The Relationship Between Stigmatization And Psychological Well Being Of Relatives Of Mentally Ill Persons
The study employed correlation design in investigating the relationship between stigmatization, and wellbeing of mentally ill people in Kaduna State, Nigeria. The population of this study was made up of 8,002 school students. A total of 377 stigmatized students were sampled using proportionate sampling technique and used for the study. Three (3) instruments namely, Stigmatize Questionnaire (PAQ), Psychology Questionnaire (PAq) and Social Adjustment Questionnaire (SAQ) were adopted and used for the study. The Data Collected were analyzed using Pearson Product Moment Correlation and t-test, all these were tested at 0.05 level of significance. Findings reveals that significant relationship existed between social and social adjustment of stigmatized students (P = 0.001), significant relationship existed between stigmatized and wellbeing of stigmatized students ( P = 0.001), significant relationship existed between stigmatization and social adjustment of stigmatized students ( P = 0.001), significant relationship existed between stigmatizationd and wellbeing of stigmatize students ( P = 0.028). Significant difference existed between socially and psychologically stigmatized students on their social adjustment ( P = 0.004) and also significant differences existed between socially and psychologically stigmatized students in their wellbeing ( P = 0027). Base on the findings of this study, it was recommended that psychologists, counselors, teachers and head teachers, as well as parents should be sensitized through workshop, seminar, and conferences on the negative effect of stigmatization, on social adjustment and wellbeing among the mentally ill people in order to boost their moral, socially and cognitive development in schools.
1.1 Background to the Study
This study is predicated on the role of psychologists in reducing stigmatization in Kaduna state. It takes into cognizance the widespread of stigmatization not only in Nigeria but the world over and the need to find the causes of the menace with a view to finding lasting solution to the problem. Stigmatization is any act by parents, teachers or caregivers that may expose a child to actual or potential harm such as total neglect at home, places of worship, schools and other individuals a child may interact with. It has become an international phenomenon; its menace has been given serious attention in many parts of the world like the United States of America, Asia and Africa.
Cicchetti (2015) declares social and stigmatizationas common social problems globally.According to him, the impacts of socialstigmatization range from minor injuries to severe brain damage and even death, while psychological impacts range from chronic low self-esteem to severe dissociative states. The cognitive effects on the other hand, range from attention problems and learning disorders to severe organic brain syndromes. Behaviourally, the consequences of stigmatize range from poor peer relations all the way to extraordinarily violent behaviours (Kempe,2010). For over 30 years, clinicians like medical doctors and other health workers have studied the effects of stigmatization on the social, psychological, cognitive, and behavioural development of children. In recent years, stigmatization has been the object of attention, debates and studies at both international and national levels, on its immediate and long term negative impacts on the victims and the society at large. In respect to the calamities of children, on the 26th November, 1924, the assembly of the United Nations declared the child welfare charter that frowns against stigmatization. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, states that the child shall be protected against all forms of stigmatize and neglect, cruelty and exploitation. It is further stated in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights that for the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world, the governments should protect students against all forms of stigmatize and exploitation. The Global International Documentation of International Law stated that the UN Declaration of the Rights of the Child (DRC) should build upon the right to protection against child trafficking, exploitation and all forms of stigmatize (The United Nations, 1971 and 1999).
Summary of the United Nations declarationon the rights of the child (1999) states that the best interest of the child is that he or she be given the chance to express himself or herself and be given the right to education. The convention posited that for its purposes, a child means every human being in particular, therefore, the elimination of ignorance and illiteracy throughout the world is needed in order to facilitate the protection of the child and stop stigmatization. A report by the International Labour Organization (2002) estimated that about 246 million children were engaged in one form of stigmatize or another worldwide, with Africa and Asia being the most affected continents. These two continents accounted for 70% of the countries affected and 94% of students that were stigmatized in a survey of more than 100 countries in 1992. A recent UNICEF survey of households in 25 Sub-Saharan African countries indicated that 31% of children between the ages of 5 and 14 are engaged in various forms of stigmatization that threaten them socially and psychologically; and affects their health and wellbeing as well as their social wellbeing.
However, a look at the Nigerian society shows that stigmatization occurs not only at home but also in school thereby constituting a bottleneck to the attainment of sound wellbeing and good social adjustment. Researchers have shown that this social scourge is on the increase while parents, schools and the society find it difficult to assess and come up with an effective intervention to deal with the situation. Studies have shown that when a child is socially and psychologically balanced, he or she has more motivation, better grades and higher achievement scores(Ebigbo2000). According to Febe (1994) Stigmatization is considered the first cause as well as the first indicator that accounts for young people leaving school and going astray. Studies carried out in Nigeria have shown that social and psychological forms of stigmatize have had negative impacts on children. The majority of cases of social and psychological forms of stigmatize in primary schools in the North Western part of the country have not been recorded or documented. The United Nations’ declaration of stigmatization, as a social problem, gained recognition of the Nigerian public only recently. Nigeria‟s human rights record remains poor and government officials at all levels continue to commit serious stigmatizes. However, Nigeria has made serious improvements in the matters of human rights under the current constitution (1999 Constitution as amended), item 2(a) of the fourth schedule to the constitution, provides for the right of a child to compulsory, free, uniform and qualitative basic education throughout Nigeria.
