The Relevance Of Tools And Machinery In Accident Prevention (A Case Study Of SPDC Port-Harcourt)

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The Relevance Of Tools And Machinery In Accident Prevention (A Case Study Of SPDC Port-Harcourt)


Abstract


This study was carried out on the relevance of tools and machinery in accident prevention using SPDC Port-Harcourt case study. To achieve this, 5 significant research objectives were formulated. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of staff of SPDC Port-Harcourt, Rivers State.In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 119respondents while 110 were received and 100 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables and percentage. The result of the findings reveals that the use of industrial tools and machinery helps to prevent industrial accidents, and there is an adequate provision of quality tools and machinery in SPDC Port-Harcourt, Rivers State. The findings also revealed that workers are adequately oriented on the need for constant use of the right industrial tools and machines during operation. Furthermore, the study showed that the extent to which workers utilizes the appropriate tools and machines during operations is low. In regard to the findings, the study recommends that the managerial officials of industrial organizations should ensure that the machines are pre-tested before actual acquisition this will help reduce sudden brake downs which might be detrimental to workers, and likewise, the tools and machines should be serviced, repaired and maintained adequately. There should not be an occasion of trying to or managing the tools and machines when they malfunctions, among others.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

According to the most recent estimates, some 2.3 million workers die from work-related accidents and diseases; over 474 million people suffer from occupational diseases and non-fatal accidents; with the costs of these exceeding US$2.8 trillion, or 4% of gross domestic product (Takala et al., 2012). These have increased by at least ten percent compared to a decade ago (Takala, 2005); and are expected to increase even further as countries and organizations are challenged by rapid advancements in technology, changing nature of accidents, hazards and risks, changing societies views of accidents, introduction of new forms of regulations, and increasing levels of complexity and coupling. The degree of these will, no doubt, depend on the sector and context of the industry concerned.
Rahim (2008) defined an accident as an event that which is out off any planning, desirable, expectation or controlled. People would normally pay more attention to the accident that result in injuries (Hinze, 1997). An accident does not means that it is necessarily cause an injury but it also destroy the tools and materials. Accident is an undesired event, which results in physical injury or property damage, usually resulting from contact with a source of energy above the ability of the body or structure to withstand it. According to Ridley (1986), 99% of the accidents happen are due to either unsafe acts or unsafe conditions or both. All accidents should be of concern regardless of the nature of the loss or damage. Precaution should be taken to avoid and minimize the future accidents. Accident in construction has result in undesired injury, property damage and interruption. In order to minimize the number of accidents, there is a need to identify where and how risks arise. According to Tam et al (2004) , the causes of accidents were the poor safety awareness from top leaders, lack of training, lack of organizational commitment, lack of technical guidance, uncontrolled operation, unwillingness to input resources for safety, lack of certified skill labour, unsafe equipment, lack of first aid measures, lack of rigorous enforcement of safety regulation, lack of personal protective equipment (PPE), lack of protection in material transportation and storage, lack of teamwork spirits, shortage of safety management manual, lack of innovative technology and poor information flow.

From the studies and research carried out by the several researchers, it could be concluded that the unsafe acts and unsafe condition are categories to immediate or primary causes of accidents, because they are the most obvious causes and are usually directly involved or present at the moment the accident happen. According to Holt (2001), secondary causes are the failures of the management system to anticipate, and include lack of training, maintenance, adequate job planning and instruction, and not having safe systems of work in place.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Rahim (2008) defined an accident as an event that which is out off any planning, desirable, expectation or controlled. An accident does not means that it is necessarily cause an injury but it also destroy the tools and materials. Accident is an undesired event, which results in physical injury or property damage, usually resulting from contact with a source of energy above the ability of the body or structure to withstand it. According to Ridley (1986), 99% of the accidents happens due to either unsafe acts or unsafe conditions or both.

Furthermore accident in the construction industry has resulted in undesired injury, property damage and interruption. The statistics from NSTP (2000) shown that the increase number of construction accidents by 5.6 percent from 4,406 cases in 1995 to 4,654 cases in 2003.

Abdelhamid and Everett (2000) conducted a study on the causes of accidents in the construction industry and classified them into two main factors, which are human and physical factors. According to Tam et al (2004) , the causes of accidents were the poor safety awareness from top leaders, lack of training, lack of organizational commitment, lack of technical guidance, uncontrolled operation, unwillingness to input resources for safety, lack of certified skill labour, unsafe equipment, lack of first aid measures, lack of rigorous enforcement of safety regulation, lack of personal protective equipment (PPE), lack of protection in material transportation and storage, lack of teamwork spirits, shortage of safety management manual, lack of innovative technology and poor information flow.

