The Relevance Of Artificial Intelligence (A Study Of Selected Military Operations In Kaduna State)

Project and Seminar Material for Computer Science and Computer Engineering

The Relevance Of Artificial Intelligence (A Study Of Selected Military Operations In Kaduna State)


Abstract


This study was carried out on the relevance of artificial intelligence: a study of selected military operations in Kaduna State. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprised of military officers in Kaduna metropolis. In determining the sample size, the researcher purposefully selected 160 respondents and 141 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables, and mean scores. The result of the findings reveals that the use of artificial intelligence for military operations in Kaduna state is effective. Furthermore, the study revealed that artificial intelligence is relevant to military operations in Kaduna state as it help to identify and prioritize risk, it instantly spot any malware on a network, it guides incident response, detect intrusions before they start, it helps in detecting and scanning the hidden enemies, and it helps to reduce human labor. Therefore, Government need to step up physical security measures around the country via the provision of security facilities and the development of stringent measures to be meted out on security defaulters. This implies that Government must be proactive in dealing with security issues and threats, through training, modern methods of intelligence gathering, and intelligence sharing, logistics and deploying advanced technology in managing security challenges. To mention but a few.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Since the beginnings of the mid 1900s, the scientific field of Artificial Intelligence (AI) went through periods of intense development and drawbacks. From year 2000, however, a significant and persistent growth in AI research, development, and application can be perceived. AI research began to speed up around 2001, and then commercial products and services started permeating the market in large numbers especially since early 2010s. Within roughly a decade, AI has grown up out of the laboratories and penetrated the economy from industrial design, through manufacturing, as well as to the consumerโ€™s services (NATO Parliamentary Assembly, 2019).

The observers and experts forecast high global economic impacts associated with the application, development, and adoption of AI over the next ten years, and a reasonable estimation put the range of AIโ€™s economic impact to be between $ 1.49 trillion and $ 2.95 trillion in this period (Chen et al, 2016).

Artificial Intelligence are machine programs that can teach themselves by harnessing High Power Computing(HPC) and big data and eventually mimic how the human brain thinks, supports and enables nearly every sector of the modern economy. Corporations and governments are fiercely competing because whoever is the frontrunner in AI research and applications will accrue the highest profits in this fast growing market and gain a military technological edge. AI itself will not manifest just as a weapon. It is an enabler that can support a broad spectrum of technologies (Chen et al, 2016).

These technologies are starting to have a transformative effect on defence capability. AI will have digital, physical and political security implications, expanding existing threats, introducing new threats and changing the character of threats and of war. These changes could include the automation of social engineering attacks, vulnerability discovery, influence campaigns, terrorist repurposing of commercial AI systems, increased scale of attacks, and manipulation of information availability.

Artificial intelligence (AI) is a rapidly developing field of technology that is capturing the attention of commercial investors, defense intellectuals, policymakers, and international competitors alike, as evidenced by a number of recent initiatives. (Congressional Research Service Report, 2020).

On how artificial intelligence is transforming the world, West & Allen (2018) posit that AI is not a futuristic vision rather something that is here with us. It is being deployed into a variety of sectors such as finance, healthcare, criminal justice, transportation and national security which is the focus of this work. Radulov (2019) explains that it may even be possible for robots to perform basic police functions.

Accordingly, if the police has high-quality computerized systems with the scope of an AI, much of their routine office work can be done by the intelligent security gadgets, resulting in new reservations being made to increase police presence in urban areas. AI can also be positioned to ensure the monitoring of video-data flows and data collected from a large number of sensors and to warn security services of suspicious activity, Radulov (2019). Similarly, AI can help companies prevent cyber-crime that can cause financial damage and harm their reputation by training it to recognize keywords or topics related to harmful content, thus stopping the potential cyber-attack (Radulov, 2019). Again, a common method of combating crime using AI is the Face Detection Technology. It is often used at airports to include mapping of human images into law enforcement database files, which allows identification of the perpetrator. Prevention of crimes of a terrorist nature through scanning of social networks to find people who can be radicalized is another activity that AI can effectively perform after appropriate training. Nowadays, some law enforcement agencies are already using social networking monitoring and analysis to prevent attempts to recruit new members of terrorist organizations such as Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) and others like them (Radulov, 2019).


