The Rising Cost Of Education And Its Implications On The Youth

Project and Seminar Material for Education

Project and Seminar Material for Education


Abstract


The purpose of the study was to investigate the rising cost of education and its implication on the youth in public secondary schools in Ungogo L.G.A. The background of the study touches on efforts made to curb low participation and the progress made in other parts of the world. It touches on efforts made to improve participation and the challenges faced, which forms the basis of the study to find out the influence of rising costs in education on students’ participation in public secondary schools in Ungogo L.G.A.The theoretical framework was based on education production function theory. The study employed descriptive design. The target population was the 28 principal, 434 teachers and 13949 students in all public secondary schools in Ungogo L.G.A. The sample size of this study was 28 principals, 196 teachers and 370 students. The sample in total consisted of 594 respondents. To select schools stratified sampling design was used and students and teachers from the selected school were selected using simple random sampling design. All the principals from the 28 schools were involved because their number was too small for sampling. The study utilized questionnaires and interview schedule. The reliability of the instruments was done by performing Pearson’s product correlation.

To enhance the validity, the instruments were approved by the supervisors in the department of educational administration and planning. The data was collected by the researcher. The data was analysed using descriptive statistics using the Statistical Packages for Social Scientists (SPSS) software. The data was presented using frequency tables, graphs and pie charts. The study found that the cost of school meals affect students’ participation in education in Ungogo L.G.A, Kano state, lowering the participation of students in secondary schools.PTA levies were found to contribute to students dropping out of school. It was also found that school uniform contributes to students dropping out of school. The findings indicate that opportunity cost also influence the students’ participation in education. The study concluded that rising cost have influence on students participation in education in public secondary school in Ungogo L.G.A.


Table of Contents


Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title page
  • Certification page
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of content

Chapter One

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Problem Statement
  • 1.3 Study Objectives
  • 1.4 Significance of the Study
  • 1.5 Study Questions/Hypotheses
  • 1.6 Scope and Limitation of the Study
  • 1.7 Definition of Terms

Chapter Two

Review of Related and Relevant Literature

  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.2 Conceptual Clarifications
  • 2.3 Theoretical Studies
  • 2.4 Empirical Studies
  • 2.5 Related Literatures

Chapter Three

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Study Area
  • 3.3 Sources of Data
  • 3.4 Population of the Study
  • 3.5 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.6 Instrumentation
  • 3.7 Reliability and Validity Of Instrument
  • 3.8 Method of Data Analysis

Chapter Four

Data Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Data Analysis
  • 4.3 Data Interpretation

Chapter Five

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • Appendix

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

The cost of education is at its highest now more than ever even in first world countries where a lot of measures have been tactically put in place to aid and raise the standard of education and level of literacy per individual. Students take out loans to put themselves through college especially for the study of professional courses to be paid after graduation and working. Governments of these developed countries make it possible for people to study without the overly hindrance of the financial factor but the cost is there nonetheless. It doesn’t show still as the importance of education especially in these developed countries are still more significant and all the more and seems to be directly proportional to the rising cost so that it doesn’t pose so much of a social problem as it would seem. However the issue is not so bad in these developed countries as it is in the developing and underdeveloped countries where the quality and importance of a tertiary education isn’t as profitable as in developed countries and no as proportional with the hard and stringent economic conditions so that the effect is visibly on the students and potential students. Seeing the importance of education the impact is of devastating proportions especially as it is pertaining more to the youth of the nation with their strategic significance to the overall survival of the country’s future.

Commission of Inquiry into Education System of Nigeria Report (2000) indicates that annual average expenditure on schooling in Nigeria by families shows that about 50% of total expenditure is spent in uniform and other indirect costs. This places heavy burden on poor families who cannot afford the required school fees as per the government fees guideline and the extra fees not covered. According to GoK (2004 uniform makes all students to be equal. Therefore those who cannot afford feel inferior and discriminated from others. This affects their participation and some students opt to drop out.

Parents, Teachers Association levies are charges that are assumed to have been agreed upon by parents in an Annual General Meeting for support provision of education in a given secondary school. It covers the cost of construction of classroom, Purchase of buses, salaries for Board of Management’ Teachers/Workers among other expenses. According to Maryan (2008) PTA in United States of America seek to promote welfare of the child and youth at home, in school and in the community. P.T.A also sought to bridge the gap between home and school by connecting educators with public in securing child friendly school. P.T.A in role in Nigeria is to ensure that civil society supporting government to ensure that all Nigerians have access to good quality education by 2015.
Verspoor (2008) argues that PTA levies are instrumental in provision to physical facilities in schools. Mbugua (2008) concurs that one of the areas where P.T.A levies are utilized in Nigeria is in developing school physical facilities school management should therefore ensure that there is adequate facilities to enable teaching learning process to take place. Poor households who cannot afford to pay for P.T.A levies may end up having their children send home for the same affecting participation. Some may opt to drop out completely resulting to wastage.

