Resource Availability And Its Utilization As Correlates To Students’ Academic Performance In Secondary Schools
This study examined resource availability and its utilization as correlate of students’ academic performance in Ogbomosho North LGA of Ondo State, Nigeria. There are 52 Secondary schools in Ohafia education zone out of which 20 were selected using proportional stratified random sampling technique representing 39% of the population. Three sets of instrument were designed for the study: Human Resources utilization Questionnaire (HRUQ), Physical Resources Utilization Instrument (PRUI) and Students’ academic performance. Theschool were purposively used as respondents to both HRUQ and the student’s academic performance pro-forma. Fifteen teachers were randomly selected per school as participants to respond to HRUQ making a total of 200 participants. The instruments were validated by experts in educational measurement and evaluation.
1.1 Background of the Study
So far, we have seen education is an extremely important and necessary tool for personal and social growth and enhancement. Countries, families, individuals all around the world see education as a good investment for national growth. This is because it is required to yield the required quantity and quality of human resources for the economic growth using the right mixture of inputs.
Coming down to Nigerians, we expect school system to be very active and productive in a way that a given good results is gotten with less input but based on observations of schools, operation in Nigeria shows that there are rudiments of unproductively in the school system. A good number of the students were failing and repeating classes while some dropped out and the increase in the fail out percentage in schools; therefore, contributed to wastage. This experience in the system shows that the aim of education in Nigeria have not been completely attained because students’ need to achieve and move to the next level of their lives. Educational managers of schools are faced with the problem of how to convince the respective stakeholders of education of how capable they are in active utilization of resources allocated to their schools. Thus, the poor performance of students in public examinations, tests, together with unproductive usage of resources, heap on the issue of standard when compared with what is obtainable in schools in Nigeria and beyond.
it is embraced all over the world that education is one of the leading tools for encouraging, fostering economic growth as it includes some procedures individuals go through to assist them nurture, grow and utilize their potentials. Manifestations of quality education have to do with the ability to read and write performance and progression to higher levels of learning. Howbeit, quality education will never be attained without the necessary educational resources which play a major role in the attainment of educational objectives and goals. Educational resources can be sectioned into four groups; they include human, material, physical and financial resources. Educational resources according are key to the education because they play a major role and serve as a ladder to climb the goals of education. The availability of the needed educational resources contribute to academic achievement, while unattractive school buildings, crowded classrooms, non-availability of playing grounds and surroundings that have no aesthetic beauty can to a great extent contribute to poor academic achievement. Therefore, there is a good relationship between educational resources and good performance. Therefore, students in schools with more resources are prone to perform better than students in schools that are less endowed.
Utilization of resources in every institution is as paramount as the attainment of goals and objective. Students learning result is not likely to be known or seen without using the appropriate resources actively and correctly. Student learning result could be seen to be completely changed in the behaviour of the learner. Learning is what students do; therefore, it needs student’s direct and active participation. Learning is an altered disposition in an individual as a result of instruction; it is difference from motivation, development and needs. Based on the definitions above, it could be seen that Vocational and Technical Education encourages individual students to learn by completely participating in critical thinking and participating actively in a given task.
The shortage of instructional resources hinders active utilization of resources. This is supported by Zare2002. However, it has also been discovered that schools with good, complete, required resources may not always utilize them efficiently, effectively and as a result, fail to raise student’s level of performance. On the other hand schools with limited resources may utilize the little they have efficiently and this may boost learning, therefore students should be able to maximize and utilize resources available to them so as to adequately attain educational goals. Utilization of available resources is more paramount than the quantity. Thus, it is not making resources available to schools that is the most important, but getting those resources utilized by teachers and students to get academic content learned.
1.2 Statement of the General Problem
The national policy on Education (1998:l3) stipulated certain goals for secondary education. Some of those goals are;
- To provide all primary school leavers with the opportunity for education of a higher level, irrespective of sex, social status, religious or ethnic back ground.
- To offer diversified curriculum to cater for the differences in talents, opportunities and future roles.
In Nigeria for example, majority of the students in public secondary schools perform poorly in West African school certificate examinations. This situation makes it impossible for the attainment of the above goals of national policy. For instance, there are many secondary school dropouts today who can never enter into any tertiary institutions or fit anywhere in the society. In addition, tertiary institutions set up preliminary programmes to enable the poorly performed students gain admission. All the above problems are as a result of poor performance of students, which appears deep rooted in inadequacy and or lack of facilities inherent in the secondary schools today.
Turaki (2001: 41) in Guardian at the opening of the 44’h annual congress of the All Nigerian conference of principals of secondary schools (ANCOPSS) in Sokoto said that “acute shortage of teachers in the nation’s secondary schools has been adduced as one of the reasons for the poor performance of students in the final examination”.
