Role Of Broadcasting Service In Conflict Resolution
The aim of this study was to analyze the Role of Enugu State Broadcasting Service in Conflict Resolution. (A study of Enugu North).To achieve this aim, the survey research method was used. Subjects were drawn from the audience of Enugu North, using simple random sampling technique and purposive sampling technique. Four research questions guided the study. Research findings showed that Enugu State Broadcasting Service has contributed greatly to conflict resolution through the programmes they aired. The research also found out that there is a high level of the state government interference in ESBS affairs. To this end, the researcher recommended that the level of interference of the state government in the affairs of ESBS should be at minimum to ensure efficiency in their discharge of duties. The researcher suggested that further studies should be carried out on the impact of ESBS in sustainable programmes on conflict resolution. Programmes that aid conflict resolution should be appropriately sponsored to make for continuity.
1.1 Background of the Study
Human beings as social animals have always been embroiled in temporary and continuous disputes and fracas collectively called conflicts since time immemorial. This come in the form of individuals against individuals, families against families, kingdoms against kingdoms, and more contemporary, countries against countries. Boulding, K. (1989).
According to Pruitt and Robbins, (2002). Conflict can be defined as “The perceiveddivergence of interest, or a belief that the party‟s current aspirations cannot be achieved simultaneously from gradual interactions between the parties. They are ultimately a direct result of the given relationships and interactions between species, will in one way or another breed friction and discontent thereby, giving rise to perceived injustice and the attendant frictions and agitations. Bercovitch, J. (2002).
However,the need to be recognized as a member of a unit is such a functional social factor, that any attempt or perceived attempt to undo or ridicule the natural statutes, breeds divergent and friction thereby gradually heating up the system to a toxic edge. Wilson,K.(1988).
Thus, minimizing this friction has become imperative as it has seldom proved impossible to eliminate. This redemption notion has given birth to the theory of “ConflictResolution‟‟ a brain child of the need for stakeholders to work out a route of any conflict.
Brief History ofEnugu StateBroadcasting Service [ESBS]
Enugu State Broadcasting Servicescomprises ofradio and television outfit. It has been in existence since independence in the Eastern part of Nigeria since 1960. Enugu State Broadcasting Service was formally known as Eastern Nigeria Broadcasting Corporation [ENBC]. Eastern Nigeria Broadcasting Corporation television consisted of a two camera studio and control room, television with a 100 Watts television transmitter.
During the Nigeria Civil War, ENBC was known as Radio Biafran. The challenges of the war put the ability and technology to the acid test. The corporation retained its name as Eastern Nigeria Broadcasting Corporation till the end of the Nigeria Civil War in 1970. It was later re-called, East Central State Broadcasting Service [ECBS], to reflect its ownership by the news which was carved out from the Eastern region.
But with the creation of new Anambra and Enugu State in 1991, and the subsequent disengagement of the staff on March 16,1992, the Anambra Broadcasting Service Enugu Awka and Enugu State Broadcasting Services [ESBS]. Mr. Peter Prouman was its first director general.Enugu State Broadcasting Service was established for effective information dissemination in all parts of the state. It was to bridge the information gap between the government and the governed from rural to urban areasin order to stimulate interest between government and rural folks.It is in the light of the above that the study is designed to measure the “The Role of Enugu State Broadcasting Service in Conflict Resolution.‟‟
Conflict resolution is generally conceptualized as the methods and processes involved in facilitating the peaceful resolution or ending of conflict.
Often, committed group of members attempt to resolve group conflicts by actively communicating Information about their conflicting motives or ideologies to the rest of the group. By this means, they tender their intentions and reasons for certain beliefs, engaging in collective negotiations that are intended to end the conflict or crisis.
The term “conflict resolution” may also be used interchangeably with dispute resolution, where arbitration and litigation processes are critically involved.Burton,J.(2002). In Nigeria ,and Enugu to be precise, conflicts which have had menacing effects on the life the people , especially conflicting communities or parties ,have always been resolved by the direct intervention of government.
The government intervention comes in the form of direct deployment of military and paramilitary personnel‟s in war-prone conflicting areas, negotiations committees that reach out to the elders(stakeholders) of the conflicting parties or by the use of media, through anti-conflict propaganda messages.Dentsch,M. (1983).
History of Conflicts
Axelrod, Robert. (1984). Observed that;
Competition among and between species,for food, habitats, mates,and general Survival are functionally implicit in theProcess of evolution, and hence, intrinsic to their existence as living things,Prone to social and community friction.
This clearly reflects the functional imperativeness of conflicts as a social feature of any group where interactions exist. The history of conflicts therefore, is as old as man himself.
Biblically, conflict arose in the Garden of Eden, when Adam and Eve disobeyed God‟s“supreme injunction” not to eat of the fruit in the middle of the garden.(The forbidden fruit)”. His disobedience was recorded to have ensued a brawl between him, his wife (Eve) and God, the creator, prompting the later to met punitive measures on the disobedient pair.
Subsequently, civilized conflicts and wars can be historically traced to the Paleolithic and Neolithic era. Bronoski, R.(1978).Reflects that, “Early conflicts of the Neolithic era, emanated spontaneously from a contest to control the surpluses and resources discovered by man in that era.”