1.2 Statement of the Problem

The security challenges in Nigeria are multidimensional, arising from many angles: Boko Haram, herdsmen, bandits, unknown gunmen, kidnapers, militants and separatist agitators. Solutions to the problems seem not to be near as these insurgent groups are growing in strength, capacity and sophistication. The activities of the various groups have perpetuated human sufferings, loss of lives and living in fears in the country. It looks like Nigeria is now a captured state existing at the mercy of its assailants because the governments at all levels are not doing enough. So this study, sought to find out how none human actors could be used in military operations in Kaduna state.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The main objective of this study is to examine the relevance of artificial intelligence: a study of selected military operations in Kaduna state. Specifically, other objectives of this study are:

  1. Determine the extent artificial intelligence is used for military operations in Kaduna state.
  2. Determine whether the use of artificial intelligence for military operations in Kaduna state has been effective.
  3. Ascertain how artificial intelligence is relevant to military operations in Kaduna state.
  4. Ascertain the factors affecting the effective use of artificial intelligence by military operations in Kaduna state.

1.4 Research Questions

The following research questions will be answered in this study:

  1. To what extent is artificial intelligence used for military operations in Kaduna state?
  2. Has the use of artificial intelligence for military operations in Kaduna state been effective?
  3. How is artificial intelligence relevant to military operations in Kaduna state?
  4. What are the factors affecting the effective use of artificial intelligence by military operations in Kaduna state?

1.5 Significance of the Study

This study will be greatly beneficial to the military men and women in Nigeria as the findings of this study will reveal the relevance or importance of artificial intelligence in military operations.

This study will also be beneficial to scholars and researchers as this study will serve as a reference point for further studies and future research.


1.6 Scope of the Study

This study focuses on the relevance of artificial intelligence: a study of selected military operations in Kaduna state. Specifically, this study focuses on determining the extent artificial intelligence is used for military operations in Kaduna state, determine whether the use of artificial intelligence for military operations in Kaduna state has been effective, ascertaining how artificial intelligence is relevant to military operations in Kaduna state and ascertaining the factors affecting the effective use of artificial intelligence by military operations in Kaduna state.

Selected military personnel at the National Defence Headquarters, Kaduna State will be the respondents for the survey of this study.


1.7 Limitations of the Study

This study is limited to the relevance of artificial intelligence: a study of selected military operations in Kaduna state. Specifically, this study is limited to determining the extent artificial intelligence is used for military operations in Kaduna state, determine whether the use of artificial intelligence for military operations in Kaduna state has been effective, ascertaining how artificial intelligence is relevant to military operations in Kaduna state and ascertaining the factors affecting the effective use of artificial intelligence by military operations in Kaduna state.

Selected military personnel at the National Defence Headquarters, Kaduna State will be the respondents for the survey of this study, hence further studies is required before the findings of this study can be used any where else.


1.8 Definition of Terms

Artificial intelligence:

Artificial intelligence is intelligence demonstrated by machines, as opposed to the natural intelligence displayed by animals including humans.

Military Operations:

A military operation is the coordinated military actions of a state, or a non-state actor, in response to a developing situation. These actions are designed as a military plan to resolve the situation in the state or actor’s favor.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings into the relevance of artificial intelligence: a study of selected military operations in Kaduna State. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to examine the relevance of artificial intelligence: a study of selected military operations in Kaduna State. The study specifically was aimed at determining the extent artificial intelligence is used for military operations in Kaduna state; determine whether the use of artificial intelligence for military operations in Kaduna state has been effective; ascertain how artificial intelligence is relevant to military operations in Kaduna state; and ascertain the factors affecting the effective use of artificial intelligence by military operations in Kaduna state.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 141 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondents are military officers in Kaduna metropolis, Kaduna State.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher made the following conclusion.

  1. The extent for which artificial intelligence is used for military operations in Kaduna state is low.
  2. The use of artificial intelligence for military operations in Kaduna state is effective.
  3. Artificial intelligence is relevant to military operations in Kaduna state as it help to identify and prioritize risk, it instantly spot any malware on a network, it guides incident response, detect intrusions before they start, it helps in detecting and scanning the hidden enemies, and it helps to reduce human labor.
  4. The factors affecting the effective use of artificial intelligence by military operations in Kaduna state include; lack of adequate technical know-how by military officers, unavailability of latest and updated AI soft and hardware, inadequate funding, high cost of maintenance, and inadequate training of security officers.

5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.

  1. Government need to step up physical security measures around the country via the provision of security facilities and the development of stringent measures to be meted out on security defaulters. This implies that Government must be proactive in dealing with security issues and threats, through training, modern methods of intelligence gathering, and intelligence sharing, logistics and deploying advanced technology in managing security challenges.
  2. There should be proper collaboration between the information technology sector and the Defence and security sector.
  3. For effective security in the society closed circuit television (CCTV) cameras and other imaging devices should be installed on public highways, inter-city routes, streets, shopping malls, parks, and other public and even private places. This will help to remotely monitor premises without having to have police officers engaged in long-term operational surveillance.

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