The Role of Broadcast Media in Promoting Women in Politics (A Case Study in Enugu Metropolis, Nigeria)
The low rate of female participation in politics compared to that of their male counter- parts in Nigeria creates a need to examine the situation in this study, “The role of broadcast media in mobilizing women for political participation in Nigeria”. This study examines the problems, first, defining the importance of women to participate in politics. The survey research method was employed in this study and questionnaires were used for data collection, then the hypotheses were tested using chi-square statistical procedure to reach a definite conclusion. The results reflect that broadcast media have positive impact in mobilizing women to participate in politics. In summary, broadcast media is found wanting in fostering development for gender equality in politics. In recommendations, suggestion of ways to stimulate female participation was made by looking at practical examples of how this was done in the pre-colonial era. Finally, in conclusion, the study emphasizes that no sex or gender is more important than the other because in politics, intellectual ability counts more than physical energy.
Table of Contents
- Title page
- Approval page
- Table of contents
- 1.1 Background of the Study
- 1.2 Statement of Research Problem
- 1.3 Objectives of the Study
- 1.4 Significance of the Study
- 1.5 Research Questions
- 1.6 Research Hypotheses
- 1.7 Definition of Terms
- 1.8 Assumptions of the Study
- 1.9 Limitations of the Study
2.0 Literature Review
- 2.1 Sources of Literature
- 2.2 The Review of Relevant Literature
- 2.2.1 Women in Pre-Colonial Era in Nigeria
- 2.2.2 Discussions on Gender and Politics
- 2.2.3 Early Female Politicians and their Achievements
- 2.2.4 Factors Affecting Female Participation in Politics
- 2.2.5 Attitude of Broadcast Media to Nigerian Women
- 2.2.6 Attitude of Nigerian Women to Broadcast Media
- 2.3 Theoretical Frame Work
- 2.4 Summary of Literature Review
3.0 Research Design and Methodology
- 3.1 Research Design
- 3.2 Area of Study
- 3.3 Population of the Study
- 3.4 Research Sample and Sampling Technique
- 3.5 Instrument for Data Collection
- 3.6 Validity of Instrument
- 3.7 Method of Data Collection
- 3.8 Method of Data Analysis
4.0 Presentation and Analysis of Data
- 4.1 Data Presentation and Analysis
- 4.2 Test of Hypotheses
- 4.3 Discussion of Findings
5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations for Further Studies
- 5.1 Summary
- 5.2 Conclusion
- 5.3 Recommendation for Further Studies
- Appendix ‘A’
- Appendix ‘B’
1.1 Background of the Study
Women constitute a critical segment of the Nigeria population. They are active in the agriculture and economic sectors of the society and have also contributed immensely to the decolonization and general development of this great country.
Women struggles date back to the 19th century when women like Amina of Zaria, Madam Tinubu of Lagos, Olufuamilayo Ransom Kute of Abeokuta, Margaret Ekpo and Hajji Gabon Swabia among others fought to give women the pride of place in Nigeria’s history even after the struggle for independence was over and Nigeria became an independent soveign nation, women continued to contribute their quota in the post- independence match towards development and progress. In the areas of politics, the above named amongst others contributed immensely to the mobilization and sensitization of women with a view to ensuring that women are involved in the politics of the country.
At present, the issues pertaining to women have contributed to draw a global attention with the result that the problems that impede their progress are currently being addressed concretely. Consequently, the crusted for women empowerment has heightened the political consciousness of women. Some of them occupy strategic positions in government where they have continued to prove their mettle. For instance Dora Akunyili, Oby Ezekwesili of Due process Fame, Ndi Okereke Onyilike and Ngozi Okonji Iweala among others has undoubtedly distinguished themselves in their official assignments.
The role of women in development has for a long been taken for granted and relegated to the back ground. For a long time, politics in Nigeria has been played with the usual patronizing attitude which usually does not go far in enlightening women. Some of the factors employed are social and cultural practices which hither to have been misinterpreted to create biases against women. There is need for women to be properly oriented so that their numerical strength and voting power can be profitably galvanized and oriented towards empowerment of other women who will in turn look after the welfare of all women by formulating gender sensitive laws to promote women’s cause.
What is really the meaning of politics? Various scholars resulting in different views of politics have defined it as the art of possible, a game of wits, all that begins and ends with government. Politics is essentially the art and science of government. That is, the study of the control, distribution and use of power over human activities in society.
The word politics is derived from the Greek word Polis, which means “city state”. Winter and bellows (1968) pointed out that Aristotle (384-322 Bc) in his treatise on human associations stated that the most sovereign inclusive association is the polis which presupposes the establishment of government, law- making, enforcement and eliciting obedience from the members of the society. Aristotle observed that man is by nature, political animal. This means that politics permeates all human actitivities. It manifests in social, economic and cultural intersections among individual and groups and transcends international frontiers.
The obvious maneuver associated with the concept and practice of politics influenced the emergence of the Laswellian theory of politics, which states that politics is who gets what and how (Laswellian 1958).
