The Use Of Remote Sensing And Geographic Information System In Land Use Management

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The Use Of Remote Sensing And Geographic Information System In Land Use Management


Abstract


The purpose of this research is to apply Remote Sensing and GIS in land use management of Greater Karu Urban Area, Nasarawa State. Specific objectives are to; create land use/cover map of the study area from 1972 to 2012, determine the rate and magnitude of change, determine the suitability of the land for different uses and determine the extent of encroachment into the approved setback areas. Landsat MSS, TM, ETM and Spot-5 satellite imagery of 1972, 1987, 2000 and 2012 were used. A supervised classification approach using ILWIS 3.3 version was also used. Six categories of land use/cover types were generated as follow: built up areas, water bodies, agricultural land, vegetation, rock out crops and bare surfaces.

Euclidean distance and weighted overlay from spatial analyst tool of ArcGIS 9.3 software was used for the suitability analysis using Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis and Analytical Hierarchical Process. The guidelines in line with Land Use Act Cap 202 of 1990 and the Nigeria Urban and Regional planning Act of 1990 to monitor and control all developments approved setbacks was adopted. Results from the analysis revealed the Increase in built up area resulted to changes in other land use/cover categories between 1972 and 2012 as follow: natural vegetation has drastically decline from 68.9% to 52.9% between 1972 and 1987.

It further decline from 34.3% to 25.4% between 1997 and 2012. Agricultural land witnesses an increase from 8.7% to19.1% between 1972 and 1987. Thereafter, decreases from 25.9% to 15.2% between 1997 and 2012. Bare surfaces witness an increase from 7.8% to 9.1% between 1972 and 1987. Further decrease from 12.2% to 11.6% was observed between 1997 and 2012. Rock outcrops increases from 2.9% to 3.0% between 1972 and 1987. Further increase was experienced from 3.0% to 3.1% between 1997 and 2012 Water bodies covers 10.6% in 1972 and decrease to 6.1% 1987 before increasing to 7.7% in 1997 and subsequent decrease by 5.8% in 2012.

The most dramatic increase experienced in built-up area is shown from 1990 to 2012, coinciding with the relocation of the FCT from Lagos to Abuja in 1991. This result to haphazard development and encroachment of built up areas into the approved setback of road network and water bodies are as follow: Highway; 2.5468 Sqkm, local distributors: 1.305 Sqkm, access roads/streets; 1.345 Sqkm rivers, 48Sqkm. It thus recommends the Nasarawa State Government and planners to use the final suitability maps for discussions and decision making in development of the area. At the absent of that, the final suitability map is recommended to guide development in the area.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

Land is the foundation of all forms of human activity. From it humans obtain the food, shelter and the space to work and relax. Land is amongst man‟s most valuable resources. It is a means of life on which our continued existence and progress depends (Dale, Peter and John, 1988). Land is man‟s most valuable resource. It is the means of life without which he could never have existed and on which his continued and progress depend. Land is a term with many meanings. To the physical geographer it is a landscape produced from natural processes, the product of geological and geomorphologic process. To the economist it is a resource which along with capital and labour is to be exploited in order to achieve economic production and development or conserved to guarantee future biodiversity. To the lawyer land is a volume of space stretching notionally from the centre of the earth to the infinite in the sky, and associated with it are a variety of rights which determine what may be done with it. To many it is simply the space for human activities as reflected in the many different forms of land use.

FAO (1976) defined land as a delineable area of the earth‟s terrestrial surface, involving all attributes of the biosphere immediately above or below this surface, including those of the near-surface climate, the soil, the terrain forms, the surface hydrology (including shallow lakes, rivers, marshes, and swamps) and associated ground water and geo-hydrological reserve, the plant and animal populations, the human settlement pattern and physical results of past and present human activity. Land comprises the physical environment of the earth‟s surface from soils, topography and underlying geology, hydrology, plant and animal population and vegetation, with their influence on potential land use (Harcombe, 2010).

Land is required for various uses in both the urban and rural areas. It is a major factor of production and a vital element in the socio-economic development of any country (Dent and Young, 1981). Studies have emphasized that the quality of land is an important factor for various land uses, thus as nations grow in size and rural areas become urban centers and urban centers become large metropolitan areas, there is always increase in competition and demand of land for different purposes. This requires adequate management to ensure harmonious development and functional efficiency of these uses (Sodeinde, 2002). Human use of land has been proved to alter the structure and functioning of the ecosystem. The most spatially and economically important human use of land globally include cultivation, construction, reserves, protected lands and timber extraction. Recently settlements are becoming large active land use changes especially in the developing regions of the world. This calls for effective land use management (Amos, 1986).

