Causes, Effects And Prevalence Of Road Accidents In Nigeria (A Case Study Of FRSC Kaduna State)
Road accidents’ statistics in Nigeria reveal a serious and growing problem with absolute fatality rate and casualty figures rising rapidly. This is a major issue being handled by the Federal Road Safety Commission, as its major role is to curb road accidents on Nigerian roads. The study examined the causes of road accidents in Nigeria. The objectives were to characterize the commonest period of accidents in Kaduna state; to examine the road traffic enforcement equipment available to FRSC; to assess the measures adopted to reduce road accidents and to examine the working conditions and enforcement capacity of FRSC officials on accident reduction.
Four units of FRSC were selected in Kaduna state and four motor parks were also selected to obtain drivers’ perception. The study was conducted by using two sets of questionnaires: one for the FRSC officials and the other for the commercial vehicle drivers. A total number of 214 questionnaires were used for the study, as completed by the FRSC officials and commercial drivers selected randomly from the four units. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics, T – Test, chi square measured by Likert scale. The study revealed that 78% of the FRSC staff acknowledged that accident is mostly common between April and October and at night, there is a fair provision of enforcement equipment, public enlightenment program is the strategy that was mostly practiced to ensure road safety; 92% of FRSC staff desired special allowances for working at specific time and place and 27.9% of FRSC desired salary increase.
The T-Test statistic for record of equipment reported a remarkable difference between number of equipment required and the number available (t> 1.00, p< 0.1) and no difference in the number of available equipment and number working (t< 1.00 ,p> 0.1). Likert scale measured the perception of commercial drivers of FRSC staffs. The study concluded that even though Federal Road Safety Corps (FRSC) is effective in reducing road accident occurrences in Kaduna state, there aren‟t enough enforcement equipment, strategies and manpower to boost the effect of their activities. It is therefore recommended that adequate and standardised enforcement equipment be provided for all FRSC units in Kaduna state and consultations should be made to all stakeholders on better accident reduction measures.
Table Of Contents
- Title page
- Certification page
- Table of content
- 1.1 Background to the Study
- 1.2 Statement of the Research Problem
- 1.3 Research questions
- 1.4 Aim and Objectives
- 1.5 Hypotheses
- 1.6 Scope of the Study
- 1.7 Significance of the Study
Literature Review And Conceptual Issues
- 2.1 Introduction
- 2.2 Epidemiology of road accidents
- 2.3 Prevalence of road accident
- 2.4 Road accidents in Nigeria
- 2.5 Road accidents in Kaduna state
- 2.6 Road safety and enforcement capacity in Nigeria
The Study Area And Research Methodology
- 3.1 Introduction
- 3.2 Area of study
- 3.3 Methodology of research
Data Analysis And Presentation Of Findings
- 4.1 Introduction
- 4.2 Socio- Demographic Characteristics of Respondents
- 4.3 Road accident data in Kaduna State
- 4.4 Commonest Period of Accidents
- 4.5 Enforcement Equipment for accident
- 4.6 Accident Reduction Measures
- 4.7 Working Conditions and Enforcement Capacity of FRSC
- 4.8 Level of compliance
Summary Of Findings, Recommendation And Conclusion
- 5.1 Summary of Findings
- 5.2 Recommendations
- 5.3 Conclusion
1.1 Background To The Study
Modern transport and freight distribution system all over the world is tending towards the adoption of best practices that are reliable, timely and cost-effective (Ubogu, 2011). This is because transportation has been discovered to be a major prerequisite to the development of any economy. Like other activities that are intensive in utilization of infrastructure, the transport sector is an important component of the economy impacting on development and the welfare of the people (Rodrigue and Notteboom, 2009). Transport provides the arteries through which the economic life of people, information and raw materials as well as finished products can be moved from one place to another (Ighodaro, 2009). Road transportation provides benefit both to nations and individuals by facilitating the movement of goods and people thereby enabling increased access to jobs, economic markets, education, recreation and healthcare, which in turn have direct and indirect positive impacts on the health of populations (WHO, 2009). Despite these multiple advantages, road accidents have serious negative consequences on the economy of a nation.
Road accidents have been a major issue to both developed and developing world today. One of the major concerns of any nation’s transportation sector is how to curb road accidents in such a country. The growing number of deaths and injuries as a result of road accidents is a global phenomenon that all countries of the world are grappling with. According to World Health Organization as cited by Aderamo (2012a), road accidents and deaths are a global disease sweeping through the world gradually.
