Causes And Remedies To Job Dissatisfaction Among Secretaries In Selected Private And Government Establishments
This research work was deigned to find out the causes and remedies to job dissatisfaction among secretaries in selected private and government establishments in Imo state. Seventy (70) of the secretaries were used as the sample of the study. The instrument for data collection used was the questionnaire, which consists of 5 research questions.
The result of the study showed that job dissatisfaction emanated from secretary’s job relationship and environment and have a lot of effects to secretaries but could be managed when a clear job descriptions and definition are made. Conclusions were based on the result of the findings while recommendations were proffered based on the conclusions drawn from the findings.
Table Of Content
- Title page
- Approval page
- Table of content
- 1.1 Background of the study
- 1.2 Statement of the problems
- 1.3 Purpose pf the study
- 1.4 Research questions
- 1.5 Significance of the study
- 1.6 Scope of the study
2.0 Review of Related Literature
- 2.1 The concept of dissatisfaction
- 2.2 Lack of modern office facilities in organizations
- 2.3 Effect of uncomfortable environments
- 2.4 Some minor jobs which secretaries are reduced to undertake by their bosses
- 2.5 Adequate languages secretaries lack that limit their jobs
- 2.6 Summary of literature reviewed
3.0 Research Methodology
- 3.1 Design of the study
- 3.2 Area of the study
- 3.3 Population of the study
- 3.4 Sample/sampling techniques
- 3.5 instrument for data collection
- 3.6 Method of data collection
- 3.7 Method of data analysis
- 3.8 Decision rule
4.0 Presentation and Analysis of Data
- 4.1 Research question 1
- 4.2 Research question 2
- 4.3 Research question 3
- 4.4 Research question 4
- 4.5 Research question 5
- 4.6 Discussion of findings
5.0 Summary of Findings, Conclusions and Recommendations
- 5.1 Restatement of the problems
- 5.2 Summary of findings
- 5.3 Conclusion
- 5.4 Recommendations
- 5.5 limitation of the study
- 5.6 Implication for further research
- 5.7 Suggestion for further research
- Appendix I
- Appendix II
- Appendix III
- Appendix IV
- Appendix V
- Appendix VI
1.1 Background of the Study
In every organization, different categories of workers are employed to perform tasks in order to achieve the objectives of the organization. The employers are therefore assume that each person has a definite responsibility so as to get the best from each worker.
Ohadinma and Nkwam (2000) states that, there are various reasons why people work; to earn respect among associates, to earn salaries and wages, to acquire prestige and honour, to achieve excellence in chosen a career, to socialize with others and to dominate. What a variety of reason but culture is indeed a determining factor.
Often, what makes the difference between healthy and sick organizations are known for operating with highly motivated and satisfied workers while sick ones are filled with poorly motivated and dissatisfied workers.
Howel and Dipboye (1982) are of a view that workers satisfaction heavily depends on the organization’s ability to discover, sustain and meet worker’s needs. Productivity also, to a large extent, is influenced by the level of worker’s satisfaction. Hence the role of worker’s motivation in productivity and worker’s satisfaction can never be played down. In some establishment, the role of some secretaries is not defined. This lack of definition of the role is the single most significant predictor of mental ill-health and job dissatisfaction among secretaries together with limited career prospects.
Njoku, Ohiri, Nwosu, Iwuoha, Njoku, Ohakwe (2000) quoting the international Association Of Administration professional, USA (1981) which defined a secretary as an assistant to the executive possessing mastering of office skills and the ability to assume responsibility without close supervision and makes decision within the scope of her authority. Some bosses do not know that the secretary, apart from possessing skill in typing and shorthand, is also knowledgeable in management and organizational techniques. This implies that the roles or functions of the secretary go beyond the typing of documents and writing shorthand.
