Religious And Cultural Practices As Predators Of Peaceful Coexistence Between Teachers And Students In Ile Ife
This paper attempted to investigate the effects of integrating Peace Education into Nigeria educational system which led to identify the effects of religious and cultural practice on peaceful coexistence between teachers and students. Four research questions were designed for the study. The researcher designed an instrument tagged: Questionnaire on effect of Integrating Peace Education (QEIPE). The entire population of two hundred respondents spread across Secondary Schools and teachers in secondary school of ile-ife in Osun State were used as the sample for the study. A 20-item questionnaire structured on a 4-point scale was used for the collection of data. Mean and Standard deviation was used to answer the four research question generated from the study. The findings identified the inclusion of Peace Education in Nigerian School curriculum in order to reduce crime, violence and other social vices in Nigeria. The result of the study further revealed that there is no significant differences between Peace Education and Social and religious Studies. The findings equally identified the relevance effects of religious and cultural practice on peaceful coexistence between teachers and students. Based on these findings among others, it was recommended that training and retaining of teachers should be intensified to enable teachers acquire the skills and knowledge to use appropriate techniques and methods to effectively to identify the effects. Also, while integrating Peace Education concepts, thematic approach in restricting the Social Studies curriculum in social and religious studies and other related subjects should be reviewed in such a way that concepts that are relevant to Peace Education will be reflected and identified.
1.1 Background Of The Study
Nigeria being the most populous African nation is still battling with different challenges ranging from political tensions to religious and tribal (cultural) violent conflicts. These events constitute factors that have been negatively influencing the development of the country; as they are left unattended to, the issue of conflict keep happening and are gradually becoming part of the national culture. Consequently, the situation of conflict and tension continue and the new generations are not aware of those issues and the need to resolve them. Bearing in mind that Nigeria is a multi-religious, multicultural and multiethnic nation where people are raised differently according to the beliefs and customs of their ethic group. Consequently, by observing one’s behaviors it is possible to discover one’s origins (Ogunyemi, 2006)
The above assertion, justify the necessity of Peace Education programme in Nigeria since there are some many unresolved issues that need urgent attention. Peace education according Kester (20008) is of very high importance, as it will enable people to adopt a positive attitude regarding the different issues they can face through their life and to develop the necessary skills to peaceful resolve conflicts. This, in turn will impact positively on the society. Therefore, it is crucial to develop a Peace Education programme in order to solve conflict that comes as a result of religious and cultural belief.
The most critical challenges facing by Nigeria constitute of the terrorist activities of the faceless religious group called “Boko Haram” in the Northern part of Nigeria also in the southern part are the militant group; the Niger Delta avenger and the Oodua people’s congress. All these groups constitute one problem or the other which affected the well beings of Nigerian citizens. In order to solve these problems among others, it is imperative to include Peace Education in the national curriculum to empower the future generation with the necessary skills to resolve social issues. Peace Education is crucial for the Nigerian educational system to achieve in schools. It has to do with training on the avoidance and management of violent, conflict, better human relationship, unity and internal cooperation among various tribes of those aspects of formal and informal education in school and out-of-school aimed the elimination of groups prejudice, stereotypes and hatred which make people prefer war to peace, violence and non-violence, exclusion to cooperation and destruction to construction. Peace Education therefore, is education for peaceful and non-violent co-existence (Ezeoba, 2012). Since education was conceived as an instrument “per excellence” for enhancing Peace Education, education, Adeoluma (2006), Aguba (2006) and Aguba (2010) respectively noted that it is expedient on educational planners to make Peace Education an integral component of subjects so that Nigerians can be educated on how to peacefully live together as one.
