The Role Of Capital Market In Development Of Nigeria Economy

Project and Seminar Material for Economics

The Role Of Capital Market In Development Of Nigeria Economy


Abstract


This project seeks to examine the role of capital market in development of Nigeria Economy. This study investigate the techniques of bench marking of Nigeria capital market toward economic development of the nation and discuss the importance of bench marking to over come perceived weaknesses within the process. This study intended to find out the operations of the Nigerian capital market and evaluate the performance of the capital market in relation to the economic growth in Nigeria. The literature review describes the various instrument of capital market and the role it has played to towards economic development. All aspect of this work is very relevant in one way or the other to Nigeria as a whole and for those who may be interested in carrying out further study in this topic. Also, data were collected through secondary source. The secondary data involves statistic analysis on central bank bulletin. The study observed that the problems that drags the Nigerian capital market is clued lack of interest in securities, Nigerians prefer to in vest in real assets against investment in financial assets should be curbed by deregulation of security pricing. The evidence from this study also reveals that the activities in the capital market tend to impact positively on the economy. It is recommended therefore that the regulatory authority should initiate policies that would encourage more companies to access the market and also be more proactive in their surveillance role in order to check sharp practices which undermine market integrity and erode investors’ confidence. The study further recommended that, to promote the capital market and stimulate economic growth and development great emphasis should be made on those things that will help in booting the market.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

The capital market is a highly specialized and organized financial market and indeed essential agent of economic development because of its ability to facilitate and mobilize saving and investment. To a great extent, the positive relationship between capital accumulation real economic developments has long affirmed in economic theories (­­­Anyanwu, 1993).

Success in capital accumulation and mobilization for development varies among nations, but it is largely dependent on domestic savings and inflows of foreign capital. Therefore, to arrest the menace of the current economic downturn, effort must be geared towards effective resources mobilization. It is in realization of this that consideration is given to measure for the development of capital market as an institution for the mobilization of finance from the surplus sectors to the deficit sectors.

The development of capital market in Nigeria, as in other developing countries has been induced by the government. Though prior to the establishment of stock market in Nigeria, there existed some less formal market arrangements for the operation of capital market. It was not prominent until the visit of Mr. J. B. Lobynesion in 1959, on the invitation of the Federal government, to advice on the role the Central Bank could play in the development of local money and capital market. As a follow-up to this, the government commissioned and a set up the Barback Committee to study and make recommendations on the ways and means of establishing a stock market in Nigeria as a formal capital market. Acting on the recommendation of the committee, the Lagos Stock Exchange (as it was called then) was set-up in March 1960, and in September 1961, it was incorporated under Section 2 cap 37, through the collaborative effort of Central Bank of Nigeria, the Business Community and Industrial Development Bank (Alile&Anao, 1990). With the establishment of the Central Bank of Nigeria in 1959 and the coming into existence of the Lagos Stock Exchange in 1961 and Subsequently, the Nigeria Stock Exchange by an Act in 1979, a sound foundation was laid for the operation of the Nigerian Capital Market for trading in securities of long term nature needed for the financing of the industrial sector and the economy at large. After the incorporation of the Lagos Stock Exchange, it was granted further protection under the law and its activities was placed under some sort of control by the government, hence the passing of the Lagos Stock Exchange Act. However, the Lagos Stock Exchange was only operational in Lagos. By the mid 70’s, the need for an efficient financial system for the whole nation was emphasized, and a review by the government of the operations of the Lagos Stock Exchange market was advocated. The review was carried out to take care of the low capital formation, the huge amount of currency in circulation which was held outside the banking system, the unsatisfactory demarcation between the operation of Commercial Banks and the emerging class of the Merchant Banks, and the extremely shallow depth of the capital.
In response to the problems mentioned above, the government accepted the principle of decentralization but opted for a National Stock Exchange, which will have branches in different parts of the country. On December 2nd 1977, the memorandum and article of association creating the Lagos Stock Exchange was transformed into the Nigerian Stock Exchange, with branches in Lagos, Kaduna, Port-Harcourt, Yola and now in Federal Capital Territory (FCT) Abuja some other cities. The history of Nigeria Capital Market could be traced to 1946 when the British colonial administration floated a N600, 000 local loan stock bearing interest at 3¼% for the financing of developmental projects under the Ten-Years Plan Local Ordinance. The loan stock, which had a maturity of 10-15 years, was oversubscribed by more than N1 million, yet local participation of the issued was terribly poor. Certainly, potential fund abound in Nigeria, but the overriding consideration in this project is to examine the role of the capital market in harnessing and mobilizing these resources (fund) to generate economic development in the country and consequently economic development.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

There is abundant evidence that most Nigerian businesses lack long-term capital. The business sector has depended mainly on short-term financing such as overdrafts to finance even long-term capital. Based on the maturity matching concept, such financing is risky. All such firms need to raise an appropriate mix of short- and long-term capital (Demirguc-Kunt& Levine 1996).

Most recent literatures on the Nigeria capital market have recognized the tremendous performance the market has recorded in recent times. However, the vital role of the capital market in economic development and development has not been empirically investigated thereby creating a research gap in this area. This study is undertaken to examine the contribution of the capital market in the Nigerian economic development and development. Aside the social and institutional factors inhibiting the process of economic development in Nigeria, the bottleneck created by the dearth of finance to the economy constitutes a major setback to its development. As a result, it is necessary to evaluate the Nigerian capital market.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The broad objective of this study examined the activities and performance of Nigerian capital market. The specific objectives of the study are as follows:

  1. To examines the operations of the Nigerian capital market.
  2. To evaluate the performance of the capital market in relation to the economicdevelopment in Nigeria.
  3. To examine the rate at which new stocks are issued on the capital market.
  4. To make recommendations as to how the operations of the market could be improve to boost economic development and development of Nigeria.

