Reversible And Irreversible Effects Of Drug Abuse

Project and Seminar Material for Psychology

Reversible And Irreversible Effects Of Drug Abuse


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine the reversible and irreversible effects of drug abuse using NDLEA Lagos State as a case study. Specifically, the study aimed at ascertaining the nature of drug abuse, the reversible and irreversible effects of drug abuse. The study employed the survey descriptive research design. A total of 100 responses were validated from the survey. From the responses obtained and analysed, the findings revealed that impulsivity, violence, injuries, homicides, use of hard drugs, etc are among the nature of drug abuse. The findings also revealed that the use of medication, psychology, screening and assessment, close monitoring, etc are among the ways to reverse the effect of drug abuse. The findings further revealed that brain scars, heart failures and death are the major irreversible effects of drug abuse. The study recommend Recovery (rehabilitation) centre should be established to help the addict himself by first doing for them what they cannot do for themselves. Moreso, family counselling should also be encouraged.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background Of The Study

Drug abuse, is described as a patterned use of a drug or substance in which the user consumes the substance in amounts or with methods which are harmful to themselves or others. Nutt, D.; King, L. A.; Saulsbury, W.; Blakemore, C. (2007). The resultant effect is that criminal or anti-social behavior occurs when the person is under the influence of a drug. Other effects may reflect physical, social, and psychological harm; The agency vested with the responsibility of eradicating the drug war in Nigeria is the National Drug Law Enforcement Agency (NDLEA). The drug war has constituted a major challenge in Nigeria following the increasing number of cases of drug convicted case globally coming from Nigeria. The agencys fight is to eliminate the growing, processing, manufacturing, selling, exporting and trafficking of hard drugs. Consequently the agency has spread its net to combat the menace through establishing its presence in seaports, airports and the countrys borders. The agency is also targeting the leaders of drug business and money launderers. NDLEA war centers on the arrest, investigation and the prosecution of offenses related to drug trafficking. In other cases they are vested with the responsibility of destroying hard drugs, plants, and related substances and collaborating with international drug units to enforce the eradication of the menace.

Nigeria constitutes a major destination of drug trafficking in Africa and continues to expand its network worldwide. They control the drug market in sub-Sahara Africa and maintain distribution from different locations all over the world. The huge deal on heroin in the United State comes from Nigeria and smuggling activities of cocaine from America to Europe and Africa are carried out by Nigerians. They are also involved in the cultivation and exportation of marijuana from Nigeria to other countries in West Africa and Europe. Consequently the rate of drug trafficking in Nigeria requires decisive actions to eliminate the menace. A study on frequent arrest of drug trafficking in British airports shows that 65 percent of the heroin seizures of 50 grams or more came from Nigeria, which constituted a transit route for 20 percent of all heroines coming from the region of Southwest Asia. The study also shows that 20 percent of this hard drug cases in Britain came via Nigerian ships. This development has resulted in a huge number of arrests in foreign countries involving Nigerians and many have been jailed for the crime. The study seeks to appraise the reversible and irreversible effects of drug abuse.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

The resultant effect of drug abuse is that criminal or anti-social behavior occurs when the person is under the influence of a drug. Other effects may reflect physical, social, and psychological harm; The war against drug trafficking in Nigeria has attracted the concern of the federal government as well as various stakeholders in the private sector. This is due to the increasing level of drug trafficking in the country. The reports of drug trafficking and drug convicted cases in foreign countries reveals that a huge percentage are Nigerians and many have been jailed for the crime. The Nigerian law enforcement agency was set up and vested with the responsibility to arrest, investigate and prosecute of offenses related to drug trafficking. In other cases they are vested with the responsibility of destroying hard drugs, plants, and related substances and collaborating with international drug units to enforce the eradication of the menace.

However, despite the effort of the agency to eradicate the menace, the level of drug trafficking has been on the increase. There has been some allegations of corruption of non -conviction of high level drug traffickers, lack of appropriate technologies, poor funding and trainings. Other identified issue concerns the lack of clear policy guidline. Consequently despite the antinarcotics war the Nigerian borders remains porous enabling increasing influx of drugs and drug traffickers. It is important at this point to evaluate the performance of the agency with the view to determining the challenges confronting the agency in other to proffer appropriate recommendation and solution. Therefore the problem confronting the study is to appraise reversible and irreversible effects of drug abuse.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The fundamental objective of the study is to appraise the reversible and irreversible effects of drug abuse; The specific objectives of the study include;

  1. To determine the nature of drug abuse.
  2. To determine the reversible and irreversible effects of drug abuse.

1.4 Research Questions

  1. What is the nature of drug abuse?
  2. What is the reversible and irreversible effects of drug abuse?

1.5 Significance of the Study

The study shall appraise the reversible and irreversible effects of drug abuse. The study shall therefore serve as a veritable source of information to stakeholders to proffer interventions which will address the problem.