Okereke (2003) stated that, many boss today do not realize that the secretarial service go a long way in helping them perform their duties, they feel that they can work effectively without the secretary. This brings about anxiety and dissatisfaction to some secretaries; hence they would want to change to other professions. Therefore, a secretary is supposed to be provided with an atmosphere that would encourage and stimulate maximum efficiency and satisfaction.
The average secretaries will be happy to have their area of responsibilities and authorities clearly and well defined. But in a situation where responsibilities and authorities overlapped because of lack of proper definitions, it creates unnecessary conflicts, stress and dissatisfaction which retard productivity in any establishment.
1.2 Statements of the Problem
The secretary is the image maker of an organization. A secretary being the heart of an organization is supposed to be provided with good working environment which will stimulate maximum efficiency and job satisfaction but because of high competition nature of the job, most professional secretaries find themselves in an establishment that has low operating system which is not in a position to provide them with an atmosphere that would stimulate maximum efficiency and job satisfactions thereby creating a problem for them.
Some bosses in most business establishment take undue advantage of the secretaries by reducing them to some menial jobs which they are not meant for; in addition there will be frustration because they are made to stagnate indefinitely on a particular low level grade. Secretaries also became frustrated when some executive force works down on secretaries even when they know that the relevant materials and facilities were not available.
Many secretaries lack different adequate languages and this do not help them in putting in their best. It is on these problems that this project work intends to address itself.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the study is to determine the causes and remedies to job dissatisfaction among secretaries in selected private and government establishments in Imo state.
This study will attempt to:
- determine the concept of dissatisfaction
- Identify those facilities secretaries lack in the organization.
- Determine the uncomfortable environments where secretaries are kept in some organizations.
- Identify various menial jobs which secretaries are reduced to undertake by their bosses.
- Identify those adequate languages secretaries lack that limit their jobs in the offices.
1.4 Research Questions
In order to achieve the purpose of this project study, the following research questions were designed:
- What is the concept of dissatisfaction?
- What are those modern office facilities secretaries lacks in the organization?
- What are the effects of uncomfortable environments where secretaries are kept in some organizations?
- What are those menial jobs which secretaries are reduced too undertake by their boss?
- What are those adequate languages secretaries lack that limit their jobs in the offices?
1.5 Significance of the Study
This project work will help the secretaries in recognizing the problems affecting their profession in the business establishments. The highlights on the causes of these problems will make sure that corrective measure may be taken to arrest the situation. It will further serve as a guide to bosses oh how to make a maximum utilization of their secretaries for efficient performance of their duties.
It will also serve as a guide to many firms on providing ways of motivating their secretaries by providing necessary modern facilities in order to get the best from them. It will also help the employers of labour to know the kind of atmosphere that would encourage and stimulated maximum efficiency and satisfaction to secretaries.
1.6 Scope of the Study
This study is conducted in the selected private and government establishments in Imo state on the causes and remedies to job dissatisfaction among secretaries.
5.0 Summary Of Findings, Conclusions And Recommendations
This chapter presented a restatement of the problems, summary of findings, conclusion and recommendation. It also continued the limitation of the study, implication of the results and area for further research.
5.1 Restatement of the Problem
This study was earlier stated to investigate the causes and remedies to job dissatisfaction among secretaries in selected private and government establishments in Imo State. In the course of carrying out the duties, most professional secretaries find themselves in an establishment that has low operating system which is not in a position to provide them with an atmosphere that would stimulate maximum efficiency and job satisfaction thereby creating a problem for them.
Besides, some secretaries do not exceed certain grade-level in some business establishments; therefore, they are made to stagnate indefinitely on a particular grade-level.
The research was five (5) research questionnaires containing a total of thirty (30) questions, which sixty eight (68) was accurately answered by the respondents. It adopted the survey method, which was effective since the opinion of secretaries working selected private and government establishment was sought. A population seventy (70) secretaries was drawn from the selected private and government establishments in Imo State and because the population was relatively small, it was used as sample. This was done to reduce samplings bias and to get fair representation. The simple mean score on a four –point scale was used as method of data analysis and a mean score of 2.50 and above was accepted as significant.