The World health Organization estimates that more than 3000 people are killed every day in road accidents globally with at least 30,000 people injured or disabled and this adds up to over 1million people killed and between 20 – 50 million people injured or crippled in road traffic crashes each year (Krug, Sharma and Lozano, 2000). Jacobs, Aaron- Thomas and Astrop (2000) estimated that the global cost of road crashes is about 518 billion US dollars annually, and ranges in percentage of GNP from 0.3% in Vietnam to almost 5% of GNP in the United States of America, Malawi and Kwa Zulu Natal, South Africa. The true costs of accidents to the society are probably much greater, since these estimates are based on direct costs only. The problem of transportation safety is of great magnitude encompassing all modes of transportation, economic levels and transport purposes.
The rising trend in morbidity and mortality rate due to road accidents in low and middle income countries has made some authors to declare road accidents an “epidemic”(Nantulya and Reich, 2002; Aderamo, 2012a; Atubi, 2012g).
Traffic accident mortality rates doubled in Ghana between 1994 and 2004, increasing public awareness of the issue and prompting the government to take action. To curb the rise in death rates, the government implemented both structural and behavioural plans aimed at crash prevention. Structural plans took the form of speed bumps and rumble strips, while a behavioural plan used informational television advertisements to educate citizens about drunk driving and speeding. From 2000 to 2005 road traffic deaths in Tanzania increased by nearly 50 per cent. In an effort to improve response mechanisms, a trauma-team training programme was offered to help nurses and physicians assess and assist victims of traffic accidents. An evaluation of this programme showed a positive response by students and a post-training simulation showed an overall improvement in response capabilities (Eshbaugh, Maly, Moyer and Torkelson, 2012).
Over 42,000 road users are killed in European Union (EU) countries annually and around 3.5 million are injured. This accounts for an annual cost of over 160 billion Euros and untold pain and suffering of the victims and their relatives (Aldona and Gravydas, 2007). The global cost of road accidents and injuries are enormous.
At the first African Road safety congress held in Nairobi, Kenya in 1989, Nigeria was ranked ahead of other African countries in terms of mortality rate on her highways, with the chances of a vehicle killing someone 47 times higher than in Great Britain (Onakomaiya, 1990). In terms of safety, Nigeria is a high risk region with an average of 32 traffic deaths per 1000 people (Filani and Gbadamosi, 2007). This is very high compared with the United States’ 1.6 traffic deaths per 1000 population and the United Kingdom’s 1.4 deaths per 1000 population (Trinca, 1988). In terms of traffic safety, there is an average of 230 accidents per 10,000 vehicles in Nigeria. This is far in excess of United State of America’s accident rate of 2.7 per 10,000 vehicles and the United Kingdom’s accident rate of 3.2 per 10,000 vehicles (Obinna, 2007). These data show that Nigeria has the highest rate of death from motor accidents in Africa.
Road crashes started in Nigeria in 1906 at Lagos. Ever since then it has been a public health concern based on the number and magnitude of persons killed and injured. Between 1960 through to 2006, a total of 969,618 road crashes were reported leading to a casualty figure of 1,159,642 persons, distributed as 292,703 persons killed and 866,939 persons injured (Arosanyin, Olowosulu and Oyeyemi, 2012). These figures of crashes and casualty are an under – estimation of the realities on Nigerian roads, as it has been argued that there are high non- reporting and under- reporting of road crashes (Arosanyin, 2004). A comparative assessment of the causes of deaths in Nigeria has placed road crashes as the most important killer of Nigerians than a combination of 35 notifiable diseases including malaria and HIV/AIDS. This burden is more given that the estimate covers only casualty component (Arosanyin, 2008). Indeed, the Nigerian accident pattern seems to suggest that the better the road, the higher the accident and fatality rate as well as the severity and non–survival indices. This is because of non compliance of drivers with speed limits (Filani and Gbadamosi, 2007).
In the year 2012, at the special marshal workshop held in Kaduna state, it was announced that between January and July 2012, a total of 2, 200 traffic offenders were apprehended while 597 road accidents were recorded in Kaduna state. Out of these accidents, 125 fatal cases, 389 serious cases and 58 minor cases occurred while 297 persons were killed and 2, 239 persons were injured (FRSC, 2012). Owing to these facts, the high rate of accidents in Kaduna state is obviously unacceptable.
