The Relevance Of Advertising As A Determinant Of Customer Patronage In The Fast Food Industry
The research work titled “the relevant of advertising as a determinant of customer patronage for fast food (a case study of Chiky and Early in Owerri Metropolis was carried out with objectives. To determine how advertising has affected the decision to buy. Early or chiky. To determine the brand of fast food that is more available than the other and the customer demand for it. To suggest ways the companies should follow to make better progress in bottling their brands and for them to satisfy their customers to actieve the above objective, related literature were reviewed as a determinant of customer patronage for fast food. In addition to primary and secondary data were collection to solve the research problem and questionnaire were used to research problem and questionnaire were used to research instruments. The population of the study comprised the customer distributors and the management and relevant staff of both early and chiky fast food in owerri metropolis.
The research used census survey on management and relevant staff because the population under study was small, while topman’s formular was used to determine the sample size for customers and the distributors. In organizing and presenting the data collected, table, frequencies and percentage were used. Based on the analyzed data, the following findings were made. The customer in Owerri indicates that the price of chiky is higher than that of early. They also observed that advertising helps to create awareness of both products. Customers are mare satisfied with the advertising that leads to purchase of chiky than Early. Based on the findings, recommendation were made, Both companies should engage in advertising strategies that are relevant and other promotional activities that appeals to customers for efficient and relevant goals achievement. The two companies should maintain continuous availability of their products. Nigeria breweries plc should reduce the price of their product order to attract more customers. Early should look into the advertising that leads to more purchase of their product. If the above suggestions and recommendation are relevant and efficiently implemented both companies will experience a profound change in their advertising performance and customers will be better served.
The fast food industry is a product offering as well as service-rendering industry. This posed a fundamental challenge for the management of fast food industry, more so that service quality is even more difficult to measure than measuring product quality. The industry is closely linked to the hospitality and health care industry where high quality product or service cannot be compromised or scarified. Therefore, this failure of any firms, to meet the required level of expectation may spell doom.
European journal of social science-volume 19, number 2 (2011) for the outfit. This probably explains what could aptly be descried as the high mortality rate being experienced where customers consumed poor quality food, thus, there is a need to identify the service quality gap and to continuously adopted to customers assessment or perception of service quality in the fast food industry in order to ensure high customers satisfaction and continuous patronage.
Although, quality consciousness is increasive, it is saddening to observe that some companies still design their product and services without recourse to customer input, only to later find them rejected. It is important to note that fast food firms, springing up in Nigeria need to recognise and accept that, customer’s judgement of quality and cost is superior and dominate all other judgement. Therefore, managers, apart from identifying the needs and specifications of customers should continually appraise customers on the company’s product/services. The intention is to close the gap that exists between the actual product quality delivered and the customers perception.
The fast food industry should not only focus on quality aloue, but equally important is how to central and reduce cost, this is because conformers cherish high quality product with an acceptable price.
1.1 Background of the Study
It is a common belief that advertising is as old as human history, yet as a promotional tool, it started with the development of commerce. “In this early days advertising was practiced in different forms of different parts of the world” according to Samson (1981:180). He maintain Advertising that “there were small stone printing stamps which were used by the quacks of Romans times to impress on surface of their solves. During these period there are different Era of advertising which include “pre-marketing Era, this stated that as a product exchange in pre-historic times to the middle of eryhteenth century, buyers and sellers communicated in very primitive ways for most of this period, “media” such as clay tables, town criers, and favour sign were the best way to advertise a product used in other word, people needs to one another through advertising, as one can see, advertising takes may forms and has considerable influence on contemporary society and commerce (connor and Hart 199:5).
During the last 50 years (researcher Era) advertising have methodologically improved the techniques of identifying and reaching narrowly targeted audience with message prepared specifically for each group or individual, modern communication technology has Gided in this quest for the perfect advertising campaign. Awake 22nd August (1998:5) many years age people uses primitive hand tools to product goods, they were in small isolated communities where artisans and farmers battered goods and services among themselves, distribution was limited, due to development, Greek and Roman merchants expanded contect with other society and with the development of more sophisticated tools, people achieved a higher level of production. But anicet civilization had only unsophisticated hand tools for producing goods so quantity and variety of available goods was negligible. There was an increase demand for goods created a greater need to advertise the availability of these goods. (Marshar 1995:81) this signs carved in clay wood or stone were buy in front of shops so passer-by could see what the merchants has to offer because most people of this time could not read; as a result this signs are used to symbolize the goods for sale. The symbolic and pictorial nature of advertising which gave vent to out door advert has proved to be one of the enduring form of advert, (Connor and Hart 1999:10).