Conflict of old as much as those of contemporary era had stemmed also from the selfish divergence of views, in the form of political ideologies, religious differences and ethnic and social factors.
Documented conflicts can also be traced from the Punic wars to the Greco-Persian conflicts, to the Barbarian invasions of the Romans, to the Crusaders of the Arab world, the Northern wars, the French wars, the Nazi wars, the Isreali-Palestine conflict, the independence and insurgency wars, and most recently terrorist conflicts.
Boulding, Kenneth. (1962).
In Nigeria, conflicts most notably can be traced back to the post -colonial era, with the Biafra civil war, the most prominent example. There have been several conflicts in religions relating to certain agitations by seemingly aggrieved parties. This could be Trans-ethnic or Intra-ethnic. Chinua, A. (2012).Enugu State has also had its fair share of conflicts most notably among them include, the Umuode Community Crisis, Udi Community Crisis and the notorious Oruku Kingdom Crisis.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The prevalence of conflict in the world and particularly in the African Sub-region has been a major source of concern to individuals, families and the society at large. People have become apprehensive about the negative consequences of conflict, due to the way and manner it erupts in our society.
However, the media have also been noted for its dysfunctional roles in the society. Since the media seek to mould the opinion of users, it is logical that their negative roles would have negative effects on society. Although the media to a large extent indeed play biggest role of ensuring that conflicts or any particular conflict receives wide public attention.
The question this research work seeks to answer therefore is,what role does Enugu State Broadcasting Service play in Conflict Resolution in Enugu North?
1.3 Objectives of the Study
- To determine the reach of audience base of Enugu North to ESBS.
- To know the meaning and concept of conflict resolution.
- To find out the level of interference of the state government in ESBS affairs.
- To determine the contributions of ESBS toconflict resolution in Enugu North.
1.4 Research Hypotheses
For the successful completion of the study, the following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher;
- H0: there is no level of interference of the state government in ESBS affairs
H1: there is level of interference of the state government in ESBS affairs
- H02: there are no contributions of ESBS to conflict resolution in Enugu North
H2: there are contributions of ESBS to conflict resolution in Enugu North
1.5 Significance of the Study
This study will give clear give insight on role of broadcasting service in conflict resolution. The study will be beneficial to students, media and the general public. The study will also serve as a reference to other researchers that will embark on this topic.
1.6 Scope and Limitation of the Study
The scope of the study covers role of broadcasting service in conflict resolution. The researcher encounters some constrain which limited the scope of the study;
a) Availability of Research Material:
The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study
The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
c) Organizational Privacy:
Limited Access to the selected auditing firm makes it difficult to get all the necessary and required information concerning the activities.
1.7 Definition of Terms
Broadcasting is the simultaneous transmission of the same message to multiple recipients. In networking, broadcasting occurs when a transmitted data packet is received by all network devices.
Conflict refers to some form of friction, or discord arising within a group when the beliefs or actions of one or more members of the group are either resisted by or unacceptable to one or more members of another group
Conflict resolution is conceptualized as the methods and processes involved in facilitating the peaceful ending of conflict and retribution.
1.8 Organization of the Study
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows
- Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
- Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
- Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
- Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
- Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
It is important to ascertain that the objective of this study was to ascertain role of broadcasting service in conflict resolution
In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given. In this chapter, certain recommendations made which in the opinion of the researcher will be of benefits in addressing the challenge of role of broadcasting service in conflict resolution
This study was on role of broadcasting service in conflict resolution. Four objectives were raised which included: To determine the reach of audience base of Enugu North to ESBS, to know the meaning and concept of conflict resolution, to find out the level of interference of the state government in ESBS affairs, to determine the contributions of ESBS to conflict resolution in Enugu North. In line with these objectives, two research hypotheses were formulated and two null hypotheses were posited. The total population for the study is 200 staff ofEnugu state broadcasting service, Enugu state. The researcher used questionnaires as the instrument for the data collection. Descriptive Survey research design was adopted for this study. A total of 133 respondents made up broadcasters,human resource managers, production managers and junior staff were used for the study. The data collected were presented in tables and analyzed using simple percentages and frequencies
The Enugu state government should accept the wide role of media such as to inform, educate and entertain. This is to say that the information and education role of mass media provides it with a major opportunity to help resolve conflicts, especially when the ethics of the profession are strictly adhered to. Studies on conflict and conflict resolution matters are of paramount importance to everyone, the conflicting parties, the government, etc. This study formed a documented framework exposing the ills and dangers of conflicts and recommending ways to avert or sustain such occurrences in the future.
Based on the findings and conclusions of this study, the following recommendations were made.
- Mass media should be objective and balance in their reportage. That is, stick to the truth in reporting all sides of the conflict instead of publishing falsehood and propaganda from interest parties.
- The mass media programmes that aid conflict resolution should be appropriately sponsored to make for continuity.
- Mass media should carry out regular research to appraise their effectiveness in the area of conflict resolution and not miss the sufferings of the victims of conflict instead of placing undue emphasis on the „heroic‟ deeds of the combatants.
- The level of the state government interference in mass media affairs should be reduced to ensure efficiency in their discharge of duties.
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