Repair And Recommissioning Of Process Heat Transfer Apparatus

Project and Seminar Material for Chemical Engineering

Repair And Recommissioning Of Process Heat Transfer Apparatus


The repair and recommissioning of the process heat transfer apparatus was done in the pilot plant of chemical engineering department of institute of management and technology (IMT) Enugu. The repair work was done under the supervision and direction of an experienced technician the repair work was initiated by troubleshooting which revealed the faulty parts of the apparatus, then followed by the search of material for construction of the damaged parts and reconstructioning of parts, polishing and Assembling of the parts, Electrical wiring which was performed by an electrician.

However, the construction and reconstructioning of the parts was done in the mechanical engineering pilot plant of Institute of Management and Technology (IMT) Enugu. The following parts were repaired. Electric motor, electric pump switches (I, 2,3 and 4), ceiling rose, hose, clips, plug and bolts. As the end of the repair, the process heat transfer apparatus become functional and can be used to perform practical works in determining the rate of heat transfer and equality of heat transferred from one source or body to another this report contains the steps (procedures) taken to achieve the aims as stated under aims and objectives of the project.

List of Figures

  • A = Area available for heat transfer
  • Amp = Unit of current (SI)
  • Cm3 = Unit of volume
  • dt = Difference in Temperature
  • dx = Difference in length
  • h = Convective heat transfer coefficient
  • hp = horse power
  • k = Conductive heat transfer coefficient
  • kw/m2k = Unit of heat transfer coefficient
  • mm2 = Unit (SI) of Area
  • q = Rate of heat transfer
  • u = Overall heat transfer coefficient
  • um = Micrometer, Unit (SI) of wavelength
  • vac = Volts (SI unit of voltage) Alternative current
  • w = Watts (SI unit of electrical power)

Definition of Terms


This is a partial or complete solid solution of one or more elements in a metallic matrix


Condition of having low temperature


A device or unit used to condense vapour into liquid .


The flow of heat or cold or current from one place to another through a solid material medium.


The flow of heat or cold from one point to another through a fluid medium


The breaking down of essential properties in a material due to chemical reaction with its surrounding.

Crude oil

A naturally occurring flammable liquid in rock formation in the earth consisting of complex mixture of hydrocarbons of various molecular weights, plus other organic compounds.


Cryogenics is the study of the production of very low temperature (below 1800C, – 23480F or 23K) and the behaviour of materials as those temperatures rather than the familiar temperature scale of fehrenheit and 123K and the Celsius cryogenicists use the Kelvin (and formerly rankine).


Cool Tank (cool water (fluid) tank)


An electrical household appliance that removes the water from clothes by attracting evaporation usually through heat and tumbling motion.

Eddy Movement

The whirling and tumbling movement of fluids due to mixing and agitation

Elementary Entities

Particles or impurities present in solution with an element or solution.


An electrical appliance that removes water form wet solids or remove water from a solution containing excess water by the application of heat.


This refers to liquid and gases


This refers to the accumulation of unwanted materials on solid surfaces, most often in an aquatic environment.


These are heaters built for the purpose of heating homes in cold and ice regions


Any flow of energy from one body or system to another due to difference in temperature


Heat dissipative tank


From engineering perspective; it means a rigid bodies connected by joints in order to accomplish desired force and motion transmission.


Any unsaturated hydrocarbons containing one or more pairs of carbon atoms linked by double bond.


This refers to something difficult to see through or perceive.

Pilot Plant

A small chemical processing system which is operated to generate information about the behaviour of the system for use in design of large facilities.


Any process in which energy emitted by one body travels through a medium or through space ultimately to be absorbed by another body.


A state of matter characterized by resistance to deformation and change or volume.


A name give to a gas mixture that contains varying amounts of carbon monoxide and hydrogen.


A set of interacting or interdependent entities real or abstract, forming an integrated whole.


An abbreviation meaning, Tubular Exchange Manufacturer Association.


A measure of the quantity of hotness or coldness on a body. It is also a measure related to the average kinetic energy of monatomic gas atoms as they move.


The rate of change of positions, it is a vector physical quantity, both speed and direction are required to define it.

Chapter One


1.1 Background of Study

In the past years, when industries were trying to maneuver their was into the production of goods on large scale without much waste form the available raw materials, certain variables like temperature applies to fluids or rather dictated from body, fluid flow rate, pressure etc. This led to loss of valuable materials, wastes of money (capital) and many other factors which were considered in order for such problem as waste to be properly handled likewise in the pilot plant where there is production of goods in small scale, some of the problems mentioned above were also encountered and was able to be corrected using temperature control apparatus usually referred to as process heat transfer apparatus.

This process heat transfer equipment apparatus was developed as a result of the need of heat or in an attempt to reduce the quantity of heat or amount of heat entering or leaving a process plant so that only that required amount quantity of heat to obtain the best required amount quantity of heat to obtain the best product or to balance the generated heat is obtained.