The Nairobi world conference to review and appraise the achievements of the UN Decade for women in 1985, and the Beijing fourth world conference on women in 1995, both had top on their agenda issues concerning women and the media. These conference brought to the fore the importance of the media in the quest for gender equity in development, despite there international conferences and polices aimed at gender friendliness however, women’s participation in Nigerian politics is undermined by the way the media represents politics as an exclusively male domain.
Contemporary experiences have shown that broad- cast media is important to the political development of nations. Broadcast is not only a means of teaching, sensitizing and transmitting message on issues of development, but also crucial to the process of development. Considering the fact that broadcast is increasingly being used world-wide with its power of reaching a large mass of audience, it should not be ignored in the political scheme of things. This might account for why Nwankwo (1996: XI) said that, ‘one vital factor in the pursuit of gender equality in politics is the media’.
The aim here is not just to critically analyze the impact of broadcast media in the quest for a gender equitable polity, but to also turn the searchlight of feminists and media scholars to broadcast with regard to gender and politics. Thus, the focus is on the gender dimension of broadcast and the quest for a gender equitable polity.
It is here posited that broadcast media could significantly influence the acceleration and acceptable of women in politics.
1.2 Statement of Research Problem
It is not a hidden fact that women are under represented in the field of politics. This may be because of the basic assumption that “a women’s place is in the kitchen”. In other words, her home duties and family responsibilities should be her sole priority, thereby underling her active participation in national development in general.
Another assumption militating against female participation is that, female is biologically not designed for energy exerting and hazardous occupation. This argument may not be true because, with the age of automation and revolution in decision making intellectual ability counts more than physical energy.
The issue of gender bias too, contributes enormously to the low participation of women in politics. Beverly’ (1995), notes that the society assumes that women should be mothers, school teachers, hairdressers, secretaries, nurse, maids and social workers only, therefore, they do not need education not to talk of taking part in decision making. This believe is wrong, as both men and women need and can purse politics and projects in development, each in their own unique ways, alongside each other.
The home too is not left out in contributing to female lack of participation in politics. In the home husbands attitudes can directly or indirectly influence the choices their wives make in whether to enter into politics or not.
Many political parties, reflecting the more general conditions in the rest of society, do not easily accept or promote many women into their echelons, let alone permit women’s occupation of important positions within these parties. This issue is particularly important in view of Abdullah’s (1993) argument that to achieve women liberation, it will be tacked within democratic movements.
Thus, if this issue is not looked into, women will be illiterates and there will be backwardness in the economy of the country and growth of politics will depreciate.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The objective of this study is to use broadcast media to mobilize women to participate in politics also to voice out some cultural values in Nigeria that make it difficult for women to participate in the decision making process. There is need for attitudinal change and total reorientation in this respect.
Another objective of the study is to stop the issue of women being victims of violence in the home.
1.4 Significance of the Study
It is expected that at the end of this study, to update knowledge within the framework of the study. Particularly, it will assist people’s views on the usefulness of broadcast media in mobilizing women to take part in decision-making. This study will draw the attention of government to empower women to participate in politics through the use of radio, television, films and motion pictures in their packaging of news reports and events, and to academics in their practices and training of journalist. The government should promote the welfare of women in general. Also the federal government should promote the full utilization of women in the development of human resources and to bring about their acceptance as full participation in every phase of national development with equal rights and corresponding obligations least involving 30% elective positions for women.
Another important significance of this is for election to be conducted according to the rules, in which all qualified individuals especially women are free to vote or be voted for with out constraints of manipulations. (Williams, 2008).
1.5 Research Questions
In this study, an attempt will be sufficiently made to answer the following questions.
- Does colonial antecedent influences women participation in politics?
- To what extent does culture affect women participation in politics in Nigeria?
- Do broadcast media actually mobilize women enough towards political participation?
- Does women participation in politics depend on their exposure to broadcast media?
1.6 Research Hypothesis
The following research hypothesis derived logically from the problems posed in the research questions.
This is necessary in order give direction, focus as litmus test of the statement of claims or prepositions contained in the rein.
- H1: Colonial antecedents influence women participation in politics.
H0: Colonial antecedents do not influence women participation in politics.
- H2: Culture affects women participation in politics in Nigeria
H0: Culture does not affect women participation in politics in Nigeria.
- H3: Broadcast media actually mobilizes women enough towards political participation.
H0: Broadcast media does not actually mobilize women enough towards political participation.
- H4: Women participation in politics depends on their exposure to broadcast media.
H0: Women participation in politics does not depend on their exposure to broadcast media.
1.7 Definition of Terms
In this study, certain key words will be explained into conceptual and operational definitions.
- Conceptual Meaning: The degree to which somebody/ something is involved in a situation or an activity and the effect that they have on it.
- Operational Meaning: Functions, expectations associated on a given past or position
- Conceptual Meaning: A channel through which information/ programmers are sent out on television or radio.
- Operational Meaning: It include television and radio which are means of communicating to heterogeneous and homogenous audience.
- Conceptual Meaning: To make people ready to pursue a particular cause.
- Operational Meaning: It has to do with organizing or preparing people for a particular purpose.