Harris and Morison (2003) opined that since nineteenth century, social reforms have considered that the basic foundation for social change were given by schools, churches, and community groups. Through education, it was hoped that the student’s willingness to positively contribute to the development of the society will increases, and in turn, their dislike for violence and war would increase. By worldwide raising the awareness of the disastrous consequences of war, it was hoped that the students’ ability to resolve conflicts in peaceful manner would increase. Peace Education program are highly needed in Nigeria primary and secondary schools as a means of catching them young to minimize the spirit of tolerance that engenders conflict all over the world (Ogunyemi &Adetoro 2013). This will equally empower the children with necessary knowledge of peace and the skills to address the issues without resorting to violence. The teaching of Peace Education will enable the youths to become good citizens that act positively to the nation (Adeniji, 2008)
The Concept of Peace Education
Peace education is the process of equipping learners with tools for developing knowledge’s, skills, values and attitudes needed for resolving differences and conflicts in non-violent ways and in living peacefully with oneself, others and the environment. It is concerned with resolving conflict of intrapersonal, interpersonal and intergroup levels without violence. It also has to do with conflict resolution at local, national and international levels. Peace education refers to the process of promoting the knowledge, skills, attitudes and values needed to bring about behavior changes that will enable children, youth and adults to prevent conflict and violence, both overt and structural to resolve conflict peacefully; and to create the conditions conducive to peace , whether at an intrapersonal, interpersonal, intergroup, national or international level.(UNICEF 1999). Going by UNICEF position, peace education has a place in all societies not only in countries undergoing armed conflict or emergencies. This is so because lasting behavior change in children and adults only occurs overtime, effective peace education is necessarily a long-term process, not a short- term intervention. While often based in schools and other learning environment, peace education should ideally involve the entire community. Education also concerned with the acquisition of knowledge, skills, values and attitudes for creating atmosphere of peace within the individual or for achieving inner peace (Akudole, 2010)
The nature of Peace Education enables it embraces the physical, emotional, intellectual and social growth of children within the framework deeply rooted in traditional human values. A culture of peace will be achieved when citizens of the world understand global problems; have the skills to resolve conflict constructively; know and live by international standards of human rights gender and racial equality; appreciate cultural diversity and respect the integrity of the earth. Such learning cannot be achieved without international, sustained and systematic education for peace (Global Campaign for Peace Education, 1999). Turray (2005) opined that Peace Education enables participants to empower themselves with knowledge, skills, attitudes, values, and beliefs which build cultures of peace, non-violence and sustainability. He added that effective Peace Education enables learners to critically analyze the root causes of violence, wars, conflict and social justice, and develop alternatives to violence.
The existence of peace indicates the absence of both overt and structural violence. According to Akudole (2010) most conflict situations result from structural violence emanating from poverty, discrimination, lack of access to opportunities and the inability to understand the other person’s point of view. Whenever two or more people are doing something as a group, conflicts are bound to arise due to individual differences. Peaceful co-existence of the group members depends on their conflict management abilities. Peace Education is both a philosophy and a process that is concerned with the acquisition of knowledge about different manifestations of peace and violence as well as peacemaking skills. It is a process of inculcating elements of Peace Education in the learners to enable these learners develops the ability to manifest tolerance, the skills for non-violent conflict resolution and the sense of dedication to the establishment of a culture of peace (Akunole 2010).
1.2 Statement Of The Problem
Peace Education programme must take a holistic approach to addressing the not cause of violence, and to this end, the implementation and practice of Peace Education needs to be properly and continuously evaluated to ensure effectiveness (Kester, 2008). Research has shown that Peace Education needs embraces the physical, emotional, intellectual, and social growth of children within a framework deeply rooted in traditional human values, Kiz-zovu (2006) revealed that Peace Education philosophy teachers love, compassion, trust, fairness, cooperation and reverence for the human family and all life on this planet. Despite this, available research disclosed that Peace Education is not fully in operation in our educational system Ikumelu (2010), Aighangbe (2000) and Olu-Orungbemi & Olowo (2011). In Nigeria, presently, there are cases of conflict, inter-tribal clashes and ethno-religious violence. It is against this background that this study seeks to examine the effect of integrating Peace Education into Nigeria education system
1.3 Objective Of The Study
The purpose of this research are as follows:
- Ascertain how the inclusion of Peace Education in school curriculum will reduce crime, violence and have ways for human rights in osun state
- Determine the effects of Peace Education on teachers and students in osun State.