Although there is FDSE, parents are expected to cater for children cost of education. Cheruiyot (2011), when studying effectiveness of subsidies in enhancing enrolment in public secondary schools found that though tuition waiver greatly reduces financial burden, parents still meet the rising costs of school uniforms, PTA levies for example infrastructure fund, lunch charges and opportunity costs among others. It is in reference to this background that the researcher wishes to find out the influence of rising costs in education on students’ participation in public secondary schools in Ungogo L.G.A, Kano state, Nigeria.


1.2 Statement of the problem

Education in the 21st century is no doubt a basic need as its need is fused into the entire existence and needs of society so that to even navigate through the world of a technologically advanced world and a global one at that, one needs not only basic education but a significant level of it. For this reason governments have put measures in place to subsidize it seeing the importance of it. However, even with the subsidisation of education, its cost still borders along the level of preposterousness almost as much as health care. The implications are significant especially on the youth. This is the problem that the present research work has elected itself to grapple with: to study the implications of the rising cost of education on the youth with the Ungogo local government area of Kano state Nigeria as a case study.


1.3 Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this study was to investigate the therising cost of education and its implication on the youth in public secondary schools in Ungogo L.G.A, Kano state, Nigeria.


1.4 Objectives of the study

The study was guided by the following objectives:

  1. To determine how school meals’ charges affect students’ participation in public secondary schools in Ungogo L.G.A, Kano state.
  2. To establish the influence of P.T.A. levels for example infrastructure fund on students’ participation in public secondary schools in Ungogo L.G.A, Kano state.
  3. To assess how cost of school uniform influence students’ participation in public secondary schools in Ungogo L.G.A, Kano state.
  4. To determine the influence of opportunity costs on students’ participation in public secondary schools in Ungogo L.G.A, Kano state.

1.5 Research Questions

  1. How do school meals’ charges affect students’ participation in public secondary schools in Ungogo L.G.A, Kano state?
  2. How do parents Teachers Association levies for example infrastructure fund affect students participation in public secondary school in Ungogo L.G.A, Kano state?
  3. To what extent does the cost of school uniform influence students’ participation in public secondary school in Ungogo L.G.A?
  4. What is the influence of opportunity costs on student participation in public secondary school in Ungogo L.G.A, Kano state?

1.6 Significance of the Study

The study may provide information on factors influencing students’ participation rate in public secondary schools in Ungogo L.G.A. This information may be useful to educational planners, administrators, parents, learners, community and other stakeholders to device measures that could ensure that student joining secondary school complete the school cycle.

The Ministry of Education will also find the study useful when addressing factors that hinder transition even other parts of the country. The study may also add to the growth of knowledge on influence of rising cost on students’ participation in secondary school education. The finding of the study may also be used as basis of research in other part of the country.


1.7 Scope of the Study

The study was confined in the public secondary schools in Ungogo L.G.A. The study focussed on specific factors influencing students’ participation in public secondary school which include school meal changes, PTA levies for example infrastructure fund, policy on use of school uniform and opportunity cost.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

Limitation according to Best and Khan (1998) are conditions beyond the control of the research that may place restriction on the conclusion of the study and their application to other situations. In this study it was not be possible to control the attitude of respondents which may affect the validity of the responses. This may be because the respondent could give socially acceptable answer to please the researcher. However to ensure maximum cooperation and honesty of the respondents, the researcher explained the importance of the study and need for guaranteed confidentiality of the respondents.


1.9 Definition of Significant Terms

Access

Refers to making education available and affordable to targeted population.

Foregone earnings

Income that could have been earned when not in school.

Rising costs

Expenditure on education which is not covered under FDSE yet parent have to pay for them, example expenditure on school uniform, school/meal, PTA levies for example infrastructure fund and opportunity costs.

Opportunity cost

Alternative activity foregone for a student to enjoy full school time Participation – refers to access, retention and completion of secondary course. PTA Levies– fees charged to parents after approval by parents during annual general meetings.

Public secondary school

Schools maintained or assisted out of public fund

Retention

Ability of student to remain in school until they complete their school life cycle.

School uniform

Is a unique clothes recommended for a student by the school

Wastage

Refer to learners who do not complete secondary education in time or drop out of school.

Meal charges

Money paid by student towards meals taken in school


1.10 Organisation of the study

The study is organized into four chapters.

  • Chapter one consists of the background of the study, statement of the problem, purpose of the study, objectives of the study, research questions, significance of the study, assumptions of the study and limitation of the study.
  • Chapter two consists of literature review under the following subtopics: Rationale of investing in secondary education, factors influencing participation in secondary education summary of literature review, theoretical framework and conceptual framework.
  • Chapter three discusses the research methodology. It contains: research design, target population, sample size and sampling techniques, research instruments, instrument validity, instrument reliability, data collection procedures and data analysis techniques.
  • Chapter four contains data analysis, interpretation and discussions.
  • Chapter five contains the summary, conclusion, recommendations and suggestions for further studies.

Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations

5.1 Introduction

This chapter presents a summary of study findings, answers to research questions, conclusions, recommendations of the study and the proposed future studies.