Donli(1988) pointed that some Nigerian States like Kaduna State, which has long been regarded as one of the most developed states and center of learning in the North West zone of Nigeria, such states could eradicate so many social problems. This situation is manifested in cases of lack of provision of school materials and fees, divorce among couples, abandoned children, street begging, child labour and social assault. The consequences of this scourge may include poor wellbeing and massive failure, school dropout, criminal acts, prostitution, drug stigmatize and addiction among children. Fafunwa (1974) stated that looking at the Nigerian child as a direct victim of the low purchasing power of his or her parents in which children are regarded as a source of joy to families and evaluation assets to the parents, children are supposed to be nurtured in family environment and grow up in an atmosphere of happiness, love, care and understanding. Besides, because of their peculiar needs for social and mental development, children need special care in every aspect of their lives, particularly in the areas of their social, mental, emotional and social developments and require legal protection in terms of freedom, diginity and security. They are not supposed to be maltreated, exploited, overworked or deprived of their right to education.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
This study is predicated on massive public outcries and media campaign against the prevalence of stigmatization in our society, in addition to data collected from Kaduna state ministry of women affairs (2010-2015) which showed that schools students performed better at common entrance than their counterparts from public schools. In view of the above, this study investigated the causes with a view to finding lasting solution to the menace. Thus, the study explored whether relationships existed between stigmatization, and wellbeing of mentally ill people in Kaduna state. It also investigated whether there were differences in the relationships between social adjustment and wellbeing of stigmatized students in public primary schools.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
In specific terms, the objectives of the study are to:
- Investigate the relationship between stigmatization and social adjustments of mentally ill people in Kaduna State, Nigeria.
- Find out the relationship between stigmatization and psychological wellbeing of mentally ill people in Kaduna State, Nigeria.
- Investigate the impact of stigmatization on social adjustments of mentally ill people in Kaduna State, Nigeria.
1.4 Research Questions
This study seeks to answer the following questions:
- What is the relationship between stigmatization and the social adjustments of mentally ill people in Kaduna State, Nigeria?
- What are the relationships between stigmatized people and their psychological well being in Kaduna State, Nigeria?
- What is the effect of stigmatization on the social adjustments of mentally ill people in Kaduna State, Nigeria?
The following hypotheses are tested at p<0.05 alpha level of significance.
HO1: There is no significant relationship between stigmatization and social adjustment of mentally ill people in Kaduna State, Nigeria.
HO2: There is no significant relationship between stigmatization and psychological wellbeing of mentally ill people in Kaduna State, Nigeria.
1.6 Basic Assumptions
For the purpose of this study, it is assumed that:
- Stigmatization might have high or low relationship with social adjustment of mentally ill people.
- Stigmatized might have high or low relationship with the wellbeing of its victims.
- Stigmatization might have high or low relationship with social adjustments of its victims.
- Stigmatization might have high or low relationship on the wellbeing of its victims.
- Significant difference might exist between the social adjustments of stigmatized mentally ill people in Kaduna State, Nigeria
- Significant difference might exist between the wellbeing of stigmatized mentally ill people in
Kaduna State, Nigeria.
1.7 Significance of the Study
This research is significant in the sense that it will help a great deal in providing additional information on the prevailing problem of social and psychological forms of stigmatization in our society. Furthermore, it will provide effective and sustainable policies for child protection programmes. As a result, the study is significant to the following people.
This study is relevant to psychologists in the sense that it will enable them learn more about social and psychological forms of stigmatize children experience. As such, the research will help them in solving cases of stigmatize in good time, in the midst of students, thus contributing to the promotion of effective learning. It will help educationists identify the various forms of stigmatize students are subjected to and insert proper ideas on how to treat the affected students within the school and class rooms so that they can perform better, into the curriculum.
The study will also serve as a source of information and guide for educational policy makers and administrators. For example, the Ministry of Education can set up and implement special educational programmes and services for the socially and psychologically stigmatized children similar to those of the disabled children. It is hoped that this research will enlighten the NGOS as to the social and psychological forms of stigmatize children suffer and how these affect the learning process of students. By being significant to the above-mentioned people, this work will surely help in curbing if not eradicating stigmatization in order to make the society a better place for children.