- Examine the teaching of Peace Education as a means of teaching values and tradition in Osun
1.4 Purpose Of The Study
The purpose of education is to develop in the learner and teacher the disposition and confidence as agents of peace who can live in harmony with oneself, others and the natural environment as well as promote peace, human rights and democracy in the society (Akudolu 2010).
This purpose of Peace Education is based on the eight keys of Peace Education emanating from United Nations’ resolutions and the Noble Peace Prize Laureates’ Manifesto 2000 (Hawke Research Institute, 2010:2) as presented:
Respect all life:
Respecting the rights and dignity of each human being
Rejection of violence, obtaining justice by convincing and understanding.
Developing attitudes and skills for living together in harmony, putting an end to exclusion and oppression
Listening to understand:
Giving everyone a chance to learn and share through the free flow of information.
Preservation of the planet:
Making sure that progress and development and good for everyone and for the environment.
Tolerance and Solidarity:
Appreciating that people are different and that everyone has something to contribute on the community.
Equality of man and woman:
Ensuring an equal place for men and woman in building society.
Making decisions by having your say and giving others theirs.
1.5 Scope Of The Study
To achieve the goal of Peace Education requires instrumental delivery that is geared towards developing in the learners the basic elements of Peace Education and the knowledge, skills and values covered in the eight keys for promoting culture of peace. This will result in the creation of a culture of peace among people. In other words, the application of these eight keys to instruction according to Akudolu (2010) will develop in individual the ability to make peace a way of life and of doing things in the society.
Mainstreaming Peace Education across the curriculum implies the use of peace prone instructional methods and strategies. These are methods and strategies that promote interactive learning processes and they include cooperative group work, peer teaching, problem-solving, discussion, role plays, meditation, consensus building, negotiations, simulation and other learner-centered instructional strategies. Apart from promoting participatory, cooperative and problem-solving abilities in learners, each of these instructional strategies is experimental based. These participatory, instructional methods are used in the teaching of topic whose learning aims relate to knowledge, attitude and skills of peace education. Also when student participate in these type of learning strategies, they listen to one another and this develops in them respect for differences (Akudolu 2010)
1.6 Scope Of The Study
This study basically focuses on the peace education. Peace education helps the researcher to understand how religious and cultural practices hinder the peaceful coexistence between teachers and students and how this problem can be tackled in other for peace to reign in our society.
1.7 Limitation Of The Study
This research was a surveyed and five secondary schools were involved in the study. Finally, Opinion of 200 teachers from secondary schools in Osun state were sampled on integrating Peace Education in Nigeria school.
1.8 Significance Of The Study
This study is important to both the schools and society at large. It helps to maintain peace and tranquility in schools and the society. This study also help student and teachers to respect religions and cultures and also taught them the need to respect and tolerate people with different culture and religion.
1.9 Research Questions
In an attempt to provide answers to the problem of the study, the following research questions were developed: Will the inclusion of Peace Education in school curriculum enhance reduction in violence, crime and give way for respect of human rights in ile-ife, Osun State?
- What will be the effects of integrating of Peace Education in the school curriculum on teacher’s students in Osun State?
- Is there significant difference in Peace Education and Social Studies Education?
- Does the teaching of Peace Education serve as a means of teaching values and traditions of different cultures in Osun State?
- What impact does the study of peace education has on the peaceful coexistence between teachers and students?
1.10 Definition Of Terms
Is a stress-free state of security and calmness that comes when there’s no fighting or war, everything coexisting in perfect harmony and freedom.
Is living together in peace rather than in constant hostility or the state or fact of living or existing at the same time or in the same place.
Is the characteristics and knowledge of a particular group of people, encompassing language, cuisine, social habits, music and arts.
The belief in and worship of a superhuman controlling power, especially a personal God or gods.
An active disagreement between people with opposing opinions or principles.
1.11 Project Organisation
The work is organized as follows: chapter one discuses the introductory part of the work, chapter two presents the literature review of the study, chapter three describes the methods applied, chapter four discusses the results of the work, chapter five summarizes the research outcomes and the recommendations.
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