The Role Of Bureaucracy In Achieving Organizational Objective (A Study Of Federal Polytechnic Nekede Owerri, Imo State)

Project and Seminar material for Public Administration

Project and Seminar material for Public Administration


The purpose of this study is to know the role bureaucracy plays in achieving organizational objectives. The survey method of descriptive research was used for the study. The main instrument used in data collection for the study was a questionnaire.

The responses were filled in frequency tables and percentage statistics and were used to analyze and interpret if bureaucracy has many processes which are flexible or rigid and full of innovation over secretiveness depersonalization of relationship, redtapism, nonchalant attitude of the workers was a result to achieve the optimum and accurate outputs and goals.

Also it was recommended from the study that organizations should see workers as human beings, be rigid not flexible but the balance should be struck, and employees should be copied in decision making and suggestions and innovation that will bring positive change and be welcomed in every organization. Both big and small but most especially the large organization in particular.

Table Of Contents

Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of contents

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the study
  • 1.2 Statement of the study
  • 1.3 Objective of the study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Significance of the study
  • 1.6 Scope of the study
  • 1.7 Limitation of the study
  • 1.8 Definition of terms

Chapter Two

2.0 Literature Review

  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.2 Meaning and concept of Bureaucracy
  • 2.3 Types of Bureaucracy
  • 2.4 Element of Bureaucracy
  • 2.5 Functions of Bureaucracy
  • 2.6 Principles of Bureaucracy
  • References

Chapter Three

3.0 Research Design and Methodology

  • 3.1 Introduction
  • 3.2 Research Design
  • 3.3 Sources/methods of data collection
  • 3.4 Population and sample size
  • 3.5 Sampling techniques
  • 3.6 Validity of reliability of measuring/instrument
  • 3.7 Method of data analysis.

Chapter Four

4.0 Presentation and Analysis of Data

  • 4.1 Introduction
  • 4.2 Presentation of data
  • 4.3 Analysis of data
  • 4.4 Interpretation of Results

Chapter Five

5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

  • 5.1 Introduction
  • 5.2 Summary of findings
  • 5.3 Conclusion
  • 5.4 Recommendation
  • References
  • Appendix

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

The word “Bureaucracy” stems from the word “Bureau” used from the early 18th century in Western Europe not just to refer to a writing desk, but to an office that is a work-place where officials worked.

Bureaucracy is the structure and set of regulations in place to control activity, usually in large organizations and government. As opposed to adhocracy, it is represented by standardized procedure that dictates the execution of most of all processes within the body, formal division of powers, hierarchy and relationships in practice. The interpretation and execution of policy can lead to informal influence.

It is a concept in sociology and political science referring to the way that the administrative execution and enforcement of legal rules are socially organized.

Four structure concepts are central to any definition of Bureaucracy.

  1. A well defined division of administrative labour among persons and offices.
  2. A personnel system with consistent patterns of recruitment and stable linear careers.
  3. A hierarchy among offices, such that the authority and status are differentially distributed among actors.
  4. Formal and informal networks that connects organizational actors to one another through flows of information and patterns of corporation.

Although, large Bureaucratic organizations tend to be very slow and cumbersome in making important policy decision and are especially doll witted in recognizing and responding to the consequence of major changes in economics, social and technological conditions and circumstances outside the organization it self.

In other words, individual officers find it to be in their own best interest to adhere rigidly to internal roles and formalities. It should be noted that Bureaucracy irrespective of its short falling is a major tool in achieving organizational or institutional objectives.

Ukege etal, (1992:58) see Bureaucracy as a specific form of a social organization for administrative processes of a formal structure characterized by clearly defined pattern of activities in which every series of action is functionally related.

1.1 Background Of Study

Federal Polytechnic Nekede Owerri was officially established by Federal amendment decree 1993 of 1st January 1993. The established by Polytechnic made provision of the governing council as the highest organ and policy making body. It comprises of the chairman and other members, the academic board which was direct control of academic work of the Polytechnic, it has the rector as chairman and the registrar as secretary, other members include the deputy rector, all director of schools, all heads of departments, the Liberian and not more than two members of the academic staff, other head of departments who may be appointed by the academic board.

