the National computer policy on Education and Digital Learning Programme which was meant, ostensibly, to entrench information and communication technology (computer) in the educational development process in primary schools. The noted discrepancies between the envisaged and the established level of integration might then guide the policy makers and the quality assurers as they embark on curricula implementation. Additionally, the generated information may act as a gauge of milestones towards accomplishment of one of tenet of Nigeria Vision 2030.

By establishing the extent to which teachers are literate in computer and their attitude towards use of computer, teachers and head teachers might plan for the appropriate professional development. Moreover, the MOE, TSC and other stakeholders may reassess their top down approach in teachers’ capacity building in a bid to influence teachers’ attitude.

The study findings on the influence of availability of computer facilities on teachers’ computer integration in educational development in Jos North L.G.A may act as the reference point as head teachers solicit funds and more facilities from donors. The study may also serve as the reference point to other researchers in the field of computer and development in education.


1.8 Scope of the Study

The scope of the study is the geographical and methodological limits within which the study operates (Marylin & Goes, 2013). The study was confined to Jos North L.G.A, Plateau State, Nigeria. Data was collected from 21 out of 70 public primary schools and involved 21 head teachers and 168 teachers. The study adopted descriptive survey research design which aims at establishing conditions or relationships that exist, practices that prevail, processes that are ongoing, attitudes that are held or trends that are developing (Babbie, 2014). However, being a non- experimental design the causal- effect could not be ascertained.


1.9 Delimitations of the Study

The delimitations of the study are the boundaries set by the researcher by conscious exclusionary and inclusionary decisions in regard to the subject of interest (Simon & Goes, 2013). Delimitations are within the researcher’s control. There are many factors that may influence teachers’ computer integration in educational development in public primary schools in Jos North L.G.A. However, this study’s focus was on the influence of teachers’ computer literacy, teachers’ attitude and the availability of computer facilities.


1.10 Limitations of the Study

Limitations are possible short comings or influences that can affect the study and are not under control of the researcher. They limit the extent to which a study can go and may affect the end results of the study (Simon &Goes, 2013). The teachers’ questionnaire mainly comprised of self-assessment items in which teachers tend to overate or underrate their prowess in computer. Sharma (2008) argues that there is a tendency of people to over-rate themselves on desirable traits and under-rate themselves on undesirable traits. To mitigate againist such tendencies, the researcher assured the respondents that the sole purpose of the study was academic and that annonymity and confidentiality were to be maintained.


1.11 Assumptions of the Study

Simon (2011) explicates that assumptions are underlying ideologies that the researcher trusts or admits but that are difficult to attest in any actual way. In other words, assumptions are realistic expectations believed to be true facts necessary for the relevance of the study as they provide the basis of the development and implementation of the research. Similarly, Merriam (2014) regards assumptions in research as truthful observations acknowledged to be true but not actually confirmed. There were necessary elements required to enable the researcher to conduct the study. The study assumed that all the primary school teachers had been exposed to the basic computer knowledge. This implies that the sampled teachers would be able to rate their capability in use of computer spread sheets, search engines, and various ways of trouble shooting. It was also assumed that teachers were aware of the various computer facilities and that the need for integration of computer in educational development would continue to necessitate the demand for total integration of computer in education. Finally, the study assumed that teachers in public primary schools are well grounded in content and pedagogical skills to make integration of computer a reality.


1.12 Definition of Terms

Attitude:

Is an inward feeling expressed by the outward behavior of a person (Coles & Scior, 2012). In this study it refers to the way teachers think and feel about the use of computer in educational development.

Computer Integration:

Refers to the process of incorporating or aligning computer educational technologies with the pedagogy and their usage to enhance educational development (Behnam, 2012).

Computer Literacy:

Refers to the knowledge, skills and abilities in operating the range of technologies that are applied in the process of collecting, storing, editing, retrieving, and transferring of information in various forms to meet personal, educational and labour market goals (Tekyiwa & Asare, 2016)

Information Communication Technology:

The term computer encompasses the range of hardware (desktop and portable computers, projection technology, calculators, datalogging, and digital‐recording equipment), software applications (generic software, multimedia resources), and information systems (Intranet, Internet) (Anyanful & Abdulai, 2018).

Perception:

A process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment, and it is influenced by perceiver’s attitude which may be positive or negative interest, experience or situation (Wasike, 2018)


1.10 Organization of the Study

This study is divided into five chapters.

  • Chapter one is introduction which consists of the background to the study, statement of problem, research questions, research hypotheses, objectives of the study, the significance of the study, the scope and limitations of the study and finally the organization of the study.
  • Chapter two deals with the literature review which consists of the conceptual literature, theoretical literature, empirical literature, theoretical framework.
  • Chapter three gives the research methodology including research design, population of study, sample size, sampling technique, method of data collection, instrument of data analysis, method of data analysis, validity/reliability of instrument.
  • Chapter four is presentation and analysis of data, discussion of findings.
  • Chapter five gives the summary, conclusion and recommendations.

Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

5.1 Introduction

This chapter presents summary of the findings and conclusions derived from the findings and discussion, recommendations as per the objectives and suggestions of areas of further study. The purpose of the study was to investigate the factors influencing integration of computer in educational development in public primary schools in Jos North L.G.A. Data were collected through the teachers’ questionnaire and head teachers’ interview schedule.


