Relative Effectiveness Of Peer Tutoring And Think -Pair-Share Strategies In Improving Student Academic Performance In Chemistry
The study examined the effects of peer tutoring and think-pair-share instructional strategies in improving students’ academic performance in Chemistry. It also compared the effects of peer tutoring and think-pair-share strategies in improving students’ attitude towards Chemistry. These were with a view to highlighting which of the teaching strategies that can improve students’ academic performance in Chemistry. The study adopted a non-equivalent pre-test, post-test control group experimental research design. The population for the study consisted of all public senior secondary class one (SS 1) science students in Nnewi. Out of the two local government areas in Nnewi was selected using simple random sampling technique. Three senior secondary schools were selected in the Local Government Area and one intact class was selected from each of the schools using simple random sampling technique. The total sample size was 113 (38, 37 and 38 from each of the three schools). The schools were randomly assigned to three groups (Peer Tutoring, Think-Pair-Share and Teacher Expository) using simple random sampling technique. Two instruments, the Chemistry Achievement Test (CAT) and Questionnaire on Attitudes of Students towards Chemistry (QASTC) were used to collect data for the study. Data collected were analysed using Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA).The results showed that, there was a significant difference in the performance of students exposed to peer tutoring, think-pair-share instructional strategies and those exposed to teacher expository teaching strategy (F= 28.970; p< 0.05). The results also indicated that, there was no significant difference in the attitude of students towards Chemistry when exposed to peer tutoring and think-pair-share (F= 2.865; p> 0.05). The Think-Pair-Share Teaching Strategy (TPSTS) had best significant effect on student academic performance than Peer Tutoring Teaching Strategy (PTTS) and Teacher Expository Teaching Strategy (TETS). Students exposed to TPSTS had a mean difference of 1.8904 when compared with PTTS and 4.1287 mean difference when compared with TETS. The study concluded that think-pair-share was a better teaching strategy in improving students’ academic performance in Chemistry than peer tutoring teaching strategy and the teacher expository teaching strategy respectively.
Table of Content
- Title Page
- Table of Content
- List of Tables
- 1.1 Background of the Study
- 1.2 Statement of the Problem
- 1.3 Objective of the Study
- 1.4 Research Questions
- 1.5 Research Hypothesis
- 1.6 Significance of the Study
- 1.7 Scope of the Study
- 1.8 Limitation of the Study
- 1.9 Definition of Terms
- 1.10 Organisations of the Study
Review of Literature
- 2.1 Conceptual Framework
- 2.2 Theoretical Framework
- 2.3 Empirical Review
- 3.1 Research Design
- 3.2 Population of the Study
- 3.3 Sample Size Determination
- 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
- 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
- 3.6 Method of Data Collection
- 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
- 3.8 Validity of the Study
- 3.9 Reliability of the Study
- 3.10 Ethical Consideration
Data Presentation and Analysis
- 4.1 Data Presentation
- 4.2 Analysis of Data
- 4.3 Answering Research Questions
- 4.4 Test of Hypotheses
- 4.5 Discussion of Findings
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
- 5.1 Summary
- 5.2 Conclusion
- 5.3 Recommendation
1.1 Background of the Study
Science and Technology have become the hallmark for sustainable development’ in any national economy, however, cannot strive ahead without Chemistry, .  considers science to be a precise study of nature with a view to bridling them to serve human needs. Science might be viewed as the assortment of related courses worried about knowledge. The developed countries progressed by identifying the significance of Chemistry in their national economy. Importance of Chemistry in the field of medicine, agriculture, clothing and textile, communication, housing, transportation and security; all of which culminated to national economy. As indicated by , explained that any country trying to be scientifically and technologically advanced must have sufficient knowledge of Chemistry education. One endeavor to discover the place of chemistry in science by understanding the part science plays in accomplishing self-reliance and academic improvement.
The significance of Chemistry as a subject in the technological advancement of a country has been reported by . The importance of Chemistry has made it to gain prominence among other school subjects. Despite the acknowledgment given to Chemistry and its teaching, there has frequently been a contention between the goals set by curriculum planners and classroom practice . The new National Curriculum makes it clear that piece of learning science and chemistry is to figure out how to impart scientific thoughts and information for a specific group of audience and reason, which incorporates utilizing words with suggested implications fitting for that crowd . At the university level, the Academic Standards have proportional learning results. [7,8], we cannot assign this undertaking to the English personnel. We need to enable students to take in this outside dialect, called chemistry.