The introduction of printing market a dramatic turning point in 1450’s which was the major event in the history of civilization and probably the most important development in the history of advertising (Jonliness Guter berg) the inventor of printing press and its system changed the way people lived the world.
In 1740’s, the first printed outdoor poster known as “loading” appeared in London, which advertising in Nigeria, adverting can be traced to one of the earliest mass communication, which is known as “Town crying”. According to Nwabueze (1980:28) modern advertising in Nigeria commended with the establishment of the first newspaper called Iwe Irohin, which carries information. Advertising is a powerful marketing communication tools used by companies to fulfil the promotional task, it is impersonal for communication or presentation of goods, ideas, or services conducted through paid media under open or identified sponsorship. It is a marketing tools that helps to sell goods, services, images, and ideas through information and persuasion. It objectives could be to create awareness, achieve conviction, build determinant, influence choice of purchase and encourage action. Advertising has a purpose full influence on the choice of purchase to wards a product brand of a customer when an advert is placed showing the benefits and advantages factors to entice the buyers, making the advert to suit once. Personality their he starts to initiate conviction the next thing he takes action (purchase) therefore advertisement has much influence on the choice of purchase. Advertising is an agant of choice, one of the most important benefits is that it facilitates the customers becoming active rather than passive agents in the economic cycle for a customer to make a purchase, he need to be informed he receives information from variety of sources and make his decision once.
Advertising girgles are intended to have relevant on the customers or the recipients and the wide spread on different fast food coupled with the growth of firms that manufacture different brand of fast food occurred simultaneously with the rapid expansion of fast food market (Connor and Hart 1999).
Customer who could not afford to taste beer turned to non-alcoholic drinks like fast food with the aim that comes from advertising messages.
It becomes imperative for these are many brands of fast food left for the marketing managers to determine those factors which necessitate the customer determinant of one brand which include Early fast food, chiky fast food, Early fast food and chiky fast food.
However, our main aim here is to determine how much influence does advertising exert on the customers of early and chiky fast food also how it affects the choice of the customer.
1.2 Statement of the Problems
It has been difficult to pin point exactly the factors that have motivated a particular customer to prefer a particular brand of product to answer often marketers have fallaciously been Myopic, they exert their attainsion only on these factors which are salient as the determinant of customer determinant for their brand while there are other major factors that play viant roles that are completely ignored, and consequently the relevant is the failure of the products to make much impact in the marketing environment. Advertising for many years has been working for the manufacturers of fast food, which show cases their product offers to the market and determines their customers with some promise incentive and benefits that will be derived by patronizing their product brands.
Advertising to manufactures of fast food is like a river that will never dry, it has many versions of it that could be used to project the image, product offer showing benefits and advantages of a particular brand to another. Since the inception of fast food, they has been a rapid expansion in the fast food market through the help of advertising a reliable source indicated that a significant proportion of Nigeria population had been customers of alcoholic drinks have turned non-alcoholic also existed strong competition between the customers of early and chiky fast food because of those competitions, the need to arise to check on the customers satisfaction and benefit with the brand the consumer. Thus the firm cannot depend on the customers to voluntarily bring complains to the dissatisfaction, they got by consuming a particular brand of fast food, rather they strive to check other major or minor factors that may influence the customer choice of one fast food to another.
1.2 Objectives of the Study
The following objective in carrying out this research:
- To determine how advertising has affected the decision, selection and choice made by customers between Early fast food and chiky.
- To determine if taste alone affects the customer choice of either of the two.
- To find out if taste variable also affects the choice made by the customers of both products.
- To know if advertising affect the customer determinant and choice of either Early or Chiky in other to know if selling price for each determine its determinant.
- To identify what special features are contained in the advertising massage carried out for either Early or Chiky and how they affect customers.
1.4 Research Question
The research question of this work is as follows:
- Do you believe that advertising message is a major factor that other product attributes that determine your determinant for chiky to early.
- Does advertising of fast food create your intention for chiky to early.
- Does customers determinant for early to chiky influenced by their taste.
- How often do you take fast food.
- Which among these brands do you take.
1.5 Significance of the Study
The study is expected to furnish additional information to help manufactures of chiky and that of early fast food in achieving high sales volume and adjusting production properly to sales within the context of marketing concept. The core issue of marketing concept lies basically on, understanding the customers and making every thing possible to satisfy the customer efficiently and relevantly.
