Rodents Infestation, Its Effects On Human Health And The Control Measures In Onyedega Community, Ibaji Local Government, Kogi State

Project and Seminar Material for Environmental Science

Rodents Infestation, Its Effects On Human Health And The Control Measures In Onyedega Community, Ibaji Local Government, Kogi State


Abstract


This research work focused on rodent infestation, its effect on human health and the control measures on the habitats of Onyedega, in Ibaji local government, Onyedega community is under Ibaji local government area of Kogi state and was established in the year 1996. The general objective of this study is to find out the species of rodents that predominate the study area, to determine the causes of rodents infestation in Onyedega community, to identify the effects of rodents infestation in the study area, to determine the preventive measures of rodents elimination. The design used is descriptive and the sample side used is simple random sampling techniques questionnaires were used to collect data from the respondents and were presented and analyzed using T-test statistical method. Findings from this study show that the causes of rodent infestation in Onyedega are waste generation and improper storage of food items. The study was concluded with the recommendations which include the community should practice environmental sanitation, adequate storage of food products in rat-proof stall, the government should provide chemicals such as pesticide and herbicides to eradicate weeds from the premises, each family within the community should possess a dustbin for the storage of refuse before final disposal.


Chapter One


Introduction

Rodents are described as a living animals or mammals with special gnawing teeth and jaws capable of causing damage to property, food stuff, farm product, cables, and furniture, document and as well as transmission of disease to man.

Rodents may be big in size or small which is characterized by jaw with continuous gnawing teeth (incisors). The groups are known as mammals such as mice, porcupine, beaver, squirrel rat etc.

Rodents are found all over the world today as a result of international trade. Some of the factors that facilitate the occurrence of rodent infestation in our environment result in discriminate disposal of wastes, littering of food within the premises and also living in an insanitary buildings and bushy area.

Rodents as mammals reproduce sexually by giving birth to young ones alive with many numbers and rate.
They are capable of competing with man for food and in the same process cause damage to large quantity of food right from the field till the time of storage. Rodents are also common in the populated area for feeding purpose.
Rodents are mostly feed on grains, fruits, fungi, insects and small mammals as well for survival. Rodents are black in appearance (Ratus ratus), roof rat and also brown (Ratus norvegicuis), Norway rat. The black rat is slim and slender in nature while brown rat is heavy and large. The tail of the black ones is longer than the length of the body, and that of the brown rat is short. The nose of the black type is pointed while the brown rat is blunt in nature. The ear of the black rat is large while that of the brown rat is small. The eyes of black one is big and prominent and the brown rat is small. The mouth of the both is sharp.

Rodents are nocturnal animals and are prolific in nature. As long as rodents continue to multiply, the preventive and control measures has to be put into consideration by the use of The chemical, physical and biological method to eradicate pests base on the type of damages, belief and custom of the community as the climatic condition of that area deserved.

A lot of damages of farm products and food stuff has been done by the rodent at Onyedega which need to be controlled with immediate effect.

Also, there was outbreak of disease known as LASSA FEVER in the study area in 1991, in which a lot of people were affected. There were been hospitalized in the hospital cottage only two persons died of the disease.

They create holes by burrowing at the side and corners of the building. Therefore, health education is to be given on the appropriate measurement and control method on rodent infestation and our environment for safety and comfort in this present generation.


1.1 Statement of Problem

In the course of this study, the researcher discovered the public health of rodents infestation in the area. The economic importance in the community (Onyedega) members is that, it is capable of causing damage to crops, transmission of disease and economic loss.

If control measures is not taken to eradicate the effect of rodents’ infestation in the community, the life of that habitat is in danger.

To solve the above problem in the study area, adequate measures have to be put in place, such as proper sanitation, trapping, rat proofing and deratting.

The measures cannot be put into practice by the member due to lack of awareness, poor orientation and poverty.