However, distinctive scholars at various occasions explained that low retention, parental factors, relationship with wrong companions, low accomplishment, low achievement inspiration and the likes are the causes of poor performance of students in secondary schools Chemistry ”. Low level of students’ performance is inferable from teacher’s nonutilization of verbal support methodology. Additionally, the state of mind of some teachers to their duty is reflected in their poor participation to lessons, lateness to class, obnoxious remarks about student’s performance that could harm their selfimage and poor teaching strategy .
 opined that one of the reasons for students’ anxiety towards chemistry is poor teaching strategies. It is presently“ being perceived that there are many strategies to teach over through the conventional” techniques . Teachers are starting to demonstrate an expanded”familiarity with the significance of the manner in which students learn. Huge numbers of our standard strategies for passing on knowledge have appeared to be moderately inadequate in the students’ capability to master and afterward, hold essential ideas. Learning through some teaching strategy has been found to be passive instead of active. The traditional methods (lecture, recitation) do not tend to encourage basic reasoning, creative thinking, and collaborative problem solving .
In [13,14], explained that Nigeria education is faced with intractable problems at all of its sub-systems. The problems include among others, lack of professionally competent teachers, inadequate laboratory equipment, inappropriate instructional strategies and attitude of students to learning; all of which culminated to poor learning outcomes. Effective teaching and learning of Chemistry is dependent on the instructional strategy used. This is one of the major factors responsible for the poor level of achievement of students in, and their retention of Chemistry concepts. Instructional strategies are ways that information is introduced to students. The compelling usage of any educational modules depends to a substantial degree on the accessibility of different strategies for instructing. Hence to instruct is to affect information, an endeavor to enable the student to have a difference in the state of mind and procure skills through a progression of arranged exercises .
 expressed that methodology is extremely indispensable in any teaching-learning circumstance and the technique embraced by the teacher may advance or frustrate learning. It might hone mental exercises which are the bases of social power or may dishearten activities and interest in this way making independence and survival troublesome. Teachings ought to be engaged with “detailing the objectives and targets for teaching systems that will best accomplish those goals, completing strategies, assessing the victories and disappointments”. According to , teachers should coordinate how to instruct with what and to whom to educate, in building up an assortment of methods for encouraging student accomplishment of decided results.
The conventional instructional strategy includes the passing on of ideas through the teacher’s restricted cooperation of talking and giving notes. It has the accompanying favorable circumstances and as expressed by ; it is concise, spares time, offers stability to the educational curriculum, among others. Be that as it may, conventional teaching strategy has been enormously reprimanded for been teacherfocused and not being fit for managing the enthusiasm of students all through the instructional period/process . Peer tutoring is an instructional technique that comprises of student organizations, connecting highachieving students with low- achieving students or those with identical accomplishment, for organized reading and study sessions. According to , peertutoring is “deliberate, peer-mediated teaching technique”. It is additionally a research-based strategy that advances active commitment for all students in the classroom. Think-pair-share is an agreeable learning system which includes giving students question and giving them an opportunity to think exclusively. They report their individual discoveries, talk about their own contemplations and afterward refine their individual work on the off chance that they see fit with the end goal to think of an agreement on the inquiry or task. After groups have had room schedule-wise to talk about, the class reconvenes and individuals from the diverse groups share their contemplations with the class.
Peer tutoring and think-pair-share instructional strategies are intellectual strategies that depend on the useful way to deal with science teaching. They also depend on the belief that learning happens as learners are effectively engaged with a procedure of significance and learning development of ideas rather than inactively accepting information as in the traditional lecture strategy. These strategies allow students to work together to complete a task, develop interpersonal and cognitive skills, and metacognitive awareness as corroborated by .
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Chemistry has contributed incredibly to the development of mankind and provision of solutions to natural and artificial problems. In spite of the importance of Chemistry, the performance of students in Chemistry has not been encouraging. This may be linked to poor thinking ability, inadequate problemsolving skills and teachers’ ineffective teaching methods are possible factors that could cause poor performance of students in Chemistry. Instructional strategies used in most Chemistry classrooms may not have met learners’ need for conceptual understanding.  opined that the most recurring factor is the inappropriate use of teaching approach employed by secondary school teachers, which is the conventional teaching strategy and lecture method. For effective teaching to occur, the teacher should get the learners involved as much as possible in activities that will enable them to develop the needed process skills and attitudes relevant to scientific life . The falling level of academic achievement is attributable to teacher’s non-use of verbal reinforcement techniques . Students’ continued poor performance in Chemistry suggests some technical or inherent problem with instructional strategies of Chemistry teachers. These observations necessitate the need to investigate the effectiveness of peer tutoring and think-pair-share strategies on academic performance of students in Chemistry.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The overall aim of this study is to critically examine the relative effectiveness of peer tutoring and think -pair-share strategies in improving student academic performance in chemistry, Nnewi. Hence, the study will be channeled to the following specific objectives;
- Discuss the causes of poor academic performance among Chemistry students.
- Examine the effectiveness of peer-tutoring and think-pair-share teaching strategies in improving the academic performance of Senior Secondary School students in Chemistry in Nnewi.
