A Review On Teaching Methods For Basic Science In Junior Secondary School

Project and Seminar Material for Child and Basic Education

A Review On Teaching Methods For Basic Science In Junior Secondary School


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

The desire of any country is to attain and sustain national development through education. Education, particularly in science and technology, remains an essential tool for scientific and technological development all over the world. This is due to the fact that individuals who are scientifically and technologically literate acquire useful skills, knowledge, and attitudes that can transform society scientifically and technologically. In the 1980s, the old integrated science program was introduced as a core subject at the junior secondary school level. The purpose of an integrated science course, as specified in the core curriculum for integrated science (Federal Ministry of Education; 1981), is to introduce scientific concepts to students at the early secondary level.

According to the National Policy on Education (FRN, 2004), the goals of Basic Science (Formerly Integrated Science) should be to help students acquire the following skills: observe carefully and thoroughly, What is observed must be reported completely and accurately. Organize the information you’ve gathered. On the basis of the information gathered, generalizations are made. As a result of the generalization, we can make predictions. Creating experiments (including controls as needed) to test predictions, Using models to explain phenomena when appropriate; and carrying on the investigation when new data does not conform to predictions. To achieve these goals, it is suggested that appropriate teaching methods be used in the teaching and learning of basic science.

Teaching methods are ways that teachers use to create a learning environment and specify the nature of the activity in which the teacher and the learner will be involved during the instructional delivery process. It is primarily a description of learning objective-oriented activities and the flow of information between the teacher and the learner(s), and O’Banon (2002) classified teaching methods into two approaches: student-centered approach and teacher-centered approach. Teacher-centered approaches are based on behaviorism and encompass all teaching methods that regard the teacher as a source of knowledge. These methods include lectures/explanations, demonstrations, discussions, recitations, and so on. While student-centered approaches are based on constructivism and include all instructional methods that emphasize teachers as decision makers and problem solvers, they also emphasize teachers as guides in the learning process. In a student-centered learning environment, the teacher’s role is primarily that of a facilitator and guide. The students are in charge of their own learning, and they are concerned with power and responsibility. Learning can be self-directed, collaborative, cooperative, or competitive. Importantly, the use of an appropriate teaching method can help to facilitate and make learning more meaningful. To support this view, Sander (2001) opined that effective teaching method helps the learner learn better, whereas poor teaching naturally leads to poor learning and, as a result, poor achievement.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Over the years, there has been a high rate of underachievement among students in basic science in the Junior Secondary School Certificate Examination (JSSCE). This could be because teachers use ineffective methods and strategies in science teaching, which, among other things, has contributed to students’ poor performance in basic science at the junior secondary level. Because of this low achievement in integrated science, the Federal Government has mandated the inclusion of basic science in junior secondary school. According to Ohuche (1978), “the results of investigations and research findings undertaken by many educational researchers, among other things, demonstrated beyond reasonable doubt that the disadvantages or failure of many students is caused by ineffective handling of the teaching on the part of secondary school teachers.” This is due to teachers’ nonchalant attitudes toward the use of appropriate teaching methods that suit the age, maturity, ability, and environment condition of the students, such as discovery, problem-solving, open-ended field trips, and laboratory methods, among others.

Omebe and Omiko (2015) observed that the integrated science teachers have been using these suggested methods of teaching basic science for several years, but the results of the students in the Junior Secondary School Certificate Examination (JSSCE) have not been encouraging. As a result, the available literature on teaching methods in science education suggests the need to employ new and innovative teaching strategies such as guided inquiry method owing to the fact that basic science is a new area in the Nigerian educational system, it evolved from integrated science, which was reviewed to provide a holistic presentation of science and technology with the theme “you and technology”. It is against this backdrop that this study seeks to present a review on teaching methods for basic science in junior secondary school.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The broad objective of this study is to present a review on teaching methods for basic science in junior secondary school. Other specific objectives includes:

  1. To determine what methods of teaching are adopted by basic science teachers.
  2. To ascertain how adequate resources are available for teaching and learning of basic science
  3. To investigate how equipped are basic science laboratory in junior secondary schools.
  4. To examine whether teachers qualification and time allotted to basic science affect the learning achievement of junior secondary school student.

1.4 Research Questions

The study is guided by the following constructed derived in line with the research objective :

  1. What are the methods of teaching adopted by basic science teachers during teaching-learning process.
  2. How adequate and available are resources for teaching and learning of basic science?
  3. How equipped are basic science laboratories in junior secondary schools?
  4. Does teachers qualification and time allotted to basic science affect the learning achievement of junior secondary school student?

1.5 Significance of the Study

The result of this study will be of immense benefit to basic science teachers, curriculum planners, Ministry of Education, teacher training institution and researchers and psychologists. The outcome of this study will expose basic science teachers to more effective techniques of promoting learning, which help to minimize student’s low achievement in the subjects. Since guided inquiry method is interaction-oriented, it will equally enable them see the need why they should ensure that their classes posses qualities of guided classroom which include being democratic, and allowing active participation of learners. In a class where all these qualities exist, students will be active, inquisitive and will be able to transfer what they learnt in the classroom to real life situation The findings will be of use to the curriculum planners, to plan basic science curriculum in such a way that the contents will be filled with activities which teachers and students will do together. The federal ministry of education and other researchers will through this study organize workshops, seminars and conferences for review of pedagogy in science teaching to address the issue of integrating new ideas on teaching of basic science. The study will also serve as a reference material to scholars and student who wishes to conduct further studies in related field.


1.6 Scope of the Study

The scope of this study boarders on a review on teaching methods for basic science in junior secondary school. It will further determine what methods of teaching are adopted by basic science teachers, ascertain how adequate resources are available for teaching and learning of basic science, investigate how equipped are basic science laboratory in junior secondary schools and examine whether teachers qualification and time allotted to basic science affect the learning achievement of junior secondary school student. However the study is however delimited to selected junior secondary Abeokuta Metropolis in Ogun State.


1.7 Limitation of the Study

Like in every human endeavour, the researchers encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. The significant constraint was the scanty literature on the subject owing that it is a new discourse thus the researcher incurred more financial expenses and much time was required in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size covering only selected selected junior secondary Abeokuta Metropolis in Ogun State. Thus findings of this study cannot be used for generalization for other junior secondary in other states within Nigeria. Additionally, the researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work will impede maximum devotion to the research. Howbeit, despite the constraint encountered during the research, all factors were downplayed in other to give the best and make the research successful.


1.8 Definition of Terms

At this junction it is necessary to clarify what some used terms in this study means:

Basic Science:

It is a branch of knowledge involving systematized observation and experiment.

Methods of Teaching:

Is a ways adopted to improve effective teaching and learning process.

Teaching:

It is an important activity in the educative process or impact information or skill to a person.

Learning:

It can generally define as a relatively permanent change in behaviour which is as a result of experience or is reinforced by practice.

Teaching Aids:

This is considered as any device piece of equipment, graphic representation, sound reproduction or illustration that helps the student to learn thus making teaching and learning more meaningful and effective.

Project:

A planned of work that is designed to find information about something to produce something new or to improve something.


A Review On Teaching Methods For Basic Science In Junior Secondary School


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A Review On Teaching Methods For Basic Science In Junior Secondary School


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