The need for thoughtful and careful stewardship of the land, together with the more intensive use and management of its resources has emerged as a matter of major global concern due to the rapid growth of population that have caused increasing pressure on land, while simultaneously a massive migration of people to cities and towns has led to the uncontrolled growth of urban centers (Dele et al., 1988). Land use management as discussed widely by Mabogunje (1992); Durand-Lasserve (1990) and Kombe (1995) is conceived as processes involving different stakeholders in planning, facilitation and controlling land use and subsequent activities in view of sustainable development.

Land use management entails decision making and the implementation of decisions about land. Land use management involves making fundamental policy decisions about the nature and extent of investment. The scope of land use management involves private and public sectors who develop and make use of land; law which sets out rules and procedures in the management system; agencies which make decisions on how land may be used at various levels of government; plans which inform decisions on how land may be used (Nags and Kudrat, 1998). The content of land use management can be described in terms of three value sets (ecological, social and market values) that must be brought into balance by land planning (Sui, 1992).

The analysis of land characteristics in identification of land suitable for development can play an essential part in the planning process. Among the many concerns of urban planners in guiding the spatial arrangement of activities is the optimum utilization of land for the benefit of society (Shuaib, 2005). This involves making choices between available alternatives and as such it requires a procedure for the analysis of available alternatives. Alternatives for development usually start though not necessarily with consideration for buildable land. “i.e. land on which if developments are installed would not have detrimental or adverse effects on the environment”. The process of identifying such land is the assessment of the fitness of tracks of land for development. Land suitability analysis requires integration of several data sets to model land use requirements and the characteristics of the land for the alternatives (Shuaib, 2005).

Almost all African countries have a history of land use management processes dating back to their respective periods of colonial rule. However, formal land use management in Nigeria began in 1863 with the enactment of the Town Improvement Ordinance by the Colonial Government. The ordinance was meant to control development and urban sanitation in Lagos, then the Federal Capital of Nigeria. However, modern land use management could be said to begin in the country in 1946 when the Nigerian Town and Country Ordinance was enacted (Mabogunje, 1992). The general inefficiency associated with majority of the developing countries land policies, the absence of secure tenure, and inadequate land use management capacity have been cited by Bernstein (1994), Hardoy and Satterthwaite (2001) as serious problems precipitating existing land use crises in Nigeria. In recent times, the often-destructive impact of human activity on the land has led to the global need for more careful management of land use and natural resources at sustainable level.

A number of policies that impinge on urban land use management has been articulated and implemented in Nigeria. These include the Land use Act of 1978, Urban Development Policy of 1992, Urban and Regional Planning Act as well as the Housing and Urban Development Policy of 2002. Similarly, land use planning and control measures have been introduced to improve urban land use planning and urban development (Aribigbola, 2008). Despite the existence of these laws and policies, land use management problems still persist in Karu area of Nasarawa State.

Consequently, there is the need for a better understanding of the problems and also to articulate how to improve the existing ineffective land use management methods in the area. In evaluation of land use management, suitability plays a fundamental role in regional land-use planning. Its major objective is to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of development in certain areas, so as to find out places which are most suitable for certain land use development in the future. In the field of suitability assessment for land use management, Geographic Information System, Remote Sensing and numerical modeling techniques have been proved to be efficient tools by recent studies (Ahmed et al., 2000).

GIS is an important tool in land use management. The demands of the different stakeholders is analyzed, visualized and presented to support decision-making. One of the most commonly used methods for land-use decision making is spatial Multi Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA). This method combines all the spatial factors that are important and results in a map with the best location for a certain type of land-use. Most often with MCDA, the goal is to find the most suitable location for residential, commercial, agricultural and industrial use.

In addition, existing Spatial Decision Support Systems (SDSS) which are decision making tools that make use of spatial MCDA often concentrate on a specific type of land-use, for example urban development. When applying land-use suitability on an area, it should contain not only urban development, but also agricultural land-uses. It is against this background that this research is formulated to use remote sensing and GIS that integrates land-use suitability, covering all relevant land-use categories (urban and agriculture) in land use management of Greater Karu Urban Area, Nasarawa State, Nigeria.


1.2 Statement of the Research Problem

Greater Karu Urban Area of Nasarawa State is a principal satellite town of the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja that has no Development Master Plan since the creation of the State in 1996 (Yari, Hadziga and Ma-aruf, 2002). Lack of affordable accommodation for low and middle income workers of Abuja, the proximity of these settlements to Abuja and the low land prices have attracted many workers from Abuja and other migrants to settle there. As a result, the area has experienced rapid population growth and continuous expansion after the relocation of the Federal Capital Territory (FCT) from Lagos to Abuja in 1991. The upsurge in population of such towns was further encouraged by the desire of the FCT administration to restore Abuja to its master plan by the demolition of all forms of illegal structures within its territory. The implementation of these decisions has led to rapid population movements, massive construction work, wide spread commercialization of local economy and rapid urbanization. This has imposed significant pressure on the environment and natural resources with serious implications on socio-economic development and spatial organization within the territory and beyond its boundaries. In addition, the spatial expansion of the settlements in the area has been going on without significant control. Thus urban sprawling is on the increase.