In the event of road accidents, there have been numerous methods of management, reduction and prevention. The use of traffic law enforcement agencies and associated organizations happens to be a major policy effort in accident reduction cases. Early attempts in the enforcement of road traffic regulations in Nigeria were limited to discrete and isolated attempts by some states of the federation. Notably among the efforts to institute a formidable road safety program, was the effort of Shell Petroleum Development Company of Nigeria(SPDC) between 1960 and 1965. The effort of the Nigerian Armyin the training of its officers and men on road safetyin the early 1970’s also contributed to road safety idea and consciousness in Nigeria. The Nigerian Army started the first public road safety campaign in 1972 when it initiated an annual road safety week. The first deliberate policy on road safetywas the creation in 1974 of the National Road Safety Commission (NRSC) by the then Military Government. The impact of the Commission was however, not sustained. In 1977, the Military Administration in Oyo State, Nigeriaestablished the Oyo State Road Safety Corps which made some local significant improvements in Road Safety and road discipline in the State. This lasted till 1983 when it was disbanded by the Federal Government (FRSC, 2009).
With the continued rising trend of road traffic accidentsin Nigeriathen, which placed it as one of the most road accident (road accident) prone countries worldwide (second to Ethiopia)
(FRSC, 2012), the Nigerian Government saw the need to establish the present Federal Road Safety Corps in 1988 to address the carnage on the highways. The Federal Road Safety Corps (FRSC), Vehicle Inspection Office (VIO) and the Nigerian Police (Motor Traffic Department) all have a common goal of prevention and reduction of accident occurrences in Nigeria. The functions of the FRSC generally relates to making the highway safe for motorists and other road users; recommending works and devices designed to eliminate or minimize accidents on the highways and advising the Federal and State Governments including the Federal Capital Territory Administration and relevant government agencies in the localities where such works and devices are required and educating motorists and members of the public on the importance of discipline on the usage of roads (FRSC, 2012).
Directorate of Road Traffic Service, (DRTS), popularly known as Vehicle Inspection Office (VIO), is a government agency saddled with the task of transport management on Nigerian roads within the Federal Capital Territory (FCT) and the 36 states of the federation. DRTS was established by law to specifically issue driver’s license, vehicle papers registration, production and issuance of plate numbers and inspection of vehicles (Mbachu, 2012).
However, there are arguments in the public domain among agencies of government which appear to have overlapping functions. For example, motorists are of the view that the functions of the Federal Road Safety Corps, the Nigerian police and that of the DTRS are almost similar and conflicting, all working towards ensuring the safety of Nigerian roads (FRSC, 2009).
Therefore, it is worthy of note that Federal Road Safety Corps is a major force in road traffic issues in Nigeria and therefore requires proper assessment of her role in road accident reduction.
1.2 Statement Of The Research Problem
The overall goal of the decade of action for road Safety, 2011 – 2020 is to stabilize and then reduce the forecast level of road traffic fatalities around the world by 2020 (WHO, 2011). Road safety is a foremost priority in the mind of all road users. However, in Nigeria, in spite of efforts of road traffic enforcement agencies, the rate of road accident is alarming and calls for investigation.
The mission of safe road in Nigeria initiative is to reduce road crash deaths and injuries to 50% by 2020. Safe road in Nigeria is a response to the United Nation’s decade of action for road safety. It is one of the initiatives of Federal Road Safety Corps of Nigeria to promote safety on our roads by expressing their determinations in seven facts. Fact 1: Road crashes kill more than HIV/AIDS and Malaria. Fact 2: there’s someone you know who has been killed or injured in a crash. Fact 3: people are killed or injured in road crashes every day. Fact 4: all road crashes can be prevented. Fact 5: most crashes are caused by the driver’s behavior and not always as a result of bad roads. Fact 6: the idea of a “safe road” in Nigeria is more of changing our driving behavior than advocating for good road infrastructure. Fact 7: we can reduce deaths and injuries due to crashes by 50% if we make a commitment to not drink and drive, not over speed, wear seat belts and helmets, not use phone or eat while driving, obey traffic rules and tell people about safe road Nigeria (FRSC, 2012). As laudable as the functions of this government agency appear, the public view it as revenue generating unit rather than an agency that implement policies that should ensure road safety compliance and culture of road safety discipline by road users (Arosanyin et al, 2012; Mbachu, 2012).