- Compare the attitude of Senior Secondary School students towards Chemistry when taught with peer tutoring and think-pair-share teaching strategies.
1.4 Research Question
The following questions are formulated inline with the study objectives;
- What is the effectiveness of peer-tutoring and think-pair-share teaching strategies in improving the academic performance of Senior Secondary School students in Chemistry in Nnewi?
- What is the attitude of Senior Secondary School students towards Chemistry when taught with peer tutoring and think-pair-share teaching strategies?
1.5 Research Hypothesis
- H01: There is no significant difference in the academic performance of Senior Secondary School students when taught Chemistry with peer” tutoring and think-pair-share teaching strategies;
- H02: There is no significant difference in the attitude of Senior Secondary School students towards Chemistry when taught with peer tutoring and thinkpair-share teaching strategies.
1.6 Significance of the Study
The findings of the study will be significant to various people: science teachers, science students, senior secondary school authorities and institutions that train science teachers.
Results of the study will enlighten science teachers on the efficacy of Think-Pair-Share Teaching Strategy (TPSTS) and peer tutoring as strategies for teaching science. They will have empirical bases to take informed decisions on which of the strategies to use in science delivery.
One of the challenges of innovative approaches to teaching and learning has to do with acceptability and adaptability by the learners. Learners often show reluctance to adapting of a new approach. Results of the study will provide science students bases to accept and adapt preferentially to the strategies, to improve their achievement.
Institutions that train science teachers will benefit from the result of this study by getting necessary information about the strategies. This will help them adopt the strategies, improve on their knowledge of instructional strategies and facilitate the mentoring of student-teachers in adoption of active learning strategies in science teaching.
The result of the study will be useful to science curricula planners. It will help them in defining appropriate materials and delivery activities necessary for proper implementation of the curriculum, especially developing strategies to improve on the efficiency of the process and application of peer tutoring in senior secondary science class.
1.7 Scope of the Study
The study focuses on the relative effectiveness of peer tutoring and think -pair-share strategies in improving student academic performance in chemistry in Nnewi, Anambra State. The study will also discuss the causes of poor academic performance among Chemistry students.
1.8 Limitation of the Study
Like in every human endeavour, the researcher encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size. More so, the researcher simultaneously engaged in this study with other academic work. As a result, the amount of time spent on research will be reduced.
Moreover, the case study method utilized in the study posed some challenges to the investigator including the possibility of biases and poor judgment of issues. However, the investigator relied on respect for the general principles of procedures, justice, fairness, objectivity in observation and recording, and weighing of evidence to overcome the challenges.
1.9 Definitions of Terms
Students of the same age/ability.
The outcome of education or the extent to which a student has achieved his/her educational goals.
1.10 Organization of the Studies
The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.
Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:
This chapter summarizes the findings on the relative effectiveness of peer tutoring and think -pair-share strategies in improving student academic performance in chemistry in Nnewi, Anambra State. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.
5.2 Summary of the Study
In this study, our focus was to examine the relative effectiveness of peer tutoring and think -pair-share strategies in improving student academic performance in chemistry in Nnewi, Anambra State. The study was specifically set to discuss the causes of poor academic performance among Chemistry students; examine the effectiveness of peer-tutoring and think-pair-share teaching strategies in improving the academic performance of Senior Secondary School students in Chemistry in Nnewi; and compare the attitude of Senior Secondary School students towards Chemistry when taught with peer tutoring and think-pair-share teaching strategies.
The study adopted a non-equivalent pre-test, post-test control group experimental research design. The population for the study consisted of all public senior secondary class one (SS 1) science students in Nnewi. Out of the two local government areas in Nnewi was selected using simple random sampling technique. Three senior secondary schools were selected in the Local Government Area and one intact class was selected from each of the schools using simple random sampling technique. The total sample size was 113 (38, 37 and 38 from each of the three schools). The schools were randomly assigned to three groups (Peer Tutoring, Think-Pair-Share and Teacher Expository) using simple random sampling technique. Two instruments, the Chemistry Achievement Test (CAT) and Questionnaire on Attitudes of Students towards Chemistry (QASTC) were used to collect data for the study.
Based on the outcomes of this study, it was concluded that think-pair-share is a better teaching strategy in improving students’ academic performance in Chemistry than peer tutoring teaching technique. More importantly, think-pair-share enhanced students’ academic performance because the technique is learner-centered. It also gives room for learners to share knowledge with his or her partner and make a reliable response based on the questions given by the teacher. Also, the study concluded that peer tutoring and think-pair-share strategies has no effect on the attitude of students towards Chemistry.
Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.
Students should always be permitted to participate actively and interact freely with the teacher and their partner as this will improve their academic performance. Also, there should be intensive training and retraining of teachers in implementation of think-pair-share in secondary schools.
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