The Food and Agricultural Organization (1995) maintains that sustainable land use management is of key importance in the development of a country. FAO indicates that an integrated physical and land-use planning and management are eminently practical ways to move towards more effective and efficient use of the land and its natural resources. Such integration should take place at two levels, considering on one hand all environmental and socio-economic factors and on the other all environmental and resources components together. Thus, there is the need for a GIS technology for sustainable land use management in Greater Karu Urban Area particularly in a situation where the current conventional methods of planning are unable to cope with the rapid rate of development and growth of the area. There is therefore the need for more robust, accurate and timely procedure for planning. Hence, this study seeks to apply remote sensing and GIS in land-use management in Greater Karu Urban Area.

Many studies were conducted in this area; Yari et al. (2005) in their study on governance and management institution in Karu, Nasarawa State, Nigeria showed that the institutions charged with the responsibility of managing the sustainable development of Karu are ill equipped to carry out their duties. There are no up to date base maps, adequate information storage and retrieval systems and equipments for efficient operation. Adamu (2012) carried out a research on urban management implication on informal land delivery in Karu area and revealed that, formal channels of land allocation cannot meet the current demand; as a result there is an active informal land market in the area. Many people who bought large tracks of land subdivide them into plots and sell. There are large numbers of land brokers, surveyors and town planners who earn a living through sales of land sell in the area.

Ezekiel (2010) made a comprehensive research on the effect of the federal capital territory development on rural transformation in Karu, Nasarawa State. The study showed that the provision of urban services has proved to be very elusive because of the rapid rate of population growth, poor management capacity and dwelling resources available to the governments. The situation reflects a failure to adequate respond to the need of fast growing settlements in the provision of key urban services.

However, there is still a lack of integrated land use planning for this area, leading to many socio-economic and environmental consequences such as poor living environment and haphazard development among others. Integrated land use planning if successfully implemented will bring improvement to the environment, promote the sustainability of the environment, improvement of the socioeconomic value of the environment, wealth creation and distribution opportunity will be ensured through the various design concepts that will be employed in the plan making. The focus of this study is therefore to apply remote sensing and GIS in land-use management of Greater Karu Urban Area of Nasarawa State, Nigeria. How then can GIS be used to create land use/cover maps of the study area? How can levels of suitability that characterize each parcel of land be generated?, How effective is the use of GIS in land use management? Hence, the need for this study


1.3 Aim and Objectives of the Study

The aim of this study is to apply Remote Sensing and Geographic Information System in Land- use management of Greater Karu Urban Area.

To achieve this aim, the specific objectives are to;

  1. Create land use/cover maps of the study area for 1972, 1987, 1990 and 2012.
  2. Determine the rate and magnitude of the land use/cover changes.
  3. Determine the suitability of the land for different land uses.
  4. Determine the extent of encroachment of buildings into the approved setbacks areas.

1.4 Scope of the Study

This work seeks to demonstrate the usefulness of remote sensing and GIS in land-use management of Greater Karu Urban Area from 1972 to 2012. The study covers such major settlements in the area as Mararaba, Masaka, Ado, New Nyanya and New Karu. The variables considered in the study include; soils, topography (slope), water bodies and proximity of buildings to drainage, schools, markets, bore holes and road networks which were used to generate the suitability map of the study area.


1.5 Significance of the Study

The study presents a role playing approach to Remote Sensing GIS in land-use management of Greater Karu Urban Area, aimed at improving planning of the area and identifying areas of land use conflict. The study uses remotely sensed data and GIS technique to determine suitable areas for future land use in order to provide a better reference for future development of the area. The created suitability and preference maps provide a firm mean for discussions and decision making. The suitability maps based on the sub-objectives, objectives, and goals provide insight
in detailed themes on the suitable areas for residential, commercial and agricultural development. Finally, the buffered maps show the areas of road and water bodies encroached by residential and commercial land use.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

5.1 Introduction

This chapter sets out to presents the overview of the study and the summary of major finding. Recommendations of the study were also presented.


