A Review On Teaching Methods For Basic Science In Junior Secondary School
This study was carried out on the review the teaching methods for basic science in junior secondary school using some selected junior secondary schools in Abeokuta Metropolis of Ogun State as a case study. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of some selected junior secondary schools in Abeokuta Metropolis of Ogun State. In determining the sample size, the researcher purposefully selected 53 respondents and 50 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables. While the hypotheses were tested using chi-square statistical tool. The result of the methods of teaching adopted by basic science teachers during teaching-learning process which includes: project teaching method, lecture teaching method, back to basics teaching method, discussion teaching method, inquire teaching method, activity teaching method, problem solving teaching method. The study also revealed that there are no adequately resources available for teaching and learning of basic science. The extent at which basic science laboratories equipped in junior secondary schools is low, and teachers qualification and time allotted to basic science affect the learning achievement of junior secondary school student
Table of Content
- 1.1 Background of the Study
- 1.2 Statement of the Problem
- 1.3 Objective of the Study
- 1.4 Research Questions
- 1.5 Research Hypotheses
- 1.6 Significance of the Study
- 1.7 Scope of the Study
- 1.8 Limitation of the Study
- 1.9 Definition of Terms
- 1.10 Organisations of the Study
Review of Literature
- 2.1 Conceptual Framework
- 2.2 Theoretical Framework
- 2.3 Empirical Review
- 3.1 Research Design
- 3.2 Population of the Study
- 3.3 Sample Size Determination
- 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
- 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
- 3.6 Method of Data Collection
- 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
- 3.8 Validity of the Study
- 3.9 Reliability of the Study
- 3.10 Ethical Consideration
Data Presentation and Analysis
- 4.1 Data Presentation
- 4.2 Analysis of Data
- 4.3 Answering Research Questions
- 4.4 Test of Hypotheses
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
- 5.1 Introduction
- 5.2 Summary
- 5.3 Conclusion
- 5.4 Recommendation
1.1 Background of the Study
The desire of any country is to attain and sustain national development through education. Education, particularly in science and technology, remains an essential tool for scientific and technological development all over the world. This is due to the fact that individuals who are scientifically and technologically literate acquire useful skills, knowledge, and attitudes that can transform society scientifically and technologically. In the 1980s, the old integrated science program was introduced as a core subject at the junior secondary school level. The purpose of an integrated science course, as specified in the core curriculum for integrated science (Federal Ministry of Education; 1981), is to introduce scientific concepts to students at the early secondary level.
According to the National Policy on Education (FRN, 2004), the goals of Basic Science (Formerly Integrated Science) should be to help students acquire the following skills: observe carefully and thoroughly, What is observed must be reported completely and accurately. Organize the information you’ve gathered. On the basis of the information gathered, generalizations are made. As a result of the generalization, we can make predictions. Creating experiments (including controls as needed) to test predictions, Using models to explain phenomena when appropriate; and carrying on the investigation when new data does not conform to predictions. To achieve these goals, it is suggested that appropriate teaching methods be used in the teaching and learning of basic science.
Teaching methods are ways that teachers use to create a learning environment and specify the nature of the activity in which the teacher and the learner will be involved during the instructional delivery process. It is primarily a description of learning objective-oriented activities and the flow of information between the teacher and the learner(s), and O’Banon (2002) classified teaching methods into two approaches: student-centered approach and teacher-centered approach. Teacher-centered approaches are based on behaviorism and encompass all teaching methods that regard the teacher as a source of knowledge. These methods include lectures/explanations, demonstrations, discussions, recitations, and so on. While student-centered approaches are based on constructivism and include all instructional methods that emphasize teachers as decision makers and problem solvers, they also emphasize teachers as guides in the learning process. In a student-centered learning environment, the teacher’s role is primarily that of a facilitator and guide. The students are in charge of their own learning, and they are concerned with power and responsibility. Learning can be self-directed, collaborative, cooperative, or competitive. Importantly, the use of an appropriate teaching method can help to facilitate and make learning more meaningful. To support this view, Sander (2001) opined that effective teaching method helps the learner learn better, whereas poor teaching naturally leads to poor learning and, as a result, poor achievement.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Over the years, there has been a high rate of underachievement among students in basic science in the Junior Secondary School Certificate Examination (JSSCE). This could be because teachers use ineffective methods and strategies in science teaching, which, among other things, has contributed to students’ poor performance in basic science at the junior secondary level. Because of this low achievement in integrated science, the Federal Government has mandated the inclusion of basic science in junior secondary school. According to Ohuche (1978), “the results of investigations and research findings undertaken by many educational researchers, among other things, demonstrated beyond reasonable doubt that the disadvantages or failure of many students is caused by ineffective handling of the teaching on the part of secondary school teachers.” This is due to teachers’ nonchalant attitudes toward the use of appropriate teaching methods that suit the age, maturity, ability, and environment condition of the students, such as discovery, problem-solving, open-ended field trips, and laboratory methods, among others.
Omebe and Omiko (2015) observed that the integrated science teachers have been using these suggested methods of teaching basic science for several years, but the results of the students in the Junior Secondary School Certificate Examination (JSSCE) have not been encouraging. As a result, the available literature on teaching methods in science education suggests the need to employ new and innovative teaching strategies such as guided inquiry method owing to the fact that basic science is a new area in the Nigerian educational system, it evolved from integrated science, which was reviewed to provide a holistic presentation of science and technology with the theme “you and technology”. It is against this backdrop that this study seeks to present a review on teaching methods for basic science in junior secondary school.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The broad objective of this study is to present a review on teaching methods for basic science in junior secondary school.