5.2. Summary of Study

The purpose of the study was to investigate the influence of rising costs in education on students’ participation in public secondary schools in Ungogo L.G.A, Nigeria. The study adopted descriptive survey research method. The findings were presented in terms of frequency tables, percentages, charts and graphs.

The objectives of the study were to determine how school meals’ charges affect students’ participation in public secondary schools in Ungogo L.G.A, Kano state, to establish the influence of P.T.A. levels for example infrastructure fund on students’ participation in public secondary schools in Ungogo L.G.A, Kano state, to assess how policy on use of school uniform influence students’ participation in public secondary schools in Ungogo L.G.A, Kano stateand to determine the influence of opportunity costs on students’ participation in public secondary schools in Ungogo L.G.A, Kano state.

The first objective sought to determine how school meals charges affect students’ participation in public secondary schools in Ungogo L.G.A. The findings indicated that the cost of school meals affects student’s participation in secondary education. This was supported by the majority of the principals, teachers and students who indicated that students are sent home to collect money meant for school meals. Most of them agreed that school meals are overcharged and most schools do not supplement school meals by growing crops or keeping animals. The finding also indicated that students get adequate meal to sustain them at school; however majority of principals, teachers and students affirmed that students are frequently sent home to collect money meant for lunch.

The second objective was to establish the influence of the PTA Levis, for example infrastructure funds on students participation. The following were the findings:

The findings indicated that development fund is a major obstacle to student’s participation in secondary education. Majority of the principals, teachers and students indicated that students are often sent home to collect money for school development. Such students eventually drop out of school. These principals also indicated that the school projects are not well funded by the government.

The third objective sought to find out the influence of uniform on students participation in secondary school education. The following were the finding:

Majority of the principals, teachers and students indicated that student’s attendance is influenced by the availability of the school uniform. The study also found that, the cost of the school uniform hinders student’s participation in education. It also emerged that parents are not allowed to buy uniform from the shops of their choice, and that when uniform are sold from school it is not at a subsidized price. Tough there is no clear policy on use of school uniform, majority of the principals teachers and students indicated that school uniform is necessary in enhancing student’s participation in education.

The fourth objective sought to find out the influence of opportunity cost on student participation in education. The findings indicate that majority of the principals concur that students drop out of school to earn. Most of the teachers and students felt that students drop out of school to get employed as casual labourers because they cannot realise immediate economic benefits from education. Majority of the teachers indicated that students drop out of school to help in house work.


5.3 Conclusions

The study has resulted to four main objectives:

  1. School meals charges affect students’ participation in education in public secondary school in Ungogo L.G.A. Students get adequate meals at school, however they are frequently sent home to collect money for school meals this affects their participation in education.
  2. PTA levies for example development fund influence students’ participation in education in public secondary schools. School projects are not adequately funded by the government. Therefore students are frequently sent home to get money for development of school projects; this affects their participation in education.
  3. Availability of school uniform influence students’ participation in education in public secondary schools. School uniform is necessary. School uniform is sold in school at unsubsidized price making it expensive for the parents hence students are often send home to get money for it.
  4. Opportunity cost of education influence students’ participation in secondary school education. Students drop out of school to earn, to help in house work or because they can’t realise immediate economic benefit of education.

5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study the following recommendations were made.

5. 4.1 Policy Recommendations
  1. The policy makers should come out clearly on policies concerning school uniforms where parents can procure uniform from shops of their choice to make it affordable.
  2. The level of financing of education by the government and other stakeholders should be increased in order to cater for school development projects.
  3. School management to come up with income generating projects to cushion parent against rising costs of education.
5.4.2 Suggestions for further research

The researcher suggested that further research should be carried out on the following areas:

  1. The relationship between rising costs and participation rates in private school.
  2. Effects of income generating activities on students’ participation in education.
  3. Since the study was carried out in a Peri -urban setting, a similar study should be conducted in an urban setting and the results compared.
  4. The relationship between rising costs of education and academic performance.

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Frequently Asked Questions


What do young people really want from education?

Young people themselves tell me that better education and training would help them get on to the right path and become law-abiding, productive and hard working citizens. At any one time, there are about 1,000 young people in youth custody across Britain. Nearly three quarters of young offenders who leave custody reoffend within a year.

What is the cost of youth custody in the UK?

The average cost of a place in each of these types of youth custody is: A place in a Young Offender Institution costs an average of ÂŁ65,000 per annum. For more information please call the Ministry of Justice Press Office on 0203 334 3536.

What kind of Education do young offenders get in prison?

At the moment, young offenders receive an average of 12 hours a week contracted education, though it ranges from 5-15 hours across the YOI estate. The contracts will be overseen by the Youth Justice Board, rather than the Education Funding Agency, ensuring that education is fully integrated into a new regime for young offenders in custody.

How much time should Young Offenders spend in school?

Some young offenders spend less than one school day a week in the classroom. By increasing the amount of time young offenders spend learning, we can help them to move away from crime, take responsibility for their actions, and rebuild their lives.

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