Residents Perception On Housing Quality

Project and Seminar Material for Urban and Regional Planning

Residents Perception On Housing Quality


Abstract


This study examined the housing quality perception of the resident of Umuguma. The data of this study were collected primarily through structured questionnaires while random sampling methods were used to arrive at the sample size of 140 units. The data were collected and analyzed while the presentations are on tables, charts, and percentages. The ANOVA (analysis of variance) was employed to test the hypothesis and the result shows that the calculated value (52.5) is greater than the tabulated value (l0.13) this led to the rejection of the null hypothesis (H0) and the acceptance of the alternative hypothesis H1. There is a significance difference in the gender perception on their housing quality. H0: there is no significance difference in the gender perception on their housing quality. The study recommends that the need for involvement of the public in housing provision decision since they are the beneficiaries, as this will go a long way in the provision of more quality housing that will meet the people’s need and aspiration.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Housing (adequate shelter) is recognized worldwide as one of the basic necessities of life and a pre-requisite to survival of man (Agboola, 2004, UN–Habitat, 2006; Anofojie and Adeleye, 2011). Rapoport (2001) defines housing as a system of settings within which a certain system of activities takes place and therefore housing is more than the dwelling, the neighbourhood and its environmental quality profiles become important. In the traditional African setting, in particular, housing is, in fact, one of the greatly cherished material properties However, providing qualitative housing is a concern, not only of individuals but also of governments. Researches (Mabogunje, 2002; Aribigbola, 2005; Olayiwola et al, 2005; Lawanson, 2006; UN–Habitat, 2006; Jiboye, 2010) have shown that decades of direct government interventions, both locally and internationally, in the housing sector have not been able to combat the problems of insufficient quality in housing. This is more serious in developing countries and Nigeria is not an exemption. Nevertheless, despite recorded failures, academics and professionals still invest much interest.Housing quality, described by Erskine, 1998 cited Osman and Lemmer (2002), as the standard of the residential environment that provides residents with accessible, safe and beautiful accommodation, in a sustainable manner has been a concern the world over. This is because it is said to affect welfare, health and productivity of individuals and households (Coker, Awokola, Olomolaiye, and Booth, 2007, and Krieger and Higgins, 2002). The quantitative inadequacies of housing however differ in magnitude between the developing and the developed countries and between the poor and the rich. It was on this premise that Ibimilua (2011) noted that the poor have inadequate access to quality housing, while the rich have greater chances of accessing good quality housing. The quality of a residential area reflects a city’s planning, development and resources allocation between socio-economic classes, and residents’ quality of life (Coker et al., 2007). Hence, improving quality of housing is an enormous task particularly in developing countries, including Nigeria (Olotuah, 2006d). In Nigeria, the major challenge in urban areas has been inadequacies in both quantity and quality of housing. Since housing has been known to be highly capital intensive, the investment by government and other stakeholders should be properly directed towards achieving good quality housing environment. This is very important in order to achieve value for money for their investments. It was for this reason that the National Housing Policy in Nigeria was formulated in 1991 to provide sustainable solutions to the qualitative and quantitative housing challenges confronting citizens of this country. It was revised in 2004, 2006, and 2012 (FGN, 2002, 1991; Olofinji, 2015).


1.2 Statement of the Problem

In Nigeria, the problem of insufficient quality housing persists in urban and rural areas. The crisis is more serious in urban areas as most people live in poor quality housing and unsanitary environments. This is because of high population growth due to incessant rural-urban migration and rapid urbanization, which manifests in homelessness, overcrowding and growth of slums (Mabogunje, 2002; Lawanson, 2006; Olotuah, 2006; Adeleye and Anofojie, 2011). In addition, the deplorable quality of housing in Nigeria reflects in the predominance of structurally unsound, functionally obsolete and substandard houses in the urban and rural areas (Mabogunje, 1975; Olotuah and Adesiji, 2005). To curtail housing shortage, the need for continuous state intervention through public housing provision was adopted. This has resulted in the construction of various mass housing estates in urban centres for all income groups. However, Oni (1988) asserts that the assessment of housing need by the various governments in Nigeria has concentrated in the number of dwelling units needed, playing down on the importance of quality and the satisfaction of would-be residents. This manifests in the mismanagement and misuse of housing estates, thereby accelerating the rate at which they degenerate. In effect, because built-up structures degenerate in quality with age and obsolescence, the high rate of neglect and consequent deterioration of housing have made blight and lack of residents’ satisfaction common features in many public housing estates in Nigeria. However, if good quality housing implies its possession of good attributes, then the reality of housing situation in Nigeria is below ideal. In the light of the afore-mentioned and the fact that low quality housing and blighted environments are inimical to the general wellbeing and quality of life of people, there is therefore the need to appraise the perception of residents and non residents of Umuguma housing estate, Imo on the quality of their housing as this will go a long way to ensure the provision of quality and functional housing that will meet the need of the people.