Other specific objectives includes:
- To determine what methods of teaching are adopted by basic science teachers.
- To ascertain how adequate resources are available for teaching and learning of basic science
- To investigate how equipped are basic science laboratory in junior secondary schools.
- To examine whether teachers qualification and time allotted to basic science affect the learning achievement of junior secondary school student.
1.4 Research Questions
The study is guided by the following constructed questions derived in line with the research objective:
- What are the methods of teaching adopted by basic science teachers during teaching-learning process.
- Are resources adequately available for teaching and learning of basic science?
- To what extent are the basic science laboratories equipped in junior secondary schools?
- Does teachers qualification and time allotted to basic science affect the learning achievement of junior secondary school student?
1.5 Research Hypothesis
- H0: There is no significant relationship between teaching method and effective teaching/learning of basic science in Junior Secondary Schools.
- Ha: There is a significant relationship between teaching method and effective teaching/learning of basic science in Junior Secondary Schools.
1.6 Significance of the Study
The result of this study will be of immense benefit to basic science teachers, curriculum planners, Ministry of Education, teacher training institution and researchers and psychologists. The outcome of this study will expose basic science teachers to more effective techniques of promoting learning, which help to minimize student’s low achievement in the subjects. Since guided inquiry method is interaction-oriented, it will equally enable them see the need why they should ensure that their classes posses qualities of guided classroom which include being democratic, and allowing active participation of learners. In a class where all these qualities exist, students will be active, inquisitive and will be able to transfer what they learnt in the classroom to real life situation The findings will be of use to the curriculum planners, to plan basic science curriculum in such a way that the contents will be filled with activities which teachers and students will do together. The federal ministry of education and other researchers will through this study organize workshops, seminars and conferences for review of pedagogy in science teaching to address the issue of integrating new ideas on teaching of basic science. The study will also serve as a reference material to scholars and student who wishes to conduct further studies in related field.
1.7 Scope of the Study
The scope of this study boarders on a review on teaching methods for basic science in junior secondary school. It will further determine what methods of teaching are adopted by basic science teachers, ascertain how adequate resources are available for teaching and learning of basic science, investigate how equipped are basic science laboratory in junior secondary schools and examine whether teachers qualification and time allotted to basic science affect the learning achievement of junior secondary school student. However the study is however delimited to selected junior secondary Abeokuta Metropolis in Ogun State.
1.8 Limitation of the Study
Like in every human endeavour, the researchers encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. The significant constraint was the scanty literature on the subject owing that it is a new discourse thus the researcher incurred more financial expenses and much time was required in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size covering only selected selected junior secondary Abeokuta Metropolis in Ogun State. Thus findings of this study cannot be used for generalization for other junior secondary in other states within Nigeria. Additionally, the researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work will impede maximum devotion to the research. Howbeit, despite the constraint encountered during the research, all factors were downplayed in other to give the best and make the research successful.
1.9 Definition of Terms
At this junction it is necessary to clarify what some used terms in this study means:
It is a branch of knowledge involving systematized observation and experiment.
Methods of Teaching:
Is a ways adopted to improve effective teaching and learning process.
It is an important activity in the educative process or impact information or skill to a person.
It can generally define as a relatively permanent change in behaviour which is as a result of experience or is reinforced by practice.
This is considered as any device piece of equipment, graphic representation, sound reproduction or illustration that helps the student to learn thus making teaching and learning more meaningful and effective.
A planned of work that is designed to find information about something to produce something new or to improve something.
1.10 Organization of the Study
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows.
- Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
- Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
- Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
- Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
- Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.
Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:
This chapter summarizes the findings on the teaching methods for basic science in junior secondary school using some selected junior secondary schools in Abeokuta Metropolis of Ogun State as a case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.
5.2 Summary of the Study
In this study, our focus was on the review of teaching methods for basic science in junior secondary school using some selected junior secondary schools in Abeokuta Metropolis of Ogun State as a case study. The study was specifically carried out to determine what methods of teaching are adopted by basic science teachers, to ascertain how adequate resources are available for teaching and learning of basic science, to investigate how equipped are basic science laboratory in junior secondary schools, and to examine whether teachers qualification and time allotted to basic science affect the learning achievement of junior secondary school student.
The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 50 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent were basic science teachers in all the selected junior secondary school in Abeokuta Metropolis of Ogun State.
Based on the findings of this study, the researcher concluded that;
- The methods of teaching adopted by basic science teachers during teaching-learning process which includes: project teaching method, lecture teaching method, back to basics teaching method, discussion teaching method, inquire teaching method, activity teaching method, problem solving teaching method.
- There are no adequate resources available for teaching and learning of basic science.
- The extent at which basic science laboratories equipped in junior secondary schools is low.
- Teachers qualification and time allotted to basic science affect the learning achievement of junior secondary school student.
Based on the responses obtained, the researcher proffers the following recommendations:
- Government should train more teachers in order to specialize on handling different teaching methods.
- Teacher should make teaching and learning of science gender unbias.
- Ministry of Education should ensure that their teachers are trained regularly on the use of innovative instructional approaches eg. guided inquiry method.
- The curriculum planners should ensure that they incorporate divers teaching methods in basic science curriculum, as it will help to promote students’ achievement and interest in the subject.
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