The Relationship Between Principals Leadership Style And Job Satisfaction Of Teachers In Secondary Schools In Benin Metropolis

Project and Seminar Material for Education

Project and Seminar Material for Education


Abstract


The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between leadership style of principals and job satisfaction of teachers in secondary schools in Benin metropolis. The idea was to identify leadership styles of principals and the effect of those styles on the job satisfaction level of secondary school teachers. This study adopted a descriptive survey design where the target population for this study was all the 427 teachers and principals in all the 28 public secondary schools in Benin metropolis. The study purposely sampled 11 principals using simple random sampling and 128 teachers using stratified random sampling from mixed day schools, girlsā€™ boarding schools and boysā€™ boarding schools. To collect data, a set of structured questionnaires were used as an interview guide. Before the actual data collection, piloting of questionnaires was done in two secondary schools in Benin metropolis. To establish the reliability of the instrument, the researcher used the test-retest where the second test administration was done one week after the first one.

The study therefore concluded that the principals exercised a high level of democratic leadership. The principals rarely practice laissez faire leadership style as they are concerned about group performance. The principals practice transformational leadership by giving encouragement to members of staff to initiate new and creative ideas to benefit school and the rest of staff members. On job satisfaction the working conditions are relatively good. However the teachers were not happy with salary and benefits. The teachers were also not happy with issues to deal with training, in-service courses and recommendation for study leave by principals. On administration and supervision issues of concern to teachers included job appraisal practices employed by principals. The study recommends improvement of working conditions and provision of transport to teachers by the school vehicles. The principals should encourage and offer equal opportunities for training, seminars/ in-service courses and give recommendations for teachers to attend.

The principals should actively improve on communication, by giving feedback on inquires and on a timely basis and improve on job appraisal practices to be competitive and fair. The researcher suggests the following areas for further study, given the scope and limitations of this study, the study should be carried again in some other sub counties for comparative purposes. The study also recommends that aspects of promotion prospects such as advancement opportunities, opportunity for in service training and opportunity for growth should be enhanced. The study recommends that there is need for school administration to come up with modalities of improving job satisfaction so that teachers job satisfaction can be enhanced. Principals should enhance their supervisory support to enhance teachers job satisfaction.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

The quality of Educational outcome is the product of effective and efficient utilization of human, material, financial and time resources. Of these, the contribution of the human resources particularly the principals and teachers cannot be overemphasized. The Principals and teachers are the active agents of production who utilize the other resources and skills in a manner that can produce the desired results. The attitude of Principals towards their teaching staff was well articulated by the Federal Government in the National Policy of Education(2004) which states that ā€˜The success of any system of education is hinged on proper planning, efficient administration. Administration is a function of organization and structure, proprietorship and control, inspection and supervision.ā€™ For teachers the policy also states that ā€˜teachers are the main determinants of the quality of education.ā€™

Furthermore, UNESCO (2000) was categorical in stating that, improving the quality of education depends first, on improving the quality of educational administrators and, also improving the status and work conditions of teachers. Nigeriaā€™s educational system is presently undergoing various reforms. Among the reforms is the introduction of Universal Basic Education which shall be of nine-year duration comprising six years of primary education and three years of junior secondary education. It also includes adult and non-formal education programmes at primary and junior secondary levels for the adults and out of school youths (FGN 2004). The reform aims at providing free and compulsory education for all Nigerian children. This reform initiative no doubt requires significant capacity development on the part of all education stakeholders. It requires high levels of motivation and commitment on the parts of individual to solving the often complex problem associated with the implementation.

The development of Western Education in Nigeria cannot be treated in isolation from traditional forms of education. In Edo State, for instance, traditional education was a way of life before the advent of Western Education introduced by the Missionaries and Colonial Administration. Therefore, this formal education as embraced by the state requires more effectiveness in the leadership handling of the school heads to enable it serve as bedrock for further socio-economic development.