1.4 Significance of the Study

The study explored the role or effectiveness of capital market instruments on Nigerian economic development. Though the scope of the study was limited to the capital market, it is hoped that the exploration of this market will provide a broad view of the operations of the capital market. It will contribute to existing literature on the subject matter by investigating empirically the role, which the capital market plays in the economic development and development of the country. The main importance of this study is that it will provide policy recommendations to policy-makers on ways to improve operations and activities of the capital market.


1.5 Research Questions and Hypotheses

This research was guided by the following research questions:

  1. How is the operation of Nigeria capital market?
  2. What is the performance of the capital market in relation to economic development in Nigeria?
  3. What is the rate at which new stocks are issued on the Nigerian capital market
  4. How could the capital market through its crucial role stimulate economic development in Nigeria?

The hypothesis that would be tested in the course of this research is stated below as:

  • H0: That the capital market operations have no role on Nigerian economic development.

1.7 Organization of the Study

The study is divided into five (5) chapters and organized as follows:

  • Chapter one form the introduction part, this is where the main theme of the research is given. It comprises of the statement of the problem, objectives of the study, research questions and hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and delimitation of the study and organization of the study.
  • Chapter two is the literature review of the role of capital market on the economic development of Nigeria.
  • Chapter three forms the research methodology which includes sources of data, method of data analysis and model specification.
  • Chapter four is the data analysis
  • While chapter five includes the summary, conclusion and recommendations.

1.8 Definition of Terms

To ensure comprehensive understanding of this research work, the under listed terms are defined thus:

1. Stockbroker:

Is agent who purchases and sells securities on a stock exchange market on behalf of clients and receive remuneration for the service in form of a commission.

2. Stock Exchange:

Are a market where securities (bonds, stocks and shares of varying types) are traded openly and where one can purchase or sell any of such securities with relative ease.

3. Capital Market:

Is a market in which long term capital is raised by industry and commerce, the government and local authorities. Simply, it is that part of the financial market that provides facilities for the transfer of medium and long-term funds to various economic units.

4. Stockholders:

Individuals, businesses and groups owning stocks in a
corporation.

5. Financial Instrument:

Is a contract involving a financial obligation. Examples include stock, bonds, loans and derivatives.

6. Shares:

A share confers on its owner a legal right to have part of the company’s profit and to exercise any voting rights attached to that share.

7. New Issue Market:

Market where stocks are issued for the first time to the members of the public.

8. The Secondary Market:

This is a market where stocks are not being sold for the first time. It can also be referred to as the market for second hand stocks.

9. Deficit Savings Unit (DSU):

An economic unit whose current income is less than its current expenditure.

10. Savings-Surplus Economic Units:

These are units with more funds than they require for current consumption. They are therefore the ultimate savers or fund suppliers to the system.

11. Financial Institutions:

These are institutions that use their funds chiefly to purchase financial assets, deposits, bonds, loans and so on.


Chapter Five


Summary of Findings, Conclusion and Recommendations

5.1 Summary of Findings

From the data collected and analyzed, the following parts can be noted:

  1. A good number of population were not satisfied with activities of the exchange due to poor information dissemination thereby leading to low patronage and apathy. And when they are disseminated, they are either too technical or scanty for the ordinary person to comprehend.
  2. The participators are the few rich corporations and individuals who can afford to pay for the huge cost usually associated with the listing and other transaction in the exchange.
  3. The public lacked confidence in the activities of the exchange as those who have invested in shares and other stocks for years could not boast of receiving any reasonable returns on their said investments.
  4. Pricing policy is weighed by feelings and reputation of the company and not on the basis of demand and supply.
  5. The exchange was also noticed to be monotonous in nature as the stocks of the banking sub-sector for years dominated transactions on the floor of the exchange.
  6. The people have not appreciated so well the roles and functions of the exchange in economic development and what they stand to gain from patronizing the exchange.
  7. Most people like to either raise funds or invest through the banks due to the rigors involved in going through the stock market.

5.2 Conclusion

It can be concluded that a good number of people do not make use of the exchange due to the following reasons:

  1. Ignorance is a major impediment on the part of individuals and rigorous quotation requirements at the exchange.
  2. Crisis of integrity that rocked the Market as a result of the imbroglio in the Nigerian stock exchange (NSE) has had far reaching effect.
  3. Existence of other institutions which seems more convenient for fund seekers than the exchange.

In summation, despite the numerous problems confronting the exchange, it is pertinent to affirm that the market has bright future prospects and would emerge the best in sub-Sahara Africa, if the proposed steps are strictly adhered to.


5.3 Recommendations

From the above findings, the following recommendations can be made:

  1. The cost and stringent requirement involved in listing and registration should be drastically reduced to attract more people to the market.
  2. The management of the Stock Exchange should intensify its efforts to enlighten the people especially at the grassroots on the numerous gains they stand to get from patronizing the Exchange.
  3. The current over the counter market (OTC) transactions should be encouraged.
  4. Transparency and accountability should be engendered to be the watchword and both the management and operators of the exchange should conform to this order. Every form of window dressing of the financial statements by companies should be eschewed.
  5. The exchange should be professionalized and should not be an all comer’s affairs.

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