Oladesu and Olanrewaju (2001:23) in Comet newspaper, in support of the above view, stated that poor facilities, inadequate staffing and under funding in secondary schools have remained insurmountable threat’s to education in the country. Sequel to the above assertion, it therefore, pre supposes that inadequacy andlor lack of school facilities as well as poor utilization of available facilities must never be overlooked.
The problem of this study therefore, was to determine the relationship between school facilities and students academic performance in secondary schools.
1.3 Aims and Objectives of the Study
The major aim of the study is to assess resource availability and its utilization as it correlates to students’ academic performance in secondary schools. other specific objectives of the study include;
- To assess the level of human resources available in secondary schools.
- To examine the extent to which physical facilities are available in secondary schools.
- To examine the extent to which instructional materials equipment are available in schools.
- To assess the level of utilization of school facilities.
- To assess the extent to which available school facilities correlate with the students’ academic performance.
- To examine the relationship between utilization of school facilities and students’ academic performance.
1.4 Research Questions
- What is the level of human resources available in secondary schools in Ogbomoso North LGA?
- To what extent is physical facilities are available in secondary schools?
- To what extent is instructional materials equipment are available in schools?
- What is the level of utilization of school facilities?
- Do available school facilities correlate with the students’ academic performance?
- What is the relationship between utilization of school facilities and students’ academic performance?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
- H0: There is no significant correlation between resource availability and utilization and students academic performance in Ogbomoso North LGA.
H1: There is a significant correlation between resource availability and students academic performance in Ogbomoso North LGA.
- H0: There is no significant correlation between resource utilization and students academic performance in Ogbomoso North LGA.
H1: There is a significant correlation between resource utilization and students academic performance in Ogbomoso North LGA.
1.6 Significance of the Study
This study is important on a number of considerations:
It will establish the relationship between availability and utilization of school facilities and students’ academic performance thereby equipping the government and ministry of education with the necessary information that will enable them to provide some lacking facilities to enhance better academic performance of students.
The findings will expose the effect of lack of school facilities so that all stakeholders in education will seek means of increasing school facilities for the betterment of the students.
On the basis of the findings, teachers will tailor their teachings towards using appropriate school facilities to enhance better learning and better academic performance.
The finding will also expose the harm poor utilization of available facilities can have, enabling the principals and other school administrators to seek means of effective utilization of existing school facilities so as to improve teaching and learning as well as students academic performance. Scope of the study:
The study is limited to secondary schools in Ogbomoso North LGA. Only secondary schools that had presented candidates for West African school certificate examination will be used. Content area covers the relationship between the school facilities and students’ performance in West African school certificate examination.
1.7 Scope and Limitation of the Study
The study is restricted to resource availability and utilization on students’ academic performance suing secondary schools in Ogbomoso North LGA, Oyo state.
Limitation of the Study
Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
1.8 Operational Definition of Terms
Open Educational Resources
Educational resources (OER) are freely accessible, openly licensed text, media, and other digital assets that are useful for teaching, learning, and assessing as well as for research purposes
Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, values, beliefs, and habits. Educational methods include storytelling, discussion, teaching, training, and directed research
A student is a learner or someone who attends an educational institution. In the United Kingdom, those attending university are termed “students”
1.9 Organization of the Study
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows
- Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
- Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
- Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
- Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
- Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
It is important to ascertain that the objective of this study was to ascertain influence of social networking site and library 2.0 as a gateway to information access and knowledge sharing.
In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given. In this chapter, certain recommendations made which in the opinion of the researcher will be of benefits in addressing the challenges of resource availability and it’s utilization as correlate to student academic performance in secondary schools
Though the text books were not adequate there were no acute shortages as had been reported in previous studies before introduction of FSE. The subsidized secondary education may therefore be associated with availability of textbooks especially in mixed day secondary schools. Library services were largely inadequate in all the secondary schools. As far as laboratories are concerned the boys and girls boarding secondary schools had 2 laboratory each while majority of the mixed day secondary schools had 1 laboratory each.
The provision of both human and physical resources is very important to the attainment of educational goals and objectives. The utilization of the resources so provided is also strategic to meeting educational targets. However, as resources are provided and adequately utilized, efforts should be made to consider other educational factors such as the quality of the resources, funding and creation of conducive environment which can engender quality teaching and learning in the schools. The utilization of resources singly is not enough to ensure expected school performance. Therefore, a holistic approach to educational matters is expected so as to bring about a robust achievement of educational goals and objectives.
Based on the findings of this study, the following recommendations are made:
- Utilization of teachers should go along with the provision of quality instructional materials.
- Training and re-training of secondary school teachers should be urgently considered as teacher can only teach what they know even when they are made to work round the clock.
- Space-wise utilization of classrooms should be moderate so as not to be counterproductive.
An overcrowded classroom would bring about negative school conduct which would not add any value to the school.
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