Several researches have been conducted on road accidents in Nigeria and most of these reports relate accident rates to negligence of road users and poor road infrastructure. Aderamo (2012b) examined the spatial variation of road accidents casualties with a view to suggesting measures to reduce the scourge. The data used for the study included the number of deaths and injuries from road accidents in Nigeria over a four year period (2004-2007). The findings showed that spatial variation exist in the incidence of road accidents in Nigeria. It also showed that total road accidents, population estimate, road lengths and number of registered vehicles are important variables to take into consideration in examining road accident casualties in the country.
A study of the causal factors of road traffic crashes in southwestern Nigeria by Aworemi, Abdul- Azeez and Olabode (2010) concluded that human, vehicle, roadway and environment are the salient factors that had significant contribution of about 79.4% on the road traffic crashes in the study area. Ohakwe, Iwueze and Chickezie (2011) also analyzed road accidents in Imo state, south- eastern Nigeria. The study concluded that crashes such as Motorcycles- Motorcycle (McMc), Motorcycles- Vehicle (McV) and Vehicle- Vehicle (VV) are the leading types and accounted for the greater number of deaths. In these findings, it was observed that reckless driving, inexperience, mechanical fault and bad roads are the major causes.
Chukwuemeka (2012) observed that the most perturbing problems in the issue of road accidents are the seemingly incorrigible attitude of drivers to overloading of goods and passengers. Granted that there are multiple areas of concern, the offence of overloading is rife on Nigerian highways. In this respect, many motorists appear ignorant of essential principles outlined in the Highway Code. Therefore, it is not surprising that many of these drivers do not see these guidelines as congruent enough with road safety. Cars, minibuses and taxis are predominantly involved in road accidents. Furthermore, Arosanyin et al (2012) examined the level of compliance with some basic road traffic regulations among commercial motorcyclists commonly called Okada riders.
The data for the analysis were collected from 334 commercial motorcyclists from Samaru – Zaria in Northern Nigeria through structured questionnaire coupled with observation and inspection. This study discussed the aspect of compliance of only a percentage of road users (motorcyclists). In its findings, it was observed that the driver licensing procedure is faulty. The fact that about 42% of the motorcyclists are not aware of the existence of the Highway Code which is expected to guide their conduct on the road is indicative of the fact that they did not pass through the theory and practical test required for issuing driver license. No matter how good a licensing system may be, non-adherence to guideline before certification will jeopardize the intention. Secondly, the results further confirm that traffic law enforcement is still below optimal. About 36% of the motorcyclists did not have a valid rider license; 84% did not put on safety helmet; and most of the times operators carry more than one passenger at a time.
Considering the above mentioned research works, various causes of increase in road accidents have been identified using various parameters. However, there still exists a gap in the issues of road accident reduction in Nigeria particularly in the aspect of traffic regulation enforcement agencies. These enforcement agencies over the years are known to be a major force in prevention, control and reduction of road accidents, and are generally observed to be functional in their duties, yet there is an alarming increase in accident rate. An examination of the studies available reveals that not much attention had been given to the effectiveness of agencies responsible for the reduction of accidents and road safety. Hence, there is a need to thoroughly examine how effective this agency is in its duties of reducing road accidents in Kaduna State.
1.3 Research Questions
This study intends to address the following questions:
- What are the commonest periods for the occurrences of road accidents in Kaduna state?
- What are the road traffic enforcement equipment available to FRSC in Kaduna state?
- What are the measures put in place to reduce road accidents in Kaduna state?
- What is the nature of the working conditions of FRSC officials in Kaduna state?
1.4 Aim And Objectives
The aim of this study is to assess the effectiveness of Federal Road safety Corps in reducing road accidents in Kaduna state.
To achieve this aim, the specific objectives to be pursued are to:
- Characterize the commonest period for the occurrences of road accidents in Kaduna state.
- Examine the road traffic enforcement equipment available to FRSC for accident reduction
- Assess the measures adopted to reduce road accidents.
- Examine the working conditions and enforcement capacity of FRSC officials on road accidents reduction.
For the purpose of clarity, the research hypotheses that will guide this study are:
There is no significant difference between the number of required enforcement equipment and number of available equipment owned by FRSC.