1.8 Scope and Delimitation of the Study
The scope was limited to public primary schools in Kaduna State, which spread across the three zones namely Kaduna North, Kaduna Central and Kaduna South. The study was also delimited to stigmatization in Kaduna State, the research hinged on the premise that these forms of stigmatize have various abysmal short or long-term consequences on the lives of students. Most cases of stigmatize are not reported and from the prevailing circumstances, it is believed that students in public schools are likely to suffer from the scourge. Finally, the study was delimited to six (6) public primary schools.
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations
This study was structured into five chapters in order to effectively carry out this research work. Chapter one presented the background and purpose and objectives of the study, the statement of the problem, six research questions, six hypotheses, basic assumptions as well as the scope and limitations of the study. The study is significant as it will provide Kaduna state government and NGOs with adequate information on experts‟ views on how to curb the menace of social and psychological forms of stigmatize among mentally ill people and provide quality service delivery to the socially and psychologically stigmatized students for better wellbeing and social adjustment. Chapter Two presented literatures related to this study under the conceptual framework, theories of stigmatization, stigmatizations as they affect wellbeing and social adjustment of students.
In Chapter Three, the research methodology adopted was discussed. The target population for this research consisted of 21,469 Primary Five students of public schools in Kaduna State. Six schools were selected and 377 stigmatized respondents were used. Three (3) instruments, namely stigmatized questionnaire, stigmatization questionnaire and social adjustment questionnaire were used for the study. Students‟ examination results in English, Mathematics, Social Studies and Computer Science were derived from their third term examination results.
Content and face validity of the instruments were assessed by lecturers in the Department of Educational Psychology and Counselling in Ahmadu Bello University Zaria and corrections were made. The researcher proceeded to conduct a pilot study to test the reliability of the instrument using Cronbach alpha coefficient statistical technique. Procedures for data collection were administered and the data collected were analyzed using Statistical Packages for Social Sciences (SPSS version19) in which Pearson Moment Correlation (PPMR) was used to analyse hypotheses One(1) to Four (4) and T- test was used to analyse hypotheses Five (5) and six (6). The number of students who had experienced different types of stigmatize was expressed in percentages andthe P value enabled the researcher to reject or retain the formulated hypotheses. The interpretation of the significant value calculated by SPSS was done by comparing the value with alpha level (0.05) at which each of the hypothesis was tested.
The analysis, presentation and discussion of the result were carried out in chapter four. The SPSS version 20 statistical package was used to carry out the entire data analysis. It was discovered that stigmatized had significant negative association with social adjustments and wellbeing of mentally ill people in Kaduna State.It was revealed that stigmatization had significant negative relationship with social adjustment and wellbeing of mentally ill people in Kaduna State. The result also showed that psychologically stigmatized students had lower social adjustment and poor wellbeing than their stigmatized counterparts. Finally, Chapter five presented the summary, conclusion and recommendations of the entire study.
5.3 Contributions to Knowledge the Study Established That:
- Significant relationship existed between social and social adjustment of stigmatized students ( P = 0.001),
- Significant relationship existed between stigmatization and wellbeing of stigmatized students ( P = 0.001),
- Significant relationship existed between stigmatization and social adjustment of stigmatized students ( P = 0.001),
- Significant relationship existed between stigmatization and wellbeing of stigmatized students ( P = 0.028).
- Significant difference existed between socially and psychologically stigmatized students on the social adjustment ( P = 0.004) and also
- Significant differences existed between socially and psychologically stigmatized students in the wellbeing ( P = 0027)
Based on the above findings, the researcher concluded that social and psychological forms of stigmatize have negative association with low social adjustment and poor wellbeing among students,especially those attending public primary schools. In addition, the psychologically stigmatized students are discovered to have lower social adjustment and poorer wellbeing than their stigmatized counterparts.
Based on the outcome of the study, the researcher recommended that:
- Psychologists, counselors, teachers and parents should be sensitized through workshops on how to prevent low social adjustment among stigmatized students and to develop maladaptive coping strategies and techniques to remedy the menace that showed as stigmatization increases, the social adjustment of students decreases.
- Psychologists, counselors, teachers and parents should give proper educational support and counselling supervision to stigmatized students. They should be made to understand that as stigmatized increases students well being decreases and vice versa. This can be achieved by increase in funding of educational inspectorate departments.
- Psychologists, counselors and teachers should be given special allowance to provide psychological support services and conducive learning environment to psychologically stigmatized students.Theyshould be made to understand that increase in stigmatization leads to decrease in the social adjustment of students.
- Psychologists, counselors, teachers and parents should provide academic and social skills enhancement training in schools for psychologically stigmatized students. They should understand that when stigmatization increases, the wellbeing of students decreases.
- Significant difference existed between social adjustment of stigmatized students with mean difference of 1.98. The stigmatized have better social adjustment.
- Significant difference existed between wellbeing of stigmatized students with mean difference of 0.60. The stigmatized performed better.
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