- Operational Meaning: Womanly-having qualities held to be appropriate.
- Conceptual Meaning: The art of taking part in an activity or event
- Operational Meaning: Taking active part in that particular activity or event.
- Conceptual Meaning: The activities involved in getting and using power in public life and being able to influence decision that affect a country or a society.
- Operational Meaning: A competition between political parties to wards who or which party assumes political leadership
In my study, it is obviously seen that the broadcast media will always be at its peak in mobilizing women for political participation through which these women are enlightened, educated and sensitized more on political participation.
This will certainly correct the gender in balance in politics and promote women participation in politics and governance.
Broadcast media has contributed greatly to the political reforms in our country through her numerous programmers’ on politics and women participation, ranging from her news programmers’ such as Paradise Park, which is geared towards institutionalizing women participation in Nigeria politics.
1.9 Limitation of the Study
There are many limitations ranging form not knowing where to start, not knowing who to consult or approach for materials not knowing what next to write in various segment of this study and not actually knowing who to put me through in achieving my work.
Secondly, as we know, our nations economy is very bad that finance become a serious problem to my research study due to lack of fund to get to some places, people and to get one thing done or the other done. Due to that it creates a barrier to the study.
Finally, back pains, dizziness as well as the researcher’s respondent’s inability to return questionnaires that was given to them adequately.
Summary, Conclusion, Recommendations for Further Study
The press, gender and politics are at the core of this study. As Boafo and Arnold (1995), put it, “broadcast is not only necessary to the various aspects of human development, but also to the process of participating and nurturing the polity”. However, from the gender dimension, Nwankwo (1996: x1) captures the position of this study that the broadcast media… Is found wanting in fostering the development of gender equality in politics.
Thus, in Nigeria, it was also found that, despite the deliberate international politics aimed at gender- friendly political representation, women are under –represented.
It is high time for everyone (especially women) to realize that gender identities are largely culturally created and no sex/gender is more important than the other. Women constitute about 51% of votes, but a review of the Nigerian political scene reveals a thy for gender- equitable development, considering the fact that women were in governance among the various ethnic groups in Nigeria during the pre-colonial period. This analysis showed that broadcast media is partly to blame for this situation.
Evidence revealed that there are various ways through which broadcast media has helped to keep women in the private sphere. For instance, broadcast media propagates masculine culture that pigeonholes women and presents them as unfit for politics. Broadcast media achieves this through its use of language, media coverage on women issues, image used and assignment of political editorial positions, amongst others. These became evident in the analysis of motion pictures of broadcast and the content of their editorial opinions and reportage. Also even when women are covered politically, they are not given prominence.
The historical past of Nigeria may have also affected the situation because, during the colonial period, the colonial masters suppressed established institutions which protected women and since then, the situation has remained the same (Nwankwo, 1996).
Broadcast media helps bring development issues to public’s knowledge and thus could be catalytic in the quest for gender equitable representation in politics. According to Norwood (2005:5), “indeed it is difficult for people to be interested in things they know nothing about”. This calls for the need for feminist and development scholars to turn their searchlight to broadcast media on the issue of gender and politics. McBride et al (1996:191), Submit:
Of course, the media are not the fundamental cause of the subordinate status of women, nor can it be remedied by the media alone. The causes are deeply rooted in social, economic and political structures, as well as culturally- determined attitudes and solution must be found in far reaching change. However, it is within the power of the broadcast media either to stimulate or to retard change to a significant degree.
Thus, development scholars and feminist must devise an overall strategy for change in the information and communication order of the world, especially as it, affects women and politics.
Women issues should be properly integrated into the information and communication system. Furthermore, broadcast media should be more responsive to the needs of women in politics. It should present information which do not distort, be little or demean women or confine them to stereotyped behavior and roles. Hence, the call for broadcast media in which women participates and shares in determining the content, in decision-making and control. In fact, broadcast media should be more committed to social responsibility and ‘gender accountability’ in the arena of politics.
5.3 Recommendations for Further Study
The following recommendations are made based on the findings of the study:
- Grassroots enlightenment campaign should be organized to change the negative attitude of most people to woman participation in politics as well as to inspire women to vie for elective position.
- “Godfathers” should be extended to women political aspirants in relation to sponsorship. They should give women a chance.
- The National Assembly as a matter of state policy should implement Affirmative Action involving the reservation of 30% elective posts for women.
- Economic empowerment of women should be vigorously pursued since it will provoke greater participation of women in electioneering.
- Electoral law should forbid political thuggery and violence while the senate should enact a law making electoral violence a crime punishable by hanging. This will no doubt create a condusive positive political atmosphere in Nigeria for women political aspirants.
- ‘Catch them young’ There is a serious need to give the girl child a re-orientation and a thorough brain-washing to disabuse her mind from the environmental socio-cultural intimidation that inhabits and limits herself worth, self-assertion and actualization. By the age of 5 years, Queen Elizabeth of England had already started practicing her speeches over wireless. An early start is advisable.
- Above all, women should encourage themselves and support female political aspirants. Equally, husbands should encourage and support wives with political visions and ambitions.
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