1.6 The Scope Of The Study
The study examines the causes of road accidents. Therefore, investigates the level of infrastructural facilities in place for FRSC in Kaduna state and also to check if these facilities meet global standards. The working conditions and welfare of the workforce of the commission was assessed. Finally, the strategies developed to reduce road accidents and the level of achievement of these strategies was also examined.
This study covers majorly four divisions of Kaduna state namely Kaduna metropolis, Kafanchan, Zaria and Kakau. The respondents are road traffic enforcement agents from Federal Road Safety Commission (FRSC) and motorists in the above named locations in the state.
1.7 Significance Of The Study
Road accidents in Africa are expected to rapidly increase over the next four decades to become a major public health challenge across the continent (Eshbaugh et al, 2012). However, forecasts show that if policy interventions on the continent effectively put the brakes on road accidents, then, cumulatively through 2050, 42 million road traffic deaths would be prevented, 144 million years of productive, healthy life would be saved and US $ 234 billion would be added to the continent’s GDP (Eshbaugh et al, 2012).
The findings of this study will portray how the above forecasts can be actualized through the performance of the Federal Road Safety Corps in Kaduna state, Nigeria. Better methods of management, enforcement of road traffic rules and reduction of accidents is suggested in this study for the benefit of the government and all road traffic enforcement agencies, especially the FRSC. Also, all road users (private car drivers, commercial vehicle drivers, truck drivers, motorcycle and bicycle riders and pedestrians) will be exposed to the essence of compliance to road safety regulations for the purpose of safety of lives and properties while on the road.
All stakeholders (government establishments, private organizations, institutions and religious bodies) will be aware of the importance of compliance to road safety rules for the benefit of the nation as a whole through the findings of this study. This study will enable the government to develop policies and strategies to reduce road accidents in the country for the overall goal of the country’s development.
Summary Of Findings, Recommendation And Conclusion
5.1 Summary Of Findings
During the course of this research work, the following results were generated and it reveals the following:
- FRSC record reveals that 61.8% of members of staff had worked for 0- 7years while 38.2% had worked for 8years and above. Also, 41.7% of drivers had been driving for 0- 10years while 58.3% had been driving for 11years and above.
- The highest occurrence of accidents in Kaduna state is found between April to October which signifies the rainy season in the state. Also, most accidents have been observed to occur at night.
- The number of enforcement equipment required in Kaduna unit of FRSC is 98 while only 38 equipment are available. However, in Zaria, FRSC requires 56 number of equipment but possess only 8 in number.
- The T test statistic for record of enforcement equipment revealed that a difference between the number of equipment required and the number available is statistically significant with values at t= 4.286 and p=0.042. Also, the paired difference between the number of available equipment and number in working condition in Kaduna shows that t= 0.01 and p= 0.944 and in Zaria, t= 0.001 and p= 1.000 and these are not statistically significant.
- Furthermore, 39.3% of FRSC officials believe that public enlightenment programs take the lead in measures put in place to reduce accidents.
- To ascertain the effectiveness of accident reduction measures, 70% of FRSC workers believe in its effectiveness. Also, 61.4% of drivers believe that FRSC perform all activities established for accident reduction.
- Also, 43.3% of FRSC officials claimed daily involvement in night patrols.
- FRSC officials (38.5%) desire salary increase and special allowances as a better working condition.
- Similarly, 54.9% of FRSC workers testified that the level of compliance to traffic rules and regulations is fair.
- A good number of drivers (66.3%) acknowledged that disobedience to traffic rules and regulations are a major cause of road accidents.
- FRSC face challenges in accident reduction because they are few in number, they don‟t have the necessary facilities, they are more interested in generating revenue and they don‟t work at odd times(periods prone to accident occurrences).
Road accident constitute a serious problem in Kaduna state as well as in Nigeria and if radical approaches are not taken urgently to address this, it will continue to claim lives, cause injuries and damage to properties. From the findings of this study, the Federal Road Safety Commission (FRSC) has the leading role in reducing road accidents in Nigeria. Depending on the prevailing circumstances and the recognized limitation of FRSC, remedial measures categorized into four are hereby recommended.
