Relevance Of Business Education On Entrepreneurship And Vocational Aspiration Of Secondary School Students

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Relevance Of Business Education On Entrepreneurship And Vocational Aspiration Of Secondary School Students


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine the relevance of business education on entrepreneurship and vocational aspiration of secondary school students using Boki Local Government Area, Cross River State as a case study. The study was set toascertain whether business education is effectively taught in secondary schools, find out whether the teaching and learning of business education build the entrepreneurial mindset among students, determine whether the teaching and learning of business education enables students to acquire vocational skills, find out whether the teaching and learning of business education enhances the entrepreneurial intentions of students and ascertain whether the teaching and learning of business education establishes vocational aspirations of secondary school students. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of business education teachers and students of some selected secondary school in Boki Local Government Area Cross River State. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 200 respondents and 150 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables.While the hypotheses were tested using Chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that business education is not effectively taught in secondary schools. Furthermore the result of the findings reveals that the teaching and learning of business education establishes vocational aspirations of secondary school students. Therefore, it is recommended that among the students should be encouraged to be creative and function as entrepreneurs. This can be done in form of practical test or examinations for which they are graded. This will help to increase their desire for entrepreneurship as they are bound to make profit while undertaking such exercises. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Entrepreneurship is now seen as an important component within contemporary economic development of a nation. Its critical role to the economy of nations is now widely acknowledged within the literature. Experts in the field were of the opinion that entrepreneurship is regarded as a catalyst for economic growth, employment and wealth creation, (Ezeh, & Cecilia, 2015). Furthermore, Ekwue, Udemba, & Ojuro, (2019) shared the same view and in addition suggests that entrepreneurship is a major driver of innovation, competitiveness and economic strength of a modern nation. They further emphasize the important role which business education has in the development of entrepreneurial mindsets and talents especially in enhancing entrepreneur competency.

Business education is a widely given high scores on the agenda of many governments. Such governments depend on the development of entrepreneurship through business education as the major source for their economic prosperity, growth and development. It is a kind of new concept which signifies not only quality education but also pay attention to the development of an individual practical ability and competency of students. It is also described as a new method of teaching that promotes students innovative spirit, skills and attitudes which consequently make them after graduation to suitable career and become professional business creator, Ekwue, Udemba, & Ojuro, (2019) concluded.

This growth in business education in enhancing entrepreneur competency is reflected internationally. For example the European Commission (2008a) observes that almost half of Europe’s students at tertiary institutions have full access to business education to enhance their innovative competencies in establishing small venture after graduation. In a related development, Abdulkadir (2016) highlight the rapid development of the course in Malaysia, Thailand and the Philippines. The European Commission (2004a) as cited in Abdulkadir (2016), for example, posits that entrepreneurship is one of the key components to be included in current educational systems in order to prepare people for successful participation in society. In fact, the contribution of business education in promoting entrepreneurship to the world economy is well recognized.

Certainly business education is considered as a complex subject to study in the context of teaching and learning because it depends on the individuals self regulated actions and characteristics that may not be easy to influence. It is against this background that, there is still ongoing debate whether we can teach students to become competent entrepreneur (Abbo 2021). However, there is now a consensus, in the literature at least, that business education can be taught and the debate has now shifted to what should be taught and how it should be taught (Ismail, 2011) as cited in (Abdulkadir 2016).

It is now generally agreed that most of researches conducted on business education have focused on course contents, pedagogical and audience characteristics. In this respect, the effectiveness of business education can also be measured in terms of teachers‟ entrepreneurial competencies. The development of business education however, is not as institutionalized as the development of education for the traditional management courses. Educators who hold master’s and doctorate degrees in entrepreneurship are very rare all over the world. In addition, the uniqueness of the students‟ needs and the course requirements entails specific and special teaching skills to match the two. One of the perceived tools to address and match these basic education needs is to first conduct an analysis of entrepreneurial competencies, (African Pulse 2017).

A research conducted in Malaysia indicates that teaching approaches appear to be inappropriate and educators do not appear to have relevant skills, knowledge or training. There are so many shortcomings and challenges which the entrepreneurship educators are facing (Ismail, 2010). In Nigeria, authors such as Salisu, (2021) and Ukairo, (2017) have challenged the incapacity of tertiary institutions, namely business education programs, to sufficiently prepare students and graduates for real-world circumstances and being able to manage small scale enterprises. According to Nwaokolo (2019), the increased unemployment rate among Business Education students in Nigeria, is due to a lack of functional education that will train Nigeria’s abundant human resources to be creative, innovative, entrepreneurial, and business opportunity seekers who will transform opportunities and material resources into sustainable goods and services.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Business education involves the development of proper habits, attitudes, and skills, as well as the tools to survive unemployment. According to Agyapong, (2016), despite the fact that Business Education programs educate individuals with the skills essential for self-employment, Business Education students have yet to use these possibilities in the creation and management of small scale enterprises while still in school. Generally, inadequate knowledge of the essential entrepreneurial competency skills necessary to set up small scale enterprises have also hindered most Business Education students from generating jobs for themselves which has led to a high dependence on their sponsors and sometimes, engagement in vices.

In addition, Emeasoba & Igwe (2016) also discovered that the majority of business educators adopt teaching methods that are more focused on theory than on practice and inquiry, and are thus inapplicable in the present information technology era. Inadequately educated workers to teach the skills, the admission of too many students to a single class, a poor maintenance culture, an electrical deficit, and dishonest students and leaders are all impeding the maximum acquisition of skills at our institutions. Therefore, students lack the comfort and atmosphere essential for effective skill acquisition.