5.2 Summary of Findings
Based on the findings the following observations and facts were revealed:
- It was found in research question one (1) that secretaries working in selected private and government establishments need to understand the concepts of dissatisfaction, so as to know what dissatisfaction is all about and how to handle it effectively.
- It was found in research question two (2), that secretaries working in private and government establishment in Imo Sate should be aware of various modern office facilities secretaries lack in order to suggest for a possible way of making them available in their offices.
- Research question three (3) revealed the secretaries working in selected private and government establishments in Imo State should know the effects of uncomfortable environment to secretaries so as to prevent it from affecting them and the organization negatively.
- In addition, it was found in research question four (4) that secretaries working in selected private and government establishments in Imo State should to be away of various menial jobs secretaries are reduced to undertake in order to find the remedies to them.
- Finally, the research question five (5) revealed those adequate languages secretaries lack which limit their jobs in selected private and government establishments in Imo State.
Based on the findings of the study, the researcher made the following conclusions.
- Dissatisfaction among secretaries emanated from the secretary’s relationship with her job and environment.
- Lack of modern office facilities in selected private and government establishments are likely to be the causes of problems and obstacles that associated with secretarial duties.
- However, it was also concluded that uncomfortable environment has a lot of effects to secretaries and the organizations which could stagnate goals.
- Some secretaries are not given their due respect and therefore are under paid as a result of some menial jobs they are being reduced to undertake by their bosses.
- Finally, it was concluded that English Language French Language, Central Native Language and Vernacular are the adequate Languages needed by secretaries and indeed lack of any of the limits their duties.
Based on the conclusions reached, the following recommendations are hereby proffered.
- The secretary should clearly make out a description of job jointly with the boss in order to reduce the amount of stress that may emanate from job relationship
- Secretaries should be provided with necessary modern office facilities which include computers, photocopying machines, Fax Machines, Telephone etc. these will enable them put in their very best of service.
- Secretaries should be provided with conducive working environments which include good offices, good relation with co-workers etc. to enable them carryout their duties effectively.
- They Should be well remunerated, motivated and provided with duties they are meant for, for growth of the organization.
- Finally, secretaries should avail themselves the opportunity of learning all the languages necessary for secretaries in order to excel is their profession.
5.5 Limitation of the Study
The researcher in the process of carrying out the research work encountered minor constraints which include: Lack of Finance and time factor. Due to time factor, the researcher could not reach out to other secretaries working in other private government establishments in Imo State. All these contributed to the delay in sourcing out materials for the research work.
5.6 Implications of the Results
As regards to the implications of the results, dissatisfaction to job can affect the performances of secretaries and workers in every perspective if not properly handled.
However, this went further stating that job dissatisfaction can be avoided when all the necessary modern office facilities are provided. Based on these implications of the result the following were revealed:
- It was revealed that job dissatisfaction emanated from secretary’s relationship with job especially when necessary facilities are not provided.
- It was also revealed that bosses who force work load on their secretaries without making sure that necessary facilities are available contributed to job dissatisfaction to secretaries.
- Finally, it was revealed that some modern facilities like computers, Photocopier, Telephone, Printers etc. are very vital to secretaries and therefore any of them lacking frustrates secretaries.
5.7 Suggestion for Further Research
In the course of this study, it was discovered that secretaries in other establishments were allowed to advance up to managerial level, but in some government ministries they cannot get up to level 13 as Chief Secretary, whereas other professions such as Public Administration, Accountancy, Marketing in the related fields do reach level 14.
The Researcher is therefore, advocating further research into what could be done to improve the lot of the secretary who seems frustrated because of no hope of advancing beyond a certain grade level in government ministries and parastatals.
Causes And Remedies To Job Dissatisfaction Among Secretaries In Selected Private And Government Establishments
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