Role Of Broadcast Media In Political Participation In Nigeria (A Case Study Of Hot FM, Owerri)

Project and Seminar Material for Mass Communication

Role Of Broadcast Media In Political Participation In Nigeria (A Case Study Of Hot FM, Owerri)


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine the role of broadcast media in political participation in Nigeria using Hot Fm, Owerri as a case study. The study was carried out to find out whether HOT FM plays an important role in creating political awareness in Owerri, find out whether HOT FM plays a significant role in enhancing the political interest of audience in Owerri, and find out whether the political programs aired on HOT FM encourage political participation of audience in Owerri. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of pstaff of Hot Fm, Owerri. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 41 respondents and 35 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables. While the hypotheses were tested using Chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that HOT FM plays an important role in creating political awareness in Owerri. The study also revealed that the political programs aired on HOT FM encourage political participation of audience in Owerri. Therefore, it is recommended that to ensure effective, efficient and un-biased political participation by the mass media, there should be completely total autonomy, which will in turn ensure a free and independent press. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

Political participation is the bedrock of democracy. It includes involvement in and contributions to such political exercises as running in elections, voting, campaigning, party membership, election funding and other similar acts. Political participants attempt to influence the political processes through acceptable forms of persuasion. Active political participants register to vote, actually vote and vigorously talk to others to take the same steps. Some others watch politics unfold on television. Democracy as a system of government gives the citizens the right of mass participation.

The broadcast media are strategic partners in political participation as reflected in the news they transmit about political parties and their manifestos, contestants and the general electoral processes which help voters make reasoned choices. radio, in particular, has proved to be immensely popular in enhancing political education and participation. The use of radio for development goals has been recognized in the field of development communication for many years. This school of thought believes that an ideal radio broadcasting service catalyzes public information distribution, creates awareness, and encourages participation in the issues canvassed on it. Scholars like Chapman, Blench, Kranjac-Berisavljevic & Zakariah (2003), and Nazari & Hasbullah (2010) reaffirmed the above view by noting radio broadcasting as a viable means of disseminating information to the grass root and getting people to participate in the development process.

Radio broadcasting is fast becoming ever more interactive, unlike in the past, writes Etineagbedia (2014) and Oji (2011a). The authors note that in most parts of the world, it is thought that it serves as a means of disseminating information and as a platform for citizens to express their opinions on issues of public concern. According to Aginam (2005), in “In Media in ‘Globalizing’ Africa: What Prospect for Democratic Communication?” radio broadcasting is the most common means of mass communication in Sub-Saharan Africa. The author backed up his argument by asserting that the vast majority of Sub-Saharan Africans (about 80%) reside in rural settings. Aginam went on to say that Africa’s low literacy rate, the prevalence of multilingual states, and the prevalence of radio broadcast media all combine to give radio a unique standing as a form of communication.

However, Anazodo, Agbionu & Ezenwile (2013) observed that radio programmes addressing political issues are broadcast on a variety of radio stations that were founded for different goals. This means that political viewpoints on the radio are disjointed and unorganized. What this means is that the audiences of radio are not targeted with the provision of political news and developments. Thus, political information is streamed in an ad hoc and uncoordinated manner, thereby undermining the parochial political culture that exists in Nigeria. Olayiwola (1991) corroborates by stating that who owns the media in Nigeria has a strong influence on the utilization of the media for political communication. For instance, Bolivia is one of the most effective examples of radio being utilized to assist in the development of a critical citizen movement to help dynamize the social contract and give voice to people who have no voice in political processes. (Ramos & Badillo,2013). The example of Bolivia exemplifies the importance of radio in the development process. When the radio environment in Bolivia is compared to that in Nigeria, there is a clear difference. There are no radio stations in Nigeria’s dedicated to spreading information on political programmes or airing government policies on political development.

As a result of the foregoing submissions, this study examines the role of broadcast media in political participation in Nigeria (a case study of Hot Fm, Owerri).


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Broadcast media has glamorized elections by reporting the thrills and frills. With its power of sound, it has brought into millions of homes what is happening in and outside their countries. Broadcast media give the listeners the opportunity to have first hand impressions of contestants. Citizens need the requisite knowledge, as packaged by the broadcast media, to actively engage in the election process (McLeod, Kosicki and McLeod, 2002, 244).