However, this study will help to show how advertising can stimulate demand for either of the two product in the market, as well as helping the marketing manager to assign a particular advertising massage to particular brand of fast food. Thus this study is supposedly expected to help firms and other producers of fast food to under stand the relative influence exerted by other marketing attributes. Via price, distribution, promotion, in other words the 4p’s on the customer determinant of one brand to another. Furthermore this study would help both firms (Nigeria breweries plc and early Nigeria plc). The marketers of chiky and early fast food to identify the project marketing strategies that will be suitable in carry out their marketing activities or programmes to be adopted and made a culture by the producers such as product modification, pricing strategy, incentives promotional campaign and incentive distribution strategy. It will go a long way to help the firm determine it’s loopholes and try to improve on them also know the best advertising campaign that needed to be adopted finally, the study will serve as a stepping stone for more research on the relevantness of advertising especially in the product determinant of the consumer it will also stimulate the interest of Nigerian firms on customer research and enable them to understand the importance and role of advertising on the performance of a product in the market.
1.6 Scope of the Study
In Nigeria and the world at large, different fast food brands are consumed by various kinds of customers but this study concentrated on the customers located in Owerri Metropolis and the study is an advertising.
1.6 Definition of Terms
According to Philip Kotler (1976) advertising is any paid form of non-personal presentation and promotion of ideas, goods and service by an identified sponsor.
Marketing Communication Process:
According to Adirika et al (1996:87) Marketing Communication process is the efforts by a company to design and disseminate information about it’s products existence, features, and terms and the benefits to the target market, using different media.
According to (Adirika and Ebue test principles and practices of marketing) marketing concept is the marketing perspective on how marketing activities programmes should be performed best.
1.7 Limitation of the Study
The researcher encounter a number of problems in an attempt to collect data for the study, paramount among these was time. Time was required to move from one fast food to another for source of information.
In the process, lecture time have been sacrificed finance was another problem that confronted the researcher. The financial difficulties therefore limited the scope of the study to only our fast food producer such as product modification pricing strategy incentives promotional campaign and incentive distribution strategy. It will go long way to help the firm determine it’s loopholes and try to improve on them also know the best advertising campaign that needed to be adopted.
Finally, the study will serve as a stepping stone for more research on this relevantness of advertising especially in the product determinant of the consumer it will also stimulate the interest of Nigerian firms on customer research and enables them to understand the importance and roles of advertising on the performance of a product in the market.
Conclusion and Recommendations
In this study, our focus was to examine the relevance of advertising as a determinant of customer patronage in the fast food industry early and chiky fast food in owerri metropolis as a case study. The study specifically was aimed at determining how advertising has affected the decision, selection and choice made by customers between Early fast food and chiky, determine if taste alone affects the customer choice of either of the two, find out if taste variable also affects the choice made by the customers of both products, know if advertising affect the customer determinant and choice of either Early or Chiky in other to know if selling price for each determine its determinant, and identify what special features are contained in the advertising massage carried out for either Early or Chiky and how they affect customers.
The study adopted the survey research design and conveniently enrolled participants in the study. A total of 30 responses were received and validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are drawn from the customer distributors and the management and relevant staff of both early and chiky fast food in Owerri metropolis.
The findings of the study revealed that the customer in Owerri indicates that the price of chiky is higher than that of early. The study also revealed that advertising helps to create awareness of both products. Customers are more satisfied with the advertising that leads to purchase of chiky than Early
Based on the findings, recommendation were made, Both companies should engage in advertising strategies that are relevant and other promotional activities that appeals to customers for efficient and relevant goals achievement. The two companies should maintain continuous availability of their products. Early fast food should reduce the price of their product order to attract more customers. Early should look into the advertising that leads to more purchase of their product. If the above suggestions and recommendation are relevant and efficiently implemented both companies will experience a profound change in their advertising performance and customers will be better served. Both brand should try as much as possible to lower the price of their service to take into account all their target consumers and not consider advertising as the main reason for price increases. Advertisements must be genuine and attractive in order to attract and retain potential buyers for the advertised product. Also, both brands should try as much as possible to make their ads consistent in order to increase customer awareness and loyalty. Further more, both brands should also extend radio and television advertisements to billboards, posters and brochures so that advertising messages reach a large number of people as they however have been doing.
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