1.2 Statement of Purpose

  1. To determine the extent of damage caused the rodents in the study area.
  2. To ascertain the preventive and control measures on rodents’ infestation.
  3. To find out the possible cause of rodents infestation in the community.

1.3 Significant of the Study

  1. To identify the effects of rodents and its control measures in the community.

1.4 Justification of the Study

The above situation is not different from what is experienced in Onyedega community as the head quarter in Ibaji Local Government. Area.


1.5 Board Objective

The broad objective of this work was to assess rodent infestation its effect on human health and the control in onyedega Ibaji L.G.A.


1.6 Specific Objectives

  1. To find the species of rodents predominant in the study area.
  2. To determine the cause of rodents infestation in Onyedega community.
  3. To identify the effect of rodents infestation in the study area.
  4. To determine the preventive measures of rodents elimination.

1.7 Research Questions

The researcher used the following research questions and research hypothesis in the investigation in order to facilitate accurate findings.

Research Question 1

Can the species of rodents predominant in Onyedega be determined?

Research Hypothesis I

The species of rodents predominant in Onyedega cannot be determined.

Research Question 2

Can the causes of rodents infestation in Onyedega be determined?

Research Hypothesis 2

The causes of rodents infestation in Onyedega cannot be determined

Research Question 3

Can the effect of rodents infestation in the study area be identified?

Research Hypothesis 3

The effect of rodents infestation in the study area cannot be identified.

Research Question 4

Can the preventive measures of rodents elimination be determined?

Research Hypothesis 4

The preventive measures of rodents elimination cannot be determined.


1.8 Rodent Species

The species of rodents found in the study area were identified with their local names which are:

  1. Cricetomy gambiams locally known “Akoto” and popularly known as giant rat which are normally found in burrow pits near stores as well as latrine and at the burrow side of the hill.
  2. The Ratus norvegicus is called “Ogba” locally; this is basically responsible for the destruction of harvested crops, grains, tubers as well as germinated seeds.
  3. Ratus-ratus: This specie is known as ‘Ema” in the area of study. They are commonly found in refuse sties were all sort of waste materials are deposited.
  4. Mus musculus (house mouse) which is locally known as “Ikeleku”, they are found within the community (Onyedega).

1.9 Signs of Rodents Infestation in the Study Area

  1. Rat burrows
  2. Gnawing marks
  3. Dropping
  4. Damage of Food Stuff.

1.10 Health Significance of Rodents

Transmission of diseases like salmonelosis, murine typhus, rat-bite fever and leptospirosis.


1.11 Economic Importance of Rodents

  1. Rodents cause damage to grain and food stuff.
  2. Reduction of market value (leading to loss of income)
  3. Rat cause scarcity which result to starvation.
  4. Destruction of electric cable leading to power failure and fire outbreak. And the dropping is a nuisance to the community.

1.12 General Characteristics of Rodents

  1. Continuously growing incisors teeth for damaging properties.
  2. Some are very good in climbing.
  3. They are omnivorous animals since they can fed on all type of food items.
  4. Their gnaw marks are signs of their activities in the area.

1.13 Preventive Measures of Rodents in the Community Under Study

Rodents as a vector of the transmission of diseases can be controlled by the following methods:
Environmental sanitation measure.

  1. Trapping of Rodents
  2. The use of rodenticides
  3. The use of poisonous bait
  4. The use of repellants
  5. The use of rat proofing

1.14 Definitions of Terms

Rodents:

These are small living Manuals with the powerful grown incisors for gnawing objectives. The examples are rats, rabbit, squirrels, porcupines and birds.

Rodenticides:

These are poisonous substances used for the controlling of rodents.

Rodents Breeding:

This is the place where rodent live to feed, reproduce to young ones, shelter and grow.

Rat Proofing:

This is the use of strong structure in building, stallation, in order to prevent the entrance of rat into a place to cause damage.

Infestation:

This is the presence of large visible living creatures in or on man, annual or place resulting in attacking to life and property.

Habitat:

This is the natural ern4ronment of plants and animals.

