The Relevance Of Packaging In The Market Performance Of Consumer Goods In Nigeria (A Case Study Of PZ Industries Plc, Aba)

Project and Seminar Material for Business Administration and Management (BAM)

The Relevance Of Packaging In The Market Performance Of Consumer Goods In Nigeria (A Case Study Of PZ Industries Plc, Aba)


This research is on the relevance of packaging in the market performance of consumer goods in Nigeria. We try to find out the packaging strategies, understand the meaning, possibilities, advantages ands effect of modern packaging structure in modern Nigeria market.

This work covers five chapters, chapter one deals with the introduction, background of the study, statement of problems, objective of the study, research questions, statement of hypothesis etc.

Chapter two originated with a literature review, which talks about various approaches to the definition of packaging, importance strategy, social influence etc.

Chapter three deals with the research methodology, research design, population of the study etc.

Chapter four explained the presentation analysis of data and discussion of the findings.

While chapter five is all about summary of the findings, restatement of the problem, recommendations, implication of the study and bibliography.

Table Of Contents

Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title Page
  • Approval Page
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table Of Contents

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the study
  • 1.2 Statement of the problems
  • 1.3 Objectives of the study
  • 1.4 Research questions
  • 1.5 Significance of the study
  • 1.6 Scope of the study
  • 1.7 Limitation of the study
  • 1.9 Definition of terms
  • Reference

Chapter Two

2.0 Review of related literature

  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.2 Various approaches to the definition of packaging
  • 2.3 Planning and packaging
  • 2.4 The right packaging
  • 2.5 Societal influence on packaging
  • 2.6 Relevance of packaging
  • 2.7 Shopper package relationship
  • 2.8 Packaging strategy
  • 2.9 The basic role and function of marketing
  • 2.10 Packaging requirement
  • 2.11 Using packaging to solve marketing problem
  • 2.12 The problems and criticisms against Packaging
  • References

Chapter Three

3.0 Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Introduction
  • 3.2 Research design
  • 3.3 Population of the study
  • 3.4 Sampling procedures and technique
  • 3.5 Data collection method
  • 3.6 Questionnaire design and administration
  • 3.7 Description of data analysis/techniques

Chapter Four

4.0 Presentation and Interpretation of Data

  • 4.1 Introduction
  • 4.2 Presentation and analysis of date
  • 4.3 Discussion of the findings

Chapter Five

5.0 Summary of Findings, Conclusion and Recommendations

  • 5.1 Restatement of the problem
  • 5.2 Summary of the findings
  • 5.3 Conclusion
  • 5.4 Implication of the study
  • 5.5 Recommendation
  • Bibliography

Chapter One


1.1 Background Of The Study

In the world marketing, packaging of product is a very and vital name of no doubt, play a significant role in effective marketing of product especially consumer goods. In marketing, a consumer is said to be king and as such, much effort is made to draw the attention of this king through packaging. Many firms have confirmed that packaging has been playing an estimable role on consumer perception and selective retention

According to Kotler (1980) many marketers thus have product, pricing, promotion and packaging that make up the marketing elements of the firms.

Onuoha and Egbuta (2007) maintained that packaging involved designing and manufacturing of the container or wrapper for a product and it performs the protective/promotional functions.
Also, technology and civilization have their own impact as regards to the state of the product packaging. Core Product Company like PZ industry, Unilever, etc employs high technology, equipment and techniques in the design and production of product package.

Product And Packaging Process

Joy toilet soap and elephant blue detergent is two different product altogether, although they do almost the same work. The product of toilet soap or soaps generally is known as specification, which is the reaction between caustic soda and oil to produce soap, which has been processed with chemicals like titanium dioxide that make it soft, skin mild, gentle on both the suitable packaging for them to undertake further market research to identify more packaging materials and process PZ industries plc incorporated in England in (1884) was established in Nigeria in (1899). A multinational public liability company with 60% of its equity share held by Nigerians and 40% by foreigners. It started initially as a trading company across western coast of Africa.

They started with the marketing of palm-produce, cocoa, seeds, groundnuts and other cash crops. Today, they have expanded so much that they are into several forms of business. Companies under it include; Pz Pharmaceutical and Pz thermo cool. Pz industries today are principally engaged in the manufacturing of soaps and detergents. It brands of laundry soaps include Canoe, premier, green duck, tempo bar/tablet soap. While its toilet soap brand includes Eva, Imperial leather, cussons soap, Venus, joy, premier, robber etc. The company has its sulphonation plant in Lagos where elephant temp and jet brands of detergents are manufactured. Also, at Lagos is the pharmaceutical and perfume plant. Its brand of pharmaceutical include Alagbin, Robb, ointment, Heated Chinese balm, maladrin, Roberts paracetamol, superadin, disinfectants etc.

1.2 Statement Of The Problem

The depressed economic situation of Nigeria has really imposed problem to every operating firm in Nigeria. And these problems include: How appropriate packaging strategy would be able to minimize damages along channel of distribution.