1.3 Purpose of the Study

The broad objective of this study is focused on residents perception on housing quality. Other specific objectives includes:

  1. To ascertain Residents’ perception on the condition of buildings in the estate
  2. To investigate Residents’ level of satisfaction with facilities within the houses/estate in the study area.
  3. To ascertain whether there is difference in the gender perception on their housing quality

1.4 Research Questions

  1. What are residents’ perception on the condition of buildings in the estate?
  2. What is Residents’ level of satisfaction with facilities within the houses/estate in the study area?
  3. Is there difference in the gender perception on their housing quality?

1.5 Research hypotheses

  • Ho: There is no significance difference in the gender perception on their housing quality.
  • Hi: There is a significance difference in the gender perception on their housing quality.

1.6 Significance of the study

Findings of this study have implications for housing policy formulation; research; and provision in two key areas. First is that, in housing evaluation research, housing adequacy and residential satisfaction can be used as a substitute or surrogate for each other. This means that either of these two concepts can produce similar result upon which informed conclusions on issues such as housing quality; residents’ quality of life; housing adjustment behaviour; success of housing projects; performance of housing providers and managers in meeting the needs of users can be made. s. In all, based on the evidence from this study, our survey data can be considered to have provided empirical support to the basic assumption in the existing literature and the conceptual framework of the study that although there is a strong relationship between housing adequacy and residential satisfaction, similarities and differences exist in the way residents understand these two concepts. It is expected that this work will be of interest to government, students and the general public. This study will also help to serve as literature (reference source) to governments at all level, students, individuals or corporate bodies into what to carry out on further research on housing development and the affordability in imo State.


1.7 Scope of the Study

This study examined the housing quality perception of the resident of Umuguma. The study further discussed residents’ level of satisfaction with facilities within the houses/estate in the study area.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

Distance and its attendance cost of travel in order to obtain the needed information which to write this study will be a major limitation. Another limitation to the study is short time factor which did not give time for thorough research work, hence gathering adequate information becomes very difficult. Finally, lack of materials on the topic; this is new in the area of housing development and affordability in Imo State. Therefore, the researcher resolved to seek friendly approach in order to obtain the needed materials or information from the area under study through the administration of questionnaire


1.9 Definition of terms

a) Housing:

Housing is defined as buildings or structures that individuals and their family may live in that meet certain        federal government regulations. Housing Development

b) Affordable Housing:

Affordable housing is housing deemed affordable to those with a median household income as rated by country, State (province), region or municipality by a recognized Housing Affordability Index.

c) Income:

Income is the consumption and savings opportunity gained by an entity within a specified timeframe, which is generally expressed in monetary terms (Barr, 2004). However, for households and individuals, income is the sum of all the wages, salaries, profits, interests,. payments, rents, and other forms of earnings received in a given period of time.

d) Accommodation:

It is lodging in a dwelling or similar living quarters afforded to travelers in hotels or on cruise ships, or

e) Management:

Management in organizations is the function that coordinates the efforts of people to accomplish goals    and objectives by using available resources efficiently and Housing Development


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations

5.1 Summary

This study examined the housing quality perception of the resident of Umuguma. The data of this study were collected primarily through structured questionnaires while random sampling methods were used to arrive at the sample size of 140 units. The data were collected and analyzed while the presentations are on tables, charts, and percentages. The study made use of of descriptive analysis and inferential statistics where data from field survey was analyzed using simple percentage, mean and standard deviation presented in frequencies and tables. Hypothesis test was conducted using ANOVA Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS v.23).


5.2 Conclusion

Housing Quality is a product of subjective judgment . Housing quality therefore results from the overall perception of residents. The study has examined the housing quality perception by residents and non-residents of Umuguma housing estate, Owerri and it has been established that contrary opinion exist on the perceived housing quality by both the residents and non residents. Although, the condition of the buildings was perceived by the residents to be good, the non-residents are not so enthusiastic about the condition of houses in the estate. Even as there is disparity in the perception of the residents and non-residents of the estate about quality, residents and non-residents were fairly satisfied with the estate infrastructures and services. The ANOVA (analysis of variance) was employed to test the hypothesis and the result shows that the calculated value (52.5) is greater than the tabulated value (l0.13) this led to the rejection of the null hypothesis (H0) and the acceptance of the alternative hypothesis H1. There is a significance difference in the gender perception on their housing quality. H0: there is no significance difference in the gender perception on their housing quality.


5.4 Recommendation

From the findings of the study, the researcher recommends that to enhance the perception and satisfaction of the estate by residents and nonresidents, it is incumbent that the housing estate be upgraded by the government to make it more aesthetically pleasing and more habitable. Moreover, in the provision of more housing estates in the future, there is the need for public participation right from the design stage to the implementation stage. This is because for any development scheme or programme not to fail, the beneficiaries must be consulted and be part of every phase of the implementation and development of the programmes. In this respect, all stakeholders comprising residents’ representatives and other target groups should be adequately consulted to forestall the reoccurrence of failure.

To ensure improved living conditions of residents of public housing, especially low- and middle-income earners; housing policy makers and developers in Nigeria and other developing countries, should pay sufficient attention to the needs of all categories of age groups when it comes to the location of mass housing projects close to where there is easy access to basic social


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