Enforcement Equipment and Manpower
From the results obtained from the four major FRSC units in Kaduna state, it was observed that majority of the staffs do not have a vast knowledge of internationally accepted and standardized enforcement equipment for accident reduction which in turn has its effect on required equipment for accident reduction. It is therefore recommended that their knowledge about such equipment be broadened by giving them international training and exposure on equipment that are of international standards needed to reduce road accidents. Also, there is need to employ more skilled labour into FRSC because from the findings of this research, the higher the number of workers, the lower the number of accident cases.
Adequate provision of standardized enforcement equipment should be made for all FRSC units in Kaduna state. This can be achieved by a collective effort of the government and private bodies and this will no doubt boost their efforts in reducing road accidents. Availability of these equipment will definitely motivate FRSC officials to enforce law and order on the roads, ensure compliance to traffic rules and regulations, ensure prompt search and rescue operations, apprehend defaulting road users and have a proper knowledge of the state of roads in relation to accidents.
Periodic overhaul and maintenance of available enforcement equipment should be done. This can be achieved by involving experts in this field to help prevent a complete breakdown and deterioration of these equipment. It will also help to ensure prompt and easy attendance to road accident related issues. This is a major way to ensure the effectiveness of the equipment in reducing accidents.
Adequate and skilled staff should be recruited into the Federal Road Safety Commission. This can be done by systematically recruiting qualified personnel into different sections of the commission to match various job descriptions so as to ensure effectiveness and team work in reducing accidents.
Special attention should be given to the provision of equipment/ facilities needed for night patrols and patrols during wet seasons by ensuring that standard equipment that are in working condition are acquired periodically.
Compliance to Traffic Rules and Regulations
There is need to intensify efforts to enlighten all road users on causes of road accidents and its remedies. This should be done periodically with the use of public address systems, pamphlets, and the media and in schools so that the knowledge will be widely spread in the community.
Traffic rules and regulations and the consequence of non- compliance should be reiterated to all road users periodically to ensure proper and widespread knowledge of these rules. This can also be done through the media, the internet, books or pamphlets.
For any organization to achieve set targets and effective results, staff welfare is a major component and resource. It is therefore worthy of note that FRSC officials should be well rewarded for every extra effort being made in reducing accidents.
Present policies relating to their welfare should be reviewed and implemented to suit their skills, operations and efforts made in reducing accidents. This can be achieved by giving special packages/allowances to members of staff who work at odd times especially at night.
Accident Reduction Measures
Periodic consultations should be made to all stakeholders (professionals in the transport industry, government, non-governmental organizations, road users, all road traffic management agencies and the general public) on better measures to be taken in reducing road accidents in Kaduna state.
Data management by FRSC should be improved upon by properly training its members of staff on accident data management that is up to date and universally accepted. This will help them to have a full knowledge of their effectiveness in reducing accidents and what areas should be improved upon and this can only happen if the figures are accurate.
Road safety curriculum in school has been one of FRSC’s long term strategies in helping to reduce road accidents with the view to imbibe the culture of proper road usage even at a tender age. There is however a need to intensify efforts to ensure that this practice is enforced in all schools in Kaduna state. Also drivers should be given short term trainings on proper road usage.
There are other agencies saddled with the responsibility of vehicle inspection for several reasons, FRSC should intensify efforts to collaborate with such agencies to thoroughly inspect vehicles for the sole purpose of accident reduction.
The essence of requiring that more FRSC officials should be recruited is to have enough hands on deck for proper operations. Therefore, a 24hour patrol operations should be ensured on daily basis.
This study was carried out on thecauses of road accidents in Nigeria. The overall goal of the Decade of Action for Road Safety, 2011 – 2020 is to stabilize and then reduce the forecast level of road traffic fatalities around the World by 2020 (WHO, 2011).
Also, one of the facts discovered from FRSC’s „safe road in Nigeria‟, an initiative to reduce road accidents, is that accidents kill more than HIV/ AIDS. Having this fact at hand is a major eye opener to the level of damage and loss it has caused to the nation’s economy. Even though FRSC’s efforts are noticed nationwide and are seen to be effective in accident reduction, it has been discovered through this study that accidents occur mostly at nights and during rainy season, enforcement equipment are inadequate, FRSC desire better working conditions and staff welfare and accident reduction methods need to be improved upon. It is therefore pertinent to intensify efforts on improving these findings to ensure an accident free environment with uttermost urgency. This research work will sensitize the general public on the roles of FRSC in accident reduction and also the roles of every stakeholder in alleviating the eventualities of accident occurrences.
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