How to effectively use packaging as a tool to increase sales volume. The appropriate strategy a firm should use to create the impression of inch ness through packaging.
The right material to be most appropriately used for packaging and be able to withstand competition

1.3 Objectives Of The Study

In the world of business, which takes place in dynamic and competitive environment, packaging has assumed a major and ancillary role of conformity and profitability of every consumer product growing concern.

  1. To verify whether packaging plays a significant role on sales volume and profitability.
  2. To identify if p[packaging serve the objective or purpose of appeal to consumers

1.4 Research Questions

The questions stated below were postulated for verification in this study.

  1. What influence has packaging on sales volume and profitability?
  2. What is the role of packaging creating utility, product definition, storage and dispensing?
  3. Does packaging solve the mutual interest of both products and consumers?
  4. Does packaging ease the problem of identification during purchase

1.5 Significance Of The Study

The significance of this study is that, it made the firms and marketers to understand that one of the most vital packaging strategies today in supermarket and drug stores is the visual effects of the package (i.e. self selection). It was gathered that information on product packages is on higher demand as it is through these information that consumers can make their choices.

1.6 Scope Of The Study

The research work is centered around Aba in Abia state where pz industries plc, the case study is operating a plant

The study embraces consumer behaviour around Aba. Because of constraint of time allowed completing the research work and inadequate fund available to finance the work. The areas of emphasis include the relevance of packaging and its contribution to the organization (PZ industries plc, Aba).

1.6 Limitation Of The Study

This study was confirmed with some constraint below are some of the factors that delayed the progress and early completion of this work.


This work would have been better that what it is if enough time was given to travel to different part of the country and companies for collection of data.


Due to the high cost of transportation fares caused by bad roads, fuel scarcity, it was not possible to travel to different parts of the country in collection of more data.

Lack Of Materials:

The unavailability of goods and up to-date textbooks, journals etc libraries and in accessibility of the internet to the common man also hampered the progress of this work.

1.7 Definition Of Terms

For clarity of purpose, the following terms are defined


This means the activities of designing and producing container or wrapper for a product identification and protection against damage spoilage and theft.


This is a complex process by which people select organize and interpret sensory stimulation into meaningful and coherent picture.


As human activities directed as satisfying human ness wants through exchange process (at a profit)

Strategy / Strategic Planning:

Is the process of determining the objective of organization, the adoption of course of action and the allocation of resumes necessary to achieve this objective like packaging objectives.

Going Concern:

Study, mastery and utilization of manufacturing methods and industrial acts, systematic application of knowledge to practical task in industry.


Method of doing something expertly, technically or mechanically skill in art.


This is being employed in trade manufacturing, distribution and commerce. Put differently, its firms producing a similar product.

Chapter Five

5.0 Summary Of Findings Conclusion And Recommendation

5.1 Restatement Of The Problem

The problem stated in chapter one is disclosed below.

How to effectively use packaging as a tool to increase sales volume. The appropriate strategy a firm should use to create the impression of richness through packaging.

The right material to be most appropriately used packaging and be able to withstand competitions

5.2 Summary Of Findings

The relevance of packaging in the marketing of consumer goods, should be created, developed and maintained on a mutually advantageous basis. A company that wants her marketing of consumer goods to be achieved, must understand that ‘packaging’ cannot be left out the marketing programme as it is difficult to depend on advertisement, personal selling promotional activities as a means of screaming sales and revenue.
Without thinking of the packaging that enhance the product.

Packaging has made it possible for different level of income earners to be able to acquire the basis necessity of life.
Finally, packaging has made it possible that product can be differentiated and gives pleasure to the consumer who is satisfied by purchasing a product of value or valuable product.

5.3 Conclusion

In conclusion, where company operates, marketers should come to know that in the future, we might anticipate greater use of package as an important weapon. In this case, only products with package that could arrest attention of consumers, additional perceived benefit and satisfaction to the consumer can only be selected among others.

To this level and according to the investigation carried out by the researchers of this work, what seems to be a problem against packaging in the future will be the rejection of some products by consumers, this is because such products packaging were not biodegradable or capable or capable of being recycled while the potential had effects of the product packaging bearing distinction brand names, warrants careful consideration of ways of avoiding such criticisms and will accelerate the search for new materials that will reduce or eliminate such problems.

Having found out this, firms and marketers in irrespective of the fact that marketers point out that people liter. Struck measures to curb littering which are necessary with bottle banks, waste paper collection, reusable and incentives to recycle tinplates and aluminum containers put in place can proffer solution.

5.3 Implication Of The Study

From the data analysis and discussion of the data, the following implication is found.

The data implied that marketers use packaging as a solvent promotional mix. The relevance of packaging to consumers rest the salesmen ability to ascertain, activate and satisfy the needs and want of the buyers which leads to increase in sales volume ands profit

The data form the tables also implied that packaging is beneficial to both buyers and sellers. This was shown on the 100% agreement of the respondents that packaging helps in maintaining company’s reputation enhance inter-business relationship and easy identification of quality.