The Federal Polytechnic act 139 of 1979 specified the role of the Polytechnics courses of institution and learning in technology, applied science, business and management and in such other field of studies applied learning relevant courses to the needs of the development of Nigeria in the areas of industrial and agricultural production and distribution and for research in the development and adaptation of techniques as the council may from time to time determine.

The introduction of new programmes within the seven years is very remarkable. An update of the number of programmes offered records 25 at National Diploma level (ND) and 23 at Higher National Diploma level (HND) of the new programmes.
These are the courses offered in Federal Polytechnic Nekede:

  1. Public Administration
  2. Business Administration
  3. Accountancy
  4. Banking and Finance
  5. Marketing
  6. Office Technology and management (OTM)
  7.  Corporative Economics
  8. Agricultural Engineering
  9. Electrical/Electronics Engineering
  10. Civil Engineering
  11. Mechanical Engineering
  12. Computer Science
  13. Maths and Statistics
  14. Architecture
  15. Building Technology
  16. Estate Management
  17. Quantity Surveying
  18. Land Surveying
  19. Library Science
  20. Urban and Regional Planning
  21. Science Technology
  22. Food Technology
  23. Mass Communication
  24. Fishery
  25. Computer engineering

The Federal Polytechnic is at present organized into the following:

  1. School of Business and Management Technology
  2. Engineering Technology
  3. Environment Design
  4. Industrial Science
  5. General studies and
  6. School of Humanities and Social Sciences.

Each school is headed by director also known as dean of the Federal Polytechnic Nekede, the registrar, the bursary, works, medical and health services and the student affairs division. The units are security internal audit and public relations which are however housed under the rector.
There are also the existence of students union government (SUG) to which students belongs. In addition to that, there are also the staff union of Polytechnic, the senior staff association and the non academic staff union.

From the foregoing, it seems that several research studies have been carried out to investigate the nature of Bureaucracy, but little has been done in its role in organization. This scenario has therefore created a gap in knowledge which needs to be empirically filled. The present study therefore attempted to investigate the role of Bureaucracy in organization a study of Federal Polytechnic Nekede.

1.2 Statement Of The Problem

There are evidence to show that several research studies has been carried out to show the nature of Bureaucracy, its importance, to the institutions as well as its short fallings. Federal Polytechnic Nekede is an institution characterized by a Bureaucratic system.

But because of the system of authority, men, officers and methods that institution utilizes to carry out their governmental service which has in no doubt resulted to oriented performance and high productivity. It is pertinent therefore that today laissez- affairs attitude to work delay in dispatch of services and decision making, poor quality lecture delivery, constitute problem for the institution.

It is of these short comings that Bureaucracy as the only process through which institutions and organization could achieve their organizational goals must be admitted with all sense of credibility.

Although most scholars blame the laissez affair attitude of workers in Polytechnic Nekede as a result of the largeness of the institutions. It should be noted that Bureaucracy is best and effective in larger institutions.
Consequently this study investigates the roles associated with a Bureaucratic organization with regards to efficient and effectiveness in productivity, decision making in achieving the over all objective with respect to the institution as a study.

1.3 Objective Of The Study

  1. This study is focused on Bureaucracy in an organization, as the catalyst for policy formulation, execution and implementation.
  2. To determine how Bureaucracy increase efficiently in an organization irrespective of the size.
  3. To ascertain how Bureaucracy assists the organization in achieving their objectives through hierarchical manner.
  4. To ascertain how specialization and productivity could be achieved in the organization through Bureaucracy.

1.4 Research Questions

This research on the role of Bureaucracy in achieving organization objectives with particular reference to Federal Polytechnic Nekede Owerri has raised some questions among experts and professionals which this study has attempted to address. The research questions consist of the following:

  1. Do rules and regulations affect organization from achieving its objectives?
  2. Are there much supervision and control in the process of carrying out assigned works?
  3. Does doing the same kind of job daily make their staff feel boredom?

