Relationship Between Students Learning Time And Their Academic Performance

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Relationship Between Students Learning Time And Their Academic Performance


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine the relationship between students learning time and their academic performance using some selected secondary schools in Yaba, Lagos State.The study was specifically set to find out whether learning time significantly influences students academic performance in secondary school, ascertain whether climate and temperature condition as at the time of learning influences students learning outcome, determine learning time duration significantly affects students academic performance, and determine whether extended learning time improves students academic performance. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of students of some selected secondary schools in Yaba, Lagos State. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 229 respondents and 210 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables. While the hypotheses were tested using Pearson correlation statistical tool, SPSS v23. The result of the findings reveals that learning time significantly influence students academic performance in secondary school.Furthermore the result of the findings reveals thattemperature and climate condition as at the time of learning influences students learning outcome. Therefore, it is recommended that there is need to support students during the non-school study time to enhance their performance in the continuous assessment. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

In the opinion of Mcrudy,(2012), about 2hours of instructional hours for teaching-learning is required to deliver the standard quality of curriculum to the students. However, schools faces a great challenge to meet the instructional hours in one academic year due to ad-hoc programs and multiple regional, national and international holidays. However, the success of after-school programs for only those who volunteer to participate in such programs does not necessarily support the mandatory extension of the school day as a policy to raise all student test scores.
In addition, school districts struggling to balance budgets during times of fiscal stress, and contemplating a decrease in teaching hours as a way to do it, need to understand the impact of this strategy on academic outcomes. Especially helpful would be how the effect of an expected reduction in learning time compares to the effect calculated for an alternative reduction in other inputs into a school site’s academic outcomes. In the due course, the quality of the teaching and learning process in the stipulated time is compromised. Therefore, there is a need of finding strategies to overcome the compromised teaching learning time that is lost.

Numerous studies show extended learning time (ELT) as one of the many approaches to help students catch up to meet high standards (Ed Trust and MDRC, 2021; Great Schools Partnership, 2013; Sahni, 2013). In line with it, the above studies entails that the ELT encompasses programs or strategies to increase the amount of instruction and learning student’s experience. In addition, the studies state that the extra instruction can take place after school, during breaks, or during the summer. However, Instruction during any of these periods can be effective if the instruction is carried out by certified teachers and if the curriculum is both individualized and aligned with the content in the regular school day. Furthermore, according to the studies, scheduling decisions should be made fairly to guarantee that children and families who already suffer significant disadvantages are not subjected to further obstacles.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

The massive academic failure of students over the years have been a thing of concern to the Nigerian Government and the general public. Among many others, one of the major factor that may affect students’ academic performance is the student learning time. Students’ learning time may affect the academic performance of students in the sense that there might be variation in the rate of assimilation among students with respect to the weather condition(Luman, 2014). Some student might assimilate faster in the morning while some in the afternoon.

Studies have also depicted a complex relationship between the student learning time and students’ academic achievement; however, those studies also depict positive correlation of extended learning time with the academic performance of the students if the time is spenteffectively (Ackerman & Gross, 2003; Dehne & Dehne, 2018) . In addition, Radinger & Boeskens (2021) stated that the students’ learning time is a key educational resource. Similarly, optimizing ELT has been presented as one of the key measures in improving students’ achievement (Carroll, 1989; Scheerens and Bosker, 1997; Marzano, 2003). In view of the above, this study aims at examining the relationship between students learning time and their academic performance.


1.3 Objective of the Study

The main purpose of this study is to assess the relationship between students learning time and their academic performance.The study will be guided by the following specific research objectives;

  1. Find out whether learning time significantly influences students academic performance in secondary school.
  2. Ascertain whether climate and temperature condition as at the time of learning influences students learning outcome.
  3. Determine learning time duration significantly affects students academic performance.
  4. Determine whether extended learning time improves students academic performance.

1.4 Research Question

  1. Does learning time significantly influence students academic performance in secondary school?
  2. Does temperature and climate condition as at the time of learning influences students learning outcome?
  3. Does learning time duration significantly affect students academic performance?
  4. Does extended learning time improves students academic performance?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

  • Ho: There is no significant relationship between learning time and students academic performance.
  • Ha: There is a significant relationship between learning time and students academic performance.

1.6 Significance of the Study

The study on students’ learning time and their academic performance will be of immense benefit to the entire secondary schools in Nigeria, the government (ministry of education) and other researchers that desire to carry out similar research on the above topic as the study will determine the difference in academic performance between the morning and afternoon students. Finally the study will contribute to the body of existing literature and knowledge in this field of study and provide a basis for further research.


1.7 Scope of the Study

This study generally seek to examine the relationship between students learning time and their academic performance. The study will be delimited to some selected secondary schools in Yaba, Lagos State.


1.8 Limitations of the Study

In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, language barriers, and the attitude of the respondents. However, the researcher were able to manage these just to ensure the success of this study.

Moreover, the case study method utilized in the study posed some challenges to the investigator including the possibility of biases and poor judgment of issues. However, the investigator relied on respect for the general principles of procedures, justice, fairness, objectivity in observation and recording, and weighing of evidence to overcome the challenges.


1.9 Definition of the Terms

Academic achievement: Academic achievement or (academic) performance is the extent to which a student, teacher or institution has achieved their short or long-term educational goals.


1.10 Organization of the Studies

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the relationship between students learning time and their academic performance using some selected secondary schools in Yaba, Lagos State.The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to examine on the relationship between students learning time and their academic performance using some selected secondary schools in Yaba, Lagos State.The study is was specifically carried out to find out whether learning time significantly influences students academic performance in secondary school, ascertain whether climate and temperature condition as at the time of learning influences students learning outcome, determine learning time duration significantly affects students academic performance, and determine whether extended learning time improves students academic performance.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 210 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent arestudents of some selected secondary schools in Yaba, Lagos State.


5.3 Conclusion

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher concluded that;

  1. Learning time significantly influence students academic performance in secondary school.
  2. Temperature and climate condition as at the time of learning influences students learning outcome.
  3. Learning time duration significantly affect students academic performance.
  4. Extended learning time improves students academic performance.

5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.

  1. The researcher opined that developing positive attitude, motivation and proper guidance, using suitable approaches in relation to the time of day for instruction, provision of adequate teaching materials, provision of more classrooms and furniture, provision of libraries and laboratories, proper supervision and inspection of teachers especially those teaching in the afternoon, developing good schoolcommunity relationship and, ensuring proper ventilation in classrooms where learning occurs are some of the ways of improving performance of students.
  2. There is need to support students during the non-school study time to enhance their performance in the continuous assessment.
  3. Allocate the right amount of time to avoid teachers and students getting bogged down is recommended..

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