5.5 Recommendation

The researcher of this work, after going through the data analyzed on packaging and its influence on sales volume, profitability, identification appeal etc, of PZ industries plc, Aba came up with the following.

Firms and marketers should understand that one of the most vital packaging strategies today in supermarket and drug stores is the visual effects of package i.e. self selection.

Marketers and firms should know that to achieve increase in sales volume and profitability depend so much on the level or degree at which a product package could keep with the taste of time to maintain customers and as well attract potential customers to join in for the production.

Due to consideration should be taken into account for the cost. Quality and size, and any packaging hence, improper presentation of any product packaging to a particular target market results to a colossal loss.

Marketer and firm should realize that consumers are now growing in ware and education and as a result have become choosy than before. Therefore, package designing and policies should be left totaling in the hand of professional, especially professional marketers.

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Frequently Asked Questions

What is the importance of packaging in FMCG market?

The packaging is vital to the FMCG market as it is an essential element for the proper positioning of the product. This serves as an important medium for communication and a tool for companies to distinguish product appearance from that of their rivals.

How is the food and beverage industry evolving in the future?

The food and beverage industry is going through enormous changes due to factors such as changing consumer preferences, which prompt the FMCG companies to adopt new technologies and measures to offer packaging on-par with the changing trends.

How private labels are transforming the retail industry?

With the recent trend of private labels, big retailers are ramping up their packaging to attract customers. According to a survey conducted by Daymon, more than half of consumers are loyal to a specific store due to its private-label brands.

What is the future of seafood packaging?

Modern developments in the seafood packaging are becoming more sophisticated and more attuned to the social inclinations touted by consumers, retailers, and for essential foodservice buyers who shop for them. Sustainability of seafood has been a robust trend promoting a healthy seafood resource for generations to come.

What is FMCG packaging?

FMCG (Fast Moving Consumer Goods) are the products that are consumed rapidly. The list of FMCG includes non-durable goods such as packaged foods, beverages, toiletries, over-the-counter drugs and other consumables items. These products usually have a shorter shelf life. Packaging is a critical part for FMCG products.

What is the purpose of product packaging?

At its most base level, product packaging serves to protect the product inside. Packaging must keep the product safe during shipment between the manufacturing facility and the retailer and must prevent damage while the product sits on the shelf. Therefore, product packaging must be sturdy and reliable.

Why window cartons are used in FMCG industry?

In FMCG industry the use of window cartons is increased as it gives an idea of the product to the buyer. These cartons have high shelf impact and great consumer appeal. FMCG market is highly driven with the impact of packaging.

What is the forecast period of FMCG packaging market research report?

The FMCG Packaging market was valued at USD 711.56 billion in 2019 and is expected to reach USD 935.98 billion by 2025, at a CAGR of 4.6% over the forecast period from 2020 to 2025.

How has the food and beverage industry evolved in the past decade?

The past decade has witnessed multiple transformations in consumer behavior and the way the retail market operates. The food and beverage industry, too, hasn’t remained unaffected.

How can food & beverage companies address their manufacturing challenges?

Essential to help food & beverage companies address their manufacturing challenges and make a positive impact to their productivity and profitability. Begin moving to a digital, open platform and use proven practices, as well as partnering with experts that have deep industry knowledge.

How will the food and beverage industry change in 2025?

The food and beverage industry, too, hasn’t remained unaffected. A study suggests that online orders will make up for 15-20% of the overall sales in the food and beverage market by 2025 – and that is ten times more than what it was in 2016.

What is smart manufacturing in the food and beverage industry?

Smart manufacturing is beginning to have a major impact on the food and beverage industry, and manufactures must adapt to this fourth industrial revolution in order to benefit from it. Simply put, smart manufacturing is the technology-driven approach that uses Internet-connected machinery to monitor the production process.

How has seafood packaging changed over the years?

Back in 1961, when Heidenreich’s father founded the New Bedford, Massachusetts-based family business, perishable fresh seafood was typically shipped in wooden or waxed boxes, distributors, and the seafood industry alike has been a major influencer of the paradigm shift seen in packaging developments over recent years.

What is the future of the food packaging industry?

The Meat, Poultry, Seafood Packaging Industry will have significant growth because of the rising demand for healthy, safe, and hygienic products. Also, the preferences of customers for convenience that can cope with their busy lifestyle are beneficial.

What is the future value of the global meat packaging market?

In the future years, the global Meat, Poultry, Seafood Packaging Market Size will have a significant value. The rising demand for easy maintenance, security of the food, and prevent spillage of food will fuel the market growth.

What are the factors that drive the global food packaging market?

The modern lifestyle of the people is one of the primary factors for the development of the food packaging market. At the same time, other factors such as easy transportation and storage are major reasons that increased the value of the global meat, poultry, and seafood packaging market.

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