1.5 Significance Of Study

  1. The findings on this study will be of immense help to administrators and managers in correcting and animalizing inherent in a Bureaucracy set up.
  2. It will aid the government and organization to avoid Bureaucratic bottle neck, redtapism, and non-chalant attitude portrayed by workers.
  3. It will also help organization in boosting productivity.
  4. Corporate bodies and entrepreneurs that wish to start their own business organization would find this valuable in the endeavors.
  5. Academically, it will help other researchers in further researches.

1.6 Scope Of Study

This study will be limited to Federal Polytechnic Nekede Owerri. This is because Bureaucracy is eminent and inevitable in large organizations.

For this reason, we shall focus on the institution due to its situational largeness, but the study shall be narrowed down to the administrative section and some selected departments in various schools.

1.7 Limitation Of Study

The researcher during the course of this encountered some problems. These problems include:

  1. Unwillingness of the staff to give out information.
  2. Funding
  3. Time constraint
  4. Other academic work load
Unwillingness Of The Staff To Give Out Information:

The researcher found it difficult in gathering adequate information and facts due to no compliance and non-chalant attitude of some staffs.


This is a major constraint face by the researcher. The inability to get adequate fund contributed to the slowness of the research.

Time Constraint:

This acted as a limitation to the study as the time framework approved by the department for the writing and research of materials for the study was incompatible with out academic work and examination period.

Other Academic Work Load:

The course loads was numerous and cumbersome and frequent lecture times due to the shortness of the semester also acted as a limitation factors to the study.

1.8 Definition Of Terms


This is official rules and ways of doing things that a government or an organization has with position and authority will define heroically so as to facilitate the attainment of organization objectives.


Is the process or activity done in order to plan, organize and run a business, school or other institution.


The result of strategic plan, something one tries to achieve.

An Organization:

The setting out of the formal structure of authority and flow of work to ensure that the work in various subdivisions, sections and branches are clearly defined, arranged and coordinated to achieve organizational goals.

Chapter Five

5.0 Summary, Conclusion And Recommendation

5.1 Introduction

The purpose of this study is to determine and buttress the need of increasing the role of bureaucracy in achieving organizational objectives, with particular emphasis on Federal Polytechnic Nekede Owerri. Due to some of the constraints highlighted in chapter one, this study only covers educational organization which is academic oriented. The researcher recommends a further study on bureaucracy and its effect on the staff attitude in the institution.
Moreover, since bureaucratic techniques vary from one situation to another, it would be pertinent if a study should be conducted to determine the ways bureaucracy may suit each situation.

5.2 Summary Of Findings

The purpose of this study is to know the role of bureaucracy in achieving organizational objectives using Federal Polytechnic Nekede, Owerri as a study.

In chapter one, we saw the background of the study, the research questions. Also the significance of the study and theoretical frame work amongst others.

In chapter two, the researcher carried out the related review of literature from the perspective of the meaning and concepts of bureaucracy, by different authors, types of bureaucracy, element of bureaucracy and other related studies.

Also in chapter three, the research methodology employed by the researcher were research design sampling procedure instrumentation administration of research instrument and statistical adopted.

Finally in chapter four, the data collected were interpreted analyzed and the research findings were also stated.

5.3 Conclusion

Conclusions are drawn based on the findings in chapter four.

  1. That bureaucracy influenced has positively assisted organization from achieving its objectives.
  2. That bureaucracy assists in decision making in Federal Polytechnic Nekede Owerri.
  3. That bureaucracy assists efficiency in the polytechnic.
  4. That it assists efficiency that increases productivity positively in the polytechnic.

5.4 Recommendation

From the investigation carried out in this research it has been established that bureaucracy affects positively the achievement of an organization objective and based on the findings of this empirical research. The following are the recommendation from the researcher.

  1. That the Polytechnic view her staff as human beings that have feelings.
  2. The polytechnic management should neither be too rigid nor too flexible in doing things but a balance should be struck.
  3. The polytechnic management should work with and not over subordinates.
  4. The polytechnic Nekede management should continue to understand how the system more.
  5. Bureaucracy is a two edged sword, each positive consequences is often followed by a corresponding negative approaches suit to review the functions as per achieving their over all goals, therefore, the polytechnic should not relent in the bureaucratic efforts to lifting the organization.

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