1.6 Scope of the Study

The study focuses on the appraisal of reversible and irreversible effects of drug abuse.


1.7 Limitation of the Study

The study was confronted with logistics and geographical factors.


1.8 Definition of Terms

Drug Abuse Defined

Drug abuse, is described as a patterned use of a drug or substance in which the user consumes the substance in amounts or with methods which are harmful to themselves or others. Nutt, D.; King, L. A.; Saulsbury, W.; Blakemore, C. (2007). The resultant effect is that criminal or anti-social behavior occurs when the person is under the influence of a drug. Other effects may reflect physical, social, and psychological harm;

NDLEA Defined

The agency vested with the responsibility of eradicating the drug war in Nigeria is the National Drug Law Enforcement Agency (NDLEA).The agencys fight is to eliminate the growing, processing, manufacturing, selling, exporting and trafficking of hard drugs.


Chapter Five


Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Conclusion

In this study, our focus was to examine the reversible and irreversible effects of drug abuse using NDLEA Lagos State as a case study. The study specifically was aimed at ascertaining the nature of drug abuse, the reversible and irreversible effects of drug abuse.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 100 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are active workers in NDLEA, Lagos State.

The findings revealed that impulsivity, violence, injuries, homicides, use of hard drugs, etc are among the nature of drug abuse. The findings also revealed that the use of medication, psychology, screening and assessment, close monitoring, etc are among the ways to reverse the effect of drug abuse. The findings further revealed that brain scars, heart failures and death are the major irreversible effects of drug abuse.


5.2 Recommendation

Based on the responses obtained, the researcher proffers the following recommendations:

Recovery (rehabilitation) centre should be established to help the addict himself by first doing for them what they cannot do for themselves: – If addict could quite by themselves they would. A strong, caring, knowledgeable and experience support system and network of resources are required to be established to help the drug addict recover from their addiction. Families and loved ones can learn about addiction and themselves by reading resource materials such as this to help expand their knowledge of drug abuse, its effects on the behaviour of their children (youth) and also help to control their behaviour.

It’s also important to observe the living condition and the environment of the addict: – If the addict’s environment is considered an improper environment where proper treatment can be received, there may be need to change that environment. The reason is some environment may provide difficulties for the addict to be able to make positive progress. In the case of the existence of such environment, the drug addict may need a neutral environment where proper adjustment can be sought.

Family counselling should also be encouraged: – the needed family support and the environment of warmth and living lender care could do the drug addict or abuser a lot of good. Strong family supports have been recognized to have positive effect on many drug abusers who have been observed to possess low self-esteem and also low emotional intelligence.

There is also the need for long-term professional care for severe emotional disturbance among individuals may also assist in the positive lifelong remission of drug abuse.

Treatment and lack of proper self-discipline (self care) due to underlying psychological, emotional disturbance or trauma, is just one causal factor for drug abuse, therapy can therefore focus on instilling discipline properly without intimidation or physical abuse.

There is need to train the drug abusers on how to make better use of long-term goals rather than the frustrating short-term goals which often time lead to frustration.

There is need to introduce freedom and faire-play to our country’s political atmosphere: – our politician should not destroy our youths by turning them to political thugs and hooligan with the aid of drug abuse. Politicians should be requested to bring their own children to lead the political violent groups. Gone are the days when the whole village was interested in raising the child. Our society may need to revert to the traditional societal norms of every adult within the community, showing interest in the growth and development of every child. Sociologist and social workers should go out to fish for drug abusers who have the intension to stoop drug abusing behaviour and help drug abuse client to voluntary change their drug dependent behaviour and re-orientate their attributes, values and goals so that their problem of drug abuse may be solved.

The National Drug Law Enforcement Agency (NDLEA) should be empowered in all ramifications by the government in their fight against drug abuse in the country. They must also intensify their antidrug campaigns in order to have a drug- free society with a special focus on the Nigerian youths because they are the future leaders of this great Country in the black continent of Africa.

Preventive education, treatment and rehabilitation, public enlightenment, non-governmental organization community mobilization and social re-integration programme should be organized to assist youths in the society. Parents should endeavour to learn to communicate with their children without yelling or rage. It is presumed that a peaceful environment will always promote peaceful and normal growth. In order to really help the situation, the government should have a well defined comprehensive and realistic policy on control of drugs. This policy should include establishing a federal drug control centre, under the auspices of the ministries of health and internal affairs, which will collate information on drug use, and liaise with similar smaller units, to be based in each state.

Finally, any law, which is designed to control drug abuse behaviour, must embrace suggestions from the country’s relevant professional bodies such as social workers, psychologists, psychiatrists, sociologists, youth and welfare officers, counsellors, educationists, ministry of health officials and law enforcement agents.


Reversible And Irreversible Effects Of Drug Abuse


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