Unimpressively, however, many citizens still do not participate in politics. Some feel that their votes do not count. Others would rather listen the electoral processes from their radio than participate in the process. This study wants to investigate the role of broadcast media in political participation in Nigeria (a case study of Hot Fm, Owerri).


1.3 Objective of the Study

This study is set to examine the role of broadcast media in political participation in Nigeria (a case study of Hot Fm, Owerri). Specifically it is geared:

  1. Find out whether HOT FM plays an important role in creating political awareness in Owerri.
  2. Find out whether HOT FM plays a significant role in enhancing the political interest of audience in Owerri.
  3. Find out whether the political programs aired on HOT FM encourage political participation of audience in Owerri.

1.4 Research Questions

The study will be guided by the following methods;

  1. Does HOT FM play an important role in creating political awareness in Owerri?
  2. Does HOT FM plays a significant role in enhancing the political interest of audience in Owerri?
  3. Does the political programs aired on HOT FM encourage political participation of audience in Owerri?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

  • Ho: The broadcast media does not play a significant role in encouraging audience political participation .
  • Ha: The broadcast media plays a significant role in encouraging audience political participation.

1.6 Significance of the Study

This study would be relevant to the general public and also contribute to the body of knowledge. More.so it will be a wake up call for radio station to ensure they educative contents in order to educate the mass on the need to be in political involved during electoral processes in Nigeria. The study will enable government and policy makers on the need to monitor content shared on radio station in order to avoid sharing panic related message to the public audience.


1.7 Scope of the Study

The scope of the study boarders on the role of broadcast media in political participation in Nigeria (a case study of Hot Fm, Owerri). however the respondents for this study will be obtained from staff of Hot Fm, Owerri.


1.8 Limitations of the Study

In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, language barriers, and the attitude of the respondents. However, the researcher were able to manage these just to ensure the success of this study.

Moreover, the case study method utilized in the study posed some challenges to the investigator including the possibility of biases and poor judgment of issues. However, the investigator relied on respect for the general principles of procedures, justice, fairness, objectivity in observation and recording, and weighing of evidence to overcome the challenges.


1.9 Definition of the Terms

Role:

A role is a set of connected behaviors, rights, obligations, beliefs, and norms as conceptualized by people in a social situation

Radio:

Radio is the technology of signaling and communicating using radio waves.They are generated by an electronic device called a transmitter connected to an antenna which radiates the waves, and received by another antenna connected to a radio receiver.


1.10 Organization of the Studies

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the role of broadcast media in political participation in Nigeria using Hot Fm, Owerri as a case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to examine the role of broadcast media in political participation in Nigeria using Hot Fm, Owerri as a case study. The study was specifically carried out to find out whether HOT FM plays an important role in creating political awareness in Owerri, find out whether HOT FM plays a significant role in enhancing the political interest of audience in Owerri, and find out whether the political programs aired on HOT FM encourage political participation of audience in Owerri.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 35 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent were staff of Hot Fm, Owerri.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher concluded that;

  1. HOT FM plays an important role in creating political awareness in Owerri.
  2. HOT FM plays a significant role in enhancing the political interest of audience in Owerri.
  3. The political programs aired on HOT FM encourage political participation of audience in Owerri.

5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.

  1. To enable the media play their roles more adequately therefore, it is suggested that the National Broadcasting Commission and other moderating bodies review the nation’s communication policy to reflect current realities and global expectations. A national communication policy is not just an instrument for ensuring free press, flow of information and media ownership; it should also be an essential tool for social mobilization, public persuasion and socio-political development.
  2. To ensure effective, efficient and un-biased political participation by the mass media, there should be completely total autonomy, which will in turn ensure a free and independent press.
  3. It is the researcher’s opinion that the independence of the media can go a long way to make things right and purposeful in political mobilization by the media to the general public benefit.
  4. Media workers and journalist should be encouraged or motivated through giving adequate remuneration to boost their morals put in their best in their undertaking.
  5. Journalist should be allowed to go for training to develop their skills and potentials, and sometimes send abroad to gain exposure.

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