5.2 Overview of the Study

This study demonstrates the usefulness of Remote Sensing and GIS in land use management in GKUA of Nasarawa State. The study make use of Landsat MSS satellite image of 1972, Landsat TM satellite image of 1987, Landsat ETM+ satellite image of 1997, Nigeriasat-1 satellite image of 2012 and SPOT 5 satellite image of 2012 to determine the land use/land cover situation of the area. The study also make use of Topographical, Soil, Geological map, and Global Positioning System to acquired data on Schools, Health centers, markets and Public water (Bore holes). ArcGIS 9.3 and ILWIS 3.2 software were used for data analysis using digital image processing algorithm and spatial analyst tool of the above mentioned software packages. Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis and Analytical Hierarchical Process were also used.

Findings from the results of this study revealed there is a considerable increase of population in the study area, leading to increase in built-up areas and its effects on other land use/land cover categories. The most dramatic increase and the continuous expansion experienced in built-up area are shown between 1990 and 2012. Coincide with the relocation of the Federal Capital Territory from Lagos to Abuja in 1991, GKUA have affordable accommodation for low and middle income workers and the proximity of the areas to Abuja with low land prices contributed to the problem. The increase of built up area resulted to changes in other land use/cover categories between 1972 and 2012 as follow: natural vegetation covering a dominant part of the study area has drastically decline from 68.9% to 52.9% between 1972 and 1987. It further decline from 34.3% to 25.4% between 1997 and 2012. Agricultural land witnesses an increase from 8.7% to 19.1% between 1972 and 1987. Thereafter, decreases from 25.9% to 15.2% between 1997 and 2012 respectively. Bare surfaces witness an increase from 7.8% to 9.1% between 1972 and 1987. Further decrease from 12.2% to 11.6% was observed between 1997 and 2012. Rocky outcrops increases from 2.9% to 3.0% between 1972 and 1987. Further increase was experienced from 3.0% to 3.1% between 1997 and 2012 respectively.

A water body covers 10.6% in 1972. Water body then decrease and by 1987 it covered 6.1%. Water body then increases to 7.7% in 1997, and subsequent decreases to 5.8% in 2012. Encroachment of built up areas into the approved setback of road network and water bodies are as follow: Highway have total length of 9.6138km2. 2.5468km2 along this route was encroached by residential, commercial activities and refuse disposal, local distributors have a total length of 4.6212 km2, 1.305km2 on both side of these roads are encroached by shopping and commercial activities, access roads/streets have a total length of 3.31319km2, and 1.345km2 have been encroached by residential and commercial activities. Also 21km2 of rivers, 48km2 streams, and 19km2 ponds and lakes were encroached by buildings and fishing communities.

The settlements of GKUA do not have a master plan or Strategic plan to guide their development. The absence of a general development plan, zoning regulation and density control for the area limits effective control and management of land uses. It is a general trend, therefore for land use to change indiscriminately from one type to another type over a short period of time. For example, the conversion of residential dwelling units to commercial and light industrial uses is very common. However, the created suitability, preference, and conflict maps provide a firm mean for discussions and decision making. The suitability maps based on the sub objectives, objectives, and goals provide insight in detailed themes on the suitable areas for
residential, commercial and agricultural development.


5.3 Summary of Major Findings

The use of remote sensing and GIS in Land use Management of Greater Karu Urban Area reveal an increase in built up areas due to continuous expansion, massive construction work, wide spread commercialization of local economy and rapid urbanization of the area as a result of the relocation of the Federal Capital Territory from Lagos to Abuja in 1991. This has imposed significant pressure on the environment and natural resources with serious implications on socio-economic development and spatial organization within the area and beyond its boundaries. Lack of land use planning and zoning regulation results to haphazard land use pattern and unplanned, uncontrolled and informal growth process of settlements in the area. This reduces the quality of life and economic attraction. The search for a way forward will therefore require a synthesis of present situation and the identification of options for feasible intervention. The aim is to cater for present and future needs through approaches that are financially, technically and environmentally suitable. It is recommended that such approaches should reflect important considerations of the environmental effects and the use of locally available human and natural resources.


5.4 Recommendations

Based on the research findings, it is an established fact that the relocation of the Federal Capital Territory from Lagos to Abuja in 1991 results to population increase, rapid urbanization and land use/cover changes in the area. There is therefore the need for Nasarawa State Government to equip the planning authorities and other ministries involved in decision making with adequate spatial data to ensure broad based decisions. This can be achieved by investing in the acquisition and management of remotely sensed data and Geo-Information Technology in order to develop a data base which will enhance the management of land use in the area.

Nasarawa State Government and Karu Area Planning Development Authority should take urgent steps to finalize the master plan being prepared. In view of the shortcoming of master plan approach, the authorities should prepare a development strategy to guide the orderly growth and development of the area. Also, stake holders must participate in decision making on developmental issues that affect them.

Workshops and seminars in remote Sensing and GIS should be organized to help in updating and creating awareness to the major stake holders in the planning and development department of the ministries on the trend on the use of the technology in monitoring and management of land resources and development of the area.


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