Finally, the researcher also observed that the curriculum structure does not appear to provide sufficient time for practical work, so business education students learn more theory than practical skill acquisition, resulting in majority of Business Education Students not having the entrepreneurial competency to manage small scale enterprises. The researcher also generally observed that if business education students are properly taught with adequate strategies in schools, they should certainly acquire the desired entrepreneurial competent skills necessary for being self employed while still in school, hence the need for this study. Hence the study tends to examine the relevance of business education on entrepreneurship and vocational aspiration of secondary school students.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The primary objective of this study is to examine the relevance of business education on entrepreneurship and vocational aspiration of secondary school students. Specifically, this study seeks to attain the following objectives:

  1. Ascertain whether business education is effectively taught in secondary schools.
  2. Find out whether the teaching and learning of business education build the entrepreneurial mindset among students.
  3. Determine whether the teaching and learning of business education enables students to acquire vocational skills.
  4. Find out whether the teaching and learning of business education enhances the entrepreneurial intentions of students.
  5. Ascertain whether the teaching and learning of business education establishes vocational aspirations of secondary school students.

1.4 Research Questions

  1. Is business education effectively taught in secondary schools?
  2. Does the teaching and learning of business education build the entrepreneurial mindset among students?
  3. Does the teaching and learning of business education enables students to acquire vocational skills?
  4. Does the teaching and learning of business education enhances the entrepreneurial intentions of students?
  5. Does the teaching and learning of business education establishes vocational aspirations of secondary school students?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

  • Ho1: The teaching and learning of business education does not enhance the entrepreneurial intentions of students.
  • Ho2: The teaching and learning of business education does not establishes vocational aspirations of secondary school students.

1.6 Significance of the Study

This study is significant because it highlights the relevance of business education on entrepreneurship and vocational aspiration of secondary school students.

The study stresses the country’s education challenges and its equivalent to poverty levels in the society as a result of a lack of work or business-starting knowledge; the outcome is a society that supports healthy collaboration and motivation, therefore influencing the nation’s progress.

Finally, this study will be beneficial to scholars and students who wish to carry out a research on a related study as it will serve as an empirical review of literature hence serving as a future reference for further studies.


1.7 Scope of the Study

This study is focused on the relevance of business education on entrepreneurship and vocational aspiration of secondary school students. The study specifically seeks to ascertain whether business education is effectively taught in secondary schools, find out whether the teaching and learning of business education build the entrepreneurial mindset among students, determine whether the teaching and learning of business education enables students to acquire vocational skills, find out whether the teaching and learning of business education enhances the entrepreneurial intentions of students and ascertain whether the teaching and learning of business education establishes vocational aspirations of secondary school students.


1.8 Imitations of the Study

In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, language barriers, and the attitude of the respondents. However, the researcher were able to manage these just to ensure the success of this study. Moreover, the case study method utilized in the study posed some challenges to the investigator including the possibility of biases and poor judgment of issues.

However, the investigator relied on respect for the general principles of procedures, justice, fairness, objectivity in observation and recording, and weighing of evidence to overcome the challenges.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Business Education:

Business education is a branch of education that involves teaching the skills and operations of the business industry. This field of education occurs at multiple levels, including secondary and higher education institutes.

Entrepreneurship:

Entrepreneurship is the creation or extraction of economic value. With this definition, entrepreneurship is viewed as change, generally entailing risk beyond what is normally encountered in starting a business, which may include other values than simply economic ones.


1.10 Organization of the Study

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the relevance of business education on entrepreneurship and vocational aspiration of secondary school students using Boki Local Government Area, Cross River State as a case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to examine the relevance of business education on entrepreneurship and vocational aspiration of secondary school students using Boki Local Government Area, Cross River State as a case study. The study is was specifically set to ascertain whether business education is effectively taught in secondary schools, find out whether the teaching and learning of business education build the entrepreneurial mindset among students, determine whether the teaching and learning of business education enables students to acquire vocational skills, find out whether the teaching and learning of business education enhances the entrepreneurial intentions of students and ascertain whether the teaching and learning of business education establishes vocational aspirations of secondary school students.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 150 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are business education teachers and students of some selected secondary school in Boki Local Government Area Cross River State.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher made the following conclusion.

  1. Business education is not effectively taught in secondary schools.
  2. The teaching and learning of business education build the entrepreneurial mindset among students.
  3. The teaching and learning of business education enables students to acquire vocational skills.
  4. The teaching and learning of business education enhances the entrepreneurial intentions of students.
  5. The teaching and learning of business education establishes vocational aspirations of secondary school students.

5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.

  1. Infrastructure, instructional and material resources should be provided for effective implementation of business education programme in order to achieve the programme objectives.
  2. Curriculum planners should consider revisiting the curriculum in order to ensure that entrepreneurship education is inclusive in all programmes and at various levels. This will help schools of learning to produce more entrepreneurial inclined personnel.
  3. Students should be encouraged to be creative and function as entrepreneurs. This can be done in form of practical test or examinations for which they are graded. This will help to increase their desire for entrepreneurship as they are bound to make profit while undertaking such exercises.
  4. Business schools should be established across the nation and students should be motivated to attend.

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