5.2 Summary of Findings

This section presents the summary of the study findings in accordance to the objectives of the study.
The study finding shows that most of the teachers had little familiarity with basic computer system parts and concepts such as central processing unit-CPU, motherboard, hard drive, and random access memory-RAM. Most teachers had little ability a number of essential word processing skills such as inserting pages to a formal report with preliminaries and the main body, inserting an automatic table of contents, use of pcomputerure tools formatting commands such as cropping and wrap text, inserting and locking a document with a pass word. However, teachers’ computer literacy had statistically significant influence on computer integration in educational development in public primary schools in Jos North L.G.A (β = 0.568, t(89) = 5.365, p< 0.05).

Most of the teachers affirmed that working with computers makes them feel isolated from other people (58.9 %), computer integration in educational development should start at secondary school education (57.8 %), they avoid using computers whenever they could (56.7 %), computers are difficult to use (61.1 %) and felt that computer integration requires a lot of time (73.4 %),. The affirmation of these statements constituted a negative attitude towards use of computers in accomplishing various tasks and in extension a negative impact on computer integration in educational development. Overall, teachers were found to be just moderately positive towards computer integration in educational development (M = 2.6, SD = 0.7). However, teachers’ attitude towards integration of computer in educational development had a statistically significant influence on computer integration in educational development in public primary schools in Jos North L.G.A (β = 0.445, t (89) = 4.03, p< 0.05).

Concerning the availability of computer infrastructure, most of the schools were moderately equipped with desk top Computers for teachers and pupils use (43.3 %). In most schools overhead projectors were either not available (30.0 %) or sparingly available (31.1 %). In most of the schools, teachers termed internet connectivity as either moderately available (41.1 %) or sufficiently available. Over half of teachers (55.6 %) indicated that there were no laptops meant for teachers in their schools. Most of the schools had adequate source of electricity as 58.9 % of teachers indicated that the source was sufficiently available. Finally, about 30.0% of of teachers indicated they had no wifi in their schools. Overall, the availability of computer resources was found to be moderately available (M = 2.6, SD = 0.7). Availability of computer resources was found to have a statistically significant influence on teachers’ computer integration in educational development in public primary schools in Jos North L.G.A (β = 0.428, t = 2.403, p< 0.05).


5.3 Conclusion

From the study findings and foregoing discussions, several conclusions were made:

Most of the teachers’ level of computer literacy in public primary schools in Jos North L.G.A could be termed as ‘little’ implying that the person has a basic understanding of the technology, but cannot perform the task successfully without assistance and more training may be required.

Some teachers and headteachers in public primary schools in Jos North L.G.A belief that they could give quality services to learners without integrating computer in their teaching. Nevertheless, they agreed that teachers should use internet material to supplement what they get from text books. Most teachers still viewed computer integration as a difficult process which could consume a lot of time and thus less suitable for examination oriented teaching.

Teachers were found to be just moderately positive towards computer integration in educational development.
In general public primary schools in Jos North L.G.A are moderately equipped with computer infrastructure. However, teachers have been slow in computer uptake due to teacher and administrative related factors resulting to a very low level of computer integration in educational development.


5.4 Recommendations

The following recommendations were made based on the findings and conclusions made.

In order to improve computer integration in educational development in public primary schools in
Jos North L.G.A and the entire country, the teachers’ employer (TSC) should make computer literacy one of the minimum requirements for recruitment of teachers. In so doing, a critical mass of teachers who are not technophobia will be attained. In addition, MOE should organize frequent compulsory in service training to equip all teachers with the appropriate skills and knowledge in computer. The curriculum should also be reviewed to insert an online component where teachers will be required to prepare and implement it to supplement the tradition method.

In order to cultivate teachers’ positive attitude towards computer integration, the government in collaboration with other stakeholders should embark on equipping all public school with computer infrastructure and capacity building of teachers. In order to encourage teachers to venture more in computer integration the individual effort could be captured in their periodical appraisal and become a key item in subsequent promotions.


5.5 Suggestions for Further Research

The following areas have been suggested for further research:

  1. An audit to establish the available computer infrastructure in all public primary in Jos North L.G.A should be made with a view of inviting cooperate bodies, NGOs and other stakeholders to supplement the government’s effort of digitalizing all functions in schools
  2. A study should be carried out to establish how the current curriculum can be reviewed to incorporate an online component and which each teach should accomplish.
  3. A similar study should be made national wide by MOE in order to offer appropriate guidance to the government in regard to the level of computer integration and the various challenges encountered.

Project Material Download

5,000 5000

The Complete Material Will Be Sent to You in Just 2 Steps

Quick & Simple…


Step One Purchase

Make Payment (Through Transfer) of ₦5,000 to Any of the Account Below

Access Bank PlcAcc No: 0811003731
Samphina Academy
Current Account
Zenith BankAcc No: 1225513212
Samphina Academy
Current Account

Or CLICK HERE To Pay With Debit Card


FOR STUDENTS OUTSIDE NIGERIA
CLICK HERE To Purchase Material ($15)
FOR GHANIAN STUDENTS
Make Payment of 120 GHS to 0553978005 | Douglas Cloud Osabutey | MTN MoMo

Step Two Purchase

Send the Following Details on WhatsApp ( 08143831497) After Payment

  1. Payment Details

  2. TOPIC: The Role Of Computer In Educational Development (A Case Study Of Jos North L.G.A In Plateau State)

The Complete Material Will Be Sent To You On WhatsApp After Receiving Your Details
T & C Apply


  Contact Our Help Desk


Need a Different Topic? Perform a Quick Search



List of Related Works

Click on Any Topic to Preview the Content

samphina.academy

Samphina Academy

Samphina Academy is an Online Educational Resource Center that is aimed at providing students with quality information and materials to aid them in succeeding in their academic pursuit.