The Role Of Bureaucracy In Achieving Government Development Objectives (A Case Study Of Ministry Of Education Imo State)
The Main thrust of this research is to ascertain the extent to which Bureaucracy has gone in achieving these government development objectives, using the ministry of education Imo state Nigeria as a case study. In the course of carrying out this study, survey method was used by the researcher to describe the functions of Bureaucracy in that ministry which has aided the achievement of these objectives. The instrument used in data collection was mainly questionnaire and Oral interview. Thus, the responses got were outlined by the researcher in a frequency table and simple percentage was used to analyze the data. The results of the analysis and interpretations reviewed that Bureaucracy constituted the major element of development in that ministry. The implication of the result is that Bureaucrats in the ministry of education Imo state are being used for the implementation of government development Objectives. At the end of the study some suggestions were made by the researcher to the government and its agencies; and that is; “that the ministry should work in accordance to the rules of bureaucracy in order to achieve the mapped-out objectives of the government as regards education”.
1.1 Background of Study
One attribute of all government is to execute laws and commands of the ruler through an administrative staff or body of officials. However, the appointment of these officials and the way they carryout their tasks differentiate one type of political structure from another and this system that ensures the rational management of large scale organization is called Bureaucracy”. Thus, the term bureaucracy originated from a French word “Bureau” Meaning (“Desk”) and it refers to a cloth covering the desk of the 18th century French monarchs. With time it became necessary to identify it as a form of government. Hence, bureaucracy emerged out of the organization’s need for order and precision and workers demand for impartial treatment.
The concept of bureaucracy was developed by a German sociologist named Max Weber between 1864-1920 when Germany was undergoing its industrial revolution. This in his own opinion
was to help Germany manage its growing industrial enterprises at a time when it was striving to become a world power, so he conceived an ideal type of bureaucracy exhibiting three major characteristics anchored firmly on a body of impersonal rules and regulations. The structure and functioning of the organization, the rewards of the incumbents and the protection of the officers. He also stated what leads people to obey authority; by saying that those who made the rules and those who obeyed them shared certain values and the key to understanding organization types was to understand the nature of the shared value.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Bureaucracy has been said to be an indispensable management device for operating a large-scale organizations, but it is pathetic to state that a lot of factors impinges the smooth running of this system in achieving government development objectives. This state of affairs has resulted to slow implementation of government development programmes in the ministry of education Imo State as a result of Red-Tapism or bottleneck, mismanagement of fund meant for educational programmes which sometimes leads to poor implementation of development policies; has been the order of the day. Furthermore, bribery and corruption had continued to hinder effective implementation of government laudable projects.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The main objective of this study is to ascertain the role of bureaucracy in achieving government development objectives.
Hence some other objectives include:
- To ascertain the bureaucratic structure of the ministry of education, Imo State.
- To identify the real actors of bureaucracy in the ministry of education, Imo State.
- To ascertain how bureaucracy has aided in improving efficiency in the ministry of education Imo State.
- To know how the bureaucratic structure of the ministry of education Imo State help in the achievement of educational objectives.
1.4 Research Question
The researcher formulated some questions which according to her will be relevant in ascertaining the subject matter.
However, the questions include:
- What is the bureaucratic structure of Imo State ministry of education?
- Who are the real actors of bureaucracy in the ministry of education Imo state?
- How has bureaucracy helped to ensure that there is efficiency in Imo state ministry of education?
- Has the bureaucratic structure of Imo State ministry of education really helped in achieving education objectives?
1.5 Scope of the Study
The present study is on the role of bureaucracy in achieving government development objectives in Nigeria. The research was limited to just Imo state as it was taken up as the case study.
1.6 Limitations of the Study
The research was limited to impact of bureaucracy in achieving government development objectives in Imo state. Data collection posed to be the major constraint of the study. Time allocated to the completion of the study was also a barrier in executing the research.
1.7 Organization of Study
The study is divided into five chapters. Chapter one deals with the study’s introduction and gives a background to the study. Chapter two reviews related and relevant literature. The chapter three gives the research methodology while the chapter four gives the study’s analysis and interpretation of data. The study concludes with chapter five which deals on the summary, conclusion and recommendation.
Conclusion and Recommendation
Some stakeholders assess the free education program run effectively seen on; net enrollment rate increased continuing education, dropout rates decreased, passing rate increased, and the numbers continue to rise education. In addition, the implementation of free education beneficial to the improvement of school facilities and infrastructure such as improved classrooms, leaking roofs and repair other means. Repair facilities and infrastructure for elementary school-high school showed a significant improvement.
Free education program in the Department of Education of Imo state achieve the look of;
- The percentage of dropouts decreased,
- Continuing education enrollment rates increased,
- Grade repetition rate (learn remedial) is reduced,
- Increased student graduation rates, and
- Increased number of continuing education.
With the achievement of these targets, the targets of free education in Imo state effective. The target implementation of free education can be seen in the parents that the average declared free education can help and reduce the cost burden of parents and school-age children can continue their education equivalent to the upper middle class economy. Since the implementation of free education there is no difference between students with a weak economy to upper middle class students, it means equally entitled to a free education funds. Unless students are fully subsidized for students obtained a weak economy (poor) based on a certificate from the local government. In addition, educators earn extra income with the incentive overtime hours compulsory teaching of predetermined and remedial fees.
Based on the findings and conclusions drawn from the research data and analysis these recommendations are made for consideration by KMA and the central government.
Division of labour and departmental co-operation
The study identified that departments do not effectively coordinate activities for timely delivery of services, partly caused by lack of equipment and selfish behaviours on the part of some staff. To correct these anomalies, KMA should resource all departments with required equipment and discipline staff whose activities bring the Assembly into disrepute.
Effects of rules and regulations on service delivery
For the purpose of achieving efficiency, an organisation‟s operations for achievement of results are guided by laid down rules, regulations, procedures and methods. However, these were excessively used by staff, suggesting that periodic review of procedures, methods, rules and regulations would go a long way by removing barriers and reformulation of acceptable practices for expeditious service delivery.
It was very evident that private sector bureaucracy adopts flexible workplace structures and encourages creativity and experimentation to maximize efficiency and productivity.
These strategic directions would positively impact on KMA‟s operations if taken as part of the reforms.
Authority structure and information dissemination
Information should be easily and accurately communicated to staff of the Assembly when they need it. The Assembly‟s productivity would be hampered if policies are slow in reaching staff.
Consideration of technical competence in employment and promotion
Recruitment of staff based on political affiliation, family, ethnic and religious should be eschewed. The situation where inexperience and less qualified persons were recruited into various job positions must be a thing of the past, if the Assembly wants to significantly enhance its operations.
Bureaucracy and public service delivery
Staff of the Assembly should be periodically trained in line with the tenets of New Public Management System which specifies the following; improvement of quality of services delivered to consumers; adherence to consumer focus principles; reduction of inflexibility, rigidity and other forms of bureaupathology in service; involvement of consumers in service delivery system design and packaging, etc. This will boost the confidence of clients/customers who are dissatisfied with the Assembly‟s performance in service delivery.
As a public institution empowered by law to promote and provide support for productive activities and development (community health and sanitation, maintenance of law and order, general amenities such as roads, bridges, basic education and infrastructure) public participation in the Assembly‟s programme is very vital to the successful implementation of its policies. It is in this vein that feedbacks on the Assembly‟s performance are crucial and public input into policy formulation and implementation necessary in advancing development of the metropolis.
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