Pesticides:

These are poisonous substance used for the controlling of pest in the environment or an area.

Burrow:

This is the method of making a hole or a tunnel in the ground by digging.

Smear:

This is the act of making something dirty, greasy an unpleasant.

Contaminant:

Is a substance that makes something impure.

Pray:

This is the small animal, bird, insect etc that is haunted, killed and eaten by another animals.

Predator:

This is an animal that kill other animals and eat.

Environment:

The collective natural conditions of air water and land in which we live.

Ecology:

The branch of science that concern with the study of habitat of living thing such as plants and other living thing to each other and to their surroundings.

Nocturnal Animals:

This is the animals that are more active in the night than in the day time.

Gestation:

This is the method of carrying the fertilized eggs or foetus in the womb from pregnancy to birth by the female living animals.

Invasion:

This is the presence of high population of rodents in a place with great damage to property and life.

Longivity:

Process of long life of living things.

Morphology:

Branch of Biology that deals with the study of the form and the structure of plants and animals.

Disease:

Is the Chemical manifestation of an illness of infection.

Pest:

These are living organisms such as insects, animal that damage, attack crops, human health, livestock or other property resulting in great loss or death.

Bait:

An imitated food put on a hook to catch or attract prey or rodent for killing.

Poison Bait:

This is a poisonous food to rodent in order to kill them when get ingested.

Gnawing:

Is the way by which rodent bite an objects.

Rat Guard:

Is a metal device for impeding the entrance of rodent into a building or the structures.

Fumigation:

Is the method of disinfecting by means of vapour or gas, or chemical with strong smell to kill germs, insects and rodents in an infested environment.

Dropping:

Is the faeces of animals or birds.

Scrapes:

Is the building done when burrow is made.

Trap:

Is the device metal to catch animal alive.

Reservoir:

Is a place where causative agent live and is able to infest the susceptible host.

Trapping

Is one of the methods for controlling the infestation of rodents with the use of trap to catch rodents.

Zoonosis:

Animal disease that can be transmitted to man by rat after bite.

Runway:

Is the path used by the rodent of regularly to and fro their harborage in search of food/water source often out of view.

Repellent:

Substance produced to hinder pest’s reaction.

Sanitation:

This is the act of cleaning the environment to make it less hazardous for human habitation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

5.1 Introduction

This chapter presents the summary, conclusion and recommendations for further studies.


5.2 Summary of Findings

This study was carried out to investigate rodents infestation, its effects on human health and the control measures in Onyedega Community, Ibaji Local Government, Kogi State. To achieve this objective, four research questions and four research hypotheses were formulated to guide this study. A structured questionnaire was used as the main instrument to gather data from 120 selected respondents in Onyedega Community, Ibaji Local Government, Kogi State. Out of this number, 95 (79.2%) copies of questionnaire were appropriately completed and returned for data analysis while 25(20.8%) copies of questionnaire not completed and returned.

The data collected from the respondents were analyzed using tables and t-test statistical method was used to test the hypotheses. The findings revealed that;

  1. The species of rodents predominant in Onyedega can be determined.
  2. The causes of rodents infestation in Onyedega can be determined.
  3. The effect of rodents infestation in the study area can be identified.
  4. The preventive measures of rodents elimination can be determined.

5.3 Conclusion

Based on the findings of this study, it is concluded that rodents are described as a living animals or mammals with special gnawing teeth and jaws capable of causing damage to property, food stuff, farm product, cables, and furniture, document and as well as transmission of disease to man. Rodents may be big in size or small which is characterized by jaw with continuous gnawing teeth (incisors). The groups are known as mammals such as mice, porcupine, beaver, squirrel rat etc.


5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher made the following recommendations:

  1. The community should practice environmental sanitation, adequate storage of food products in rat-proof stall.
  2. The government should provide chemicals such as pesticide and herbicides to eradicate weeds from the premises
  3. Each family within the community should possess a dustbin for the storage of refuse before final disposal.

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