Similarly, Aderayor(2009), posited that the prevalence of industrial accident in constitution and non-construction industries in Nigeria has been attributed to lack or poor provision of quality industrial tools, equipment, and machinery. However, this has resulted in increase of material wastage, workers injuries, and death. The acquisition of tools and machines with no good quality, hence resulting to mal-functionality has contributed heavily on the occurrence of industrial accidents. In view of the above, this stud tends to examine the relevance tools and machines in the prevention of accidents.


1.3 Objective of the Study

The general aim of this study is to examine the relevance of tools and machinery in accident prevention. To achieve this, the study will specifically;

  1. Examine the causes of industrial accidents.
  2. Ascertain if the use of industrial tools and machinery helps to prevent industrial accidents
  3. Ascertain if quality tools and machinery are adequately provided in industrial companies
  4. Ascertain if workers are adequately oriented on the need for the constant use of the right industrial tools and machines during operation.
  5. Ascertain the extent to which workers utilizes the appropriate tools and machines during operations.

1.4 Research Question

The following questions will guild this study.

  1. Does the use of industrial tools and machinery helps to prevent industrial accidents?
  2. Is there an adequate provision of quality tools and machinery in industrial companies?
  3. Are workers adequately oriented on the need for the constant use of the right industrial tools and machines during operation?
  4. What is the extent to which workers utilizes the appropriate tools and machines during operations?

1.5 Significance of the Study

This study will be relevant to safety managers, government, industries and regulatory agencies, by exposing them to recent strategies in safety management. Such knowledge will enable them to become risk conscious. The study will enable manufacturing industry to have effective safety management system to keep the business in a profitable manner. Moreso, this study will encourage industrial managers to ensure that industrial machines and tools acquired and to be acquired are in good conditions. Finally, this study will be relevant to future researchers, as it will serve as a guide for further studies.


1.6 Scope of the Study

The study focuses on the relevance of tools and machinery on accident prevention. However, the study will further examine the causes of industrial accidents; ascertain if the use of industrial tools and machinery helps to prevent industrial accidents; ascertain if quality tools and machinery are adequately provided in industrial companies; ascertain if workers are adequately oriented on the need for the constant use of the right industrial tools and machines during operation; and ascertain the extent to which workers utilizes the appropriate tools and machines during operations. Thus, the study will be carried out in SPDC Port-Harcourt, Rivers State.


1.7 Limitation of the Study

In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, language barriers, and the attitude of the respondents. However, the researcher were able to manage these just to ensure the success of this study.


1.8 Definition of Terms

Accident:

Any unplanned event which may cause injury or damage. Any event which has or could have caused injury, damage or interruption of work, (Emenite: 2003).

Management:

The process of getting thing done effectively and efficiently, through and with other people, (Robins and Decenzo: 2005).

Safety:

All those rules and regulations relating to the safety of firms operations, product and workers, (Kadiri: 2006).


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the relevance of tools and machinery in accident prevention using SPDC Port-Harcourt case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was on the relevance of tools and machinery in accident prevention using SPDC Port-Harcourt case study. The study is was specifically carried out to; examine the causes of industrial accidents; ascertain if the use of industrial tools and machinery helps to prevent industrial accidents; ascertain if quality tools and machinery are adequately provided in industrial companies; ascertain if workers are adequately oriented on the need for the constant use of the right industrial tools and machines during operation; and ascertain the extent to which workers utilizes the appropriate tools and machines during operations

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 100 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent were staff of SPDC Port-Harcourt,Rivers State.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher concluded that;

  1. The use of industrial tools and machinery helps to prevent industrial accidents.
  2. There is an adequate provision of quality tools and machinery in SPDC Port-Harcourt,Rivers State.
  3. Workers are adequately oriented on the need for constant use of the right industrial tools and machines during operation.
  4. The extent to which workers utilizes the appropriate tools and machines during operations is low.

5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.

  1. The managerial officials of industrial organizations should ensure that the machines are pre-tested before actual acquisition this will help reduce sudden brake downs which might be detrimental to workers
  2. Likewise, the tools and machines should be serviced, repaired and maintained adequately. There should not be an occasion of trying to or managing the tools and machines when they malfunctions.
  3. The organizations should put more effort in sensitizing the workers on the need to adequately execute safety measures.
  4. Workers who fails to utilize the right tools, machines and/or adhere to the right safety measures should be immensely penalized.

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