From this it can be understood without bias that, this is why fluids must either be heated or cooled in a wide range of plant such as furnaces, evaporators, distillation units, dryers and reaction vessels (reactors).

This problem of control of flow of heat from a hot to cold vessel or system and vice versa form one of the most important areas of chemical engineering.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

In the pilot plant of chemical Engineering, Institute of Management and Technology (IMT) Enugu, Nigeria, the process heat transfer apparatus which is used in impacting practical knowledge of theories received in the lecture hall (room) in the students ran down and to needed to be brought back to performance.

Few students were selected to execute the task and this report is a research work carried out by the concerned students.

1.3 Purpose / Aims / Objectives of the Study

The purpose of this research is as follows

  1. To bring the components parts of this equipment/apparatus back to functionality.
  2. To provide a process heat transfer apparatus that transfers heat multidirectional clonally away from an apparatus that generates heat.
  3. To provide a process heat transfer apparatus that can be used as either a heat sink, a heat dissipative pin or as a cooling fin or in application where thermal conduction in required of a plate-shaped content.
  4. To provide a process heat transfer apparatus that is an effective thermal conductor and light weight
  5. To provide a process heat transfer apparatus that provides a configuration in which heat flux is relatively constant along paths through the process heat transfer apparatus.
  6. To provide a process heat transfer apparatus that provides a direct thermal path along the fibre axis from the surface of the process thermal heat transfer apparatus to its edges.

1.4 Scope and Limitation of the Study

Heat exchange is one of the most frequent operations in process industries. A large member of process proceeds at much faster rate at the temperature is raised and it is economically advantageous to use as high as temperature as possible.

However, constant heating and cooling of that material which determines the creep property of that material and may result to break down or deterioration with time. Chemical reactions rates are approximately doubled for every 10 degrees rise in temperature chemical reactions are frequently exothermic, however and it may well be necessary to remove heat through a heat exchange than supply it.

In order to avoid a catastrophic rise in temperature, thus to balance the requirements of maximum efficiency and compete control over the process may require the vary close regulation of the temperature.

The pilot plant process heat transfer apparatus is designed to show the working of a heat exchanger and to permit a series of experiments to be performed with it.

In this apparatus, however, water is both the process fluid and the heating fluid, the rate of flow of water (heating fluid) being controlled automatically using the process fluid outlet temperature to provide the control signal. Different configurations of heating fluids flow may be set up to show how flow control may be abstained in various ways. Conclusively, this process apparatus cannot give service indefinitely for now tool material can render indefinite service to humanity.

1.5 Method of Research

In our research, several effort were made to reveal every possible information on the process heat transfer apparatus which include

  1. Reading books on heat, Heat transfer, cooling systems and other related disciplines.
  2. Internet browsing (day and night)
  3. Organization of interactive forum at which all concerned student air their views and findings on the course of study and etc which at the end are were able to get to this level of cosmic consciousness.

1.6 Significance of the Study

From those stressful research programs were able to achieve our aims as listed in this chapter subsection three
At the end of the repair work, the equipment/Apparatus and its accessories were coupled/assembled as in figure 3.1 and 3.2 and it is expected that the pilot plant profess heat transfer apparatus will render sufficient and satisfactory service to the students after us. In other words our successive in the field, distillation units, dryers and reaction vessels where one of the major problem in the transforming heat at desired rate from one body to another. The control of the flow of heat at the desired rate forms one of the most important areas in chemical engineering focus. It is shown that thermal heat can only be transferred from one part to another through three modes namely

  • Conduction
  • Convection and
  • Radiation

Chapter Seven


The recommendation made here were based on observed practical behaviour of the equipment when it was operated. Thus if the recommendations are implemented, this equipment would serve as a very useful practical teaching equipment in process heat transfer studies in polytechnics, universities, institute of higher learning, research programmes and factory laboratories.

With the workability and responsiveness of this apparatus studying process heat transfer help students, teachers, researchers and industries to generate data for practical purpose; thus the following recommendation are made.

i. How Water Circuit:

It was recommended that (i) a by pass be installed on this circuit at a point just before the rotameter so that unwanted water can be returned back to the tank and thereby ensuring the easing of pressure or preventing the build up or pressure during operation. Also, the lack in the thermowell should be sealed by brazing.

ii. Cold Water Circuit:

Similarly, it is recommended that

  • Replacement of the broken glass barrel of rotameter and insertion of suitable float.
  • Fractionally rated horse power pump with low working pressure be used o replaced the flexible horse connecting the manometer to the pressure tapping points.

iii. Limitation:

During the course and execution of this project much difficulties were encountered like raising money to buy the materials required for the project.

iv. Time:

We found it difficult to be meeting as often as necessary to discuss issues of importance for the progress of this project.

v. Energy:

Due to insufficient energy we were unable to devote more than the time specifically schedule for a day for the project was used.

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