Different scholars have argued that there is no precise definition for describing the complex phenomenon of leadership. According Ciulla (2004), leadership is the inspiration on mobilization of others to undertake collective action in pursuit of common good. Therefore school leadership is a process of encouraging and helping teachers and learners to work enthusiastically towards realization of schools and educational objectives (Ciulla,2004).
Spector (1997) defines job satisfaction as an extent to which people like or dislike their jobs. According to Miskel (2008), job satisfaction is that emotional state resulting from appraisal of oneā€™s job or experience. Significant indicators of job satisfaction which emerged from a study done by Mwamwenda (1995) in Transei included positive relationship between teachers and principals, results and achievements and the fact that teaching is culturally considered to be fine and challenging profession. Olando (2008) contends that low levels of job motivation and job satisfaction leads to strikes, slowdowns, absenteeism and employee turn-over. North house (2010) believed that ā€œa teacherā€™s job satisfaction may serve to influence their morale, motivation and general willingness to maximize their teaching potentialā€. Teachers who are not satisfied with their jobs may result in bad teaching or learning process and school effectiveness will consequently be negatively impacted.

Leadership styles exhibited by a school principal affect school climate, learning situations and levels of professional and job satisfaction among teachers (Ingolo, 1991). According to Clerk (2000) leadership style is the manner and approach in which a leader provides direction, implements plans and motivates people so as to meet organizational goals. According to Okumbe (1998) leadership styles to be considered in this study are democratic, autocratic, laissez faire and transformational leadership.

Numerous researchers on school effectiveness have demonstrated some form of association between effective schools and the type of leadership practiced by their principals. Hallinger and Liethwood (1994), Liu (2004) carried out research on determinants of job satisfaction and found that loyalty to oneā€™s employer and job longevity are important as compared to compensation, benefits and supervision for Mexican-American and vice versa for the nonHispanic. A study to identify effective leadership styles in education sector of Pakistan by Modley and Larochelle (1995), manifested that transformational leadership was more successful in Pakistan in enhancing job satisfaction.

A study by Morris and Feldman (2003) in Palestine industrial sector showed that autocratic leadership style was more frequently used than transformational leadership while laissez faire was considered as the least commonly occurring leadership style. The latter is more frequent among leaders with low educational background. Moreover, transformational leadership was found to encourage satisfaction, willingness to apply extra effort and effectiveness among employees. A study on the organizational culture, leadership modes, and employee job satisfaction at electric cable companies in Taiwan, Chen (2008) found that transformational leadership modes tend to be more acceptable to employees and affect employee job satisfaction level and innovativeness.

A study carried out in Western Kentucky by Kirk (2012) reveal positive correlation between transformational leadership style and teacher job satisfaction. More over the study illustrated weak, negative correlations between laissez faire leadership style and teacher job satisfaction. Concerning the dimension of transformational, a research carried out by Bogler (2001) &Kormaz (2007) found that transformational leadership is significantly correlated with teacher job satisfaction. A study done by Bogler in Israel (2001) showed that teachers prefer to work with a principal who exhibits transformational type of behavior. In a survey of 244 nursing school faculty members Chen (2008) found that Taiwanese nursing directors were more transformational leaders than transactional or laissez-faire ones. The results also indicated that the nursing faculty members were moderately satisfied with their jobs and felt that the heavy workloads as opposed to the directorsā€™ leadership styles were possible reasons for their dissatisfaction with their jobs.

Differences in leadership styles used by principals have been raised in performance of schools in which some perform better while others perform poorly. Frequent conflict between teachers and principals, poor attendance of lessons, teachers truancy with no apparent reason, teachers persistence behavior in drinking alcohol during working hours are said to be related to principals leadership style. Research has indicated that job satisfaction of teachers is highly correlated with teachersā€™ retention (Shann, 1998) and teacher job satisfaction also has been linked to teacher attrition through the effectiveness of the principalsā€™ leadership (Marlow, 1997). Mosadegn and Mohammadian (2006) pointed out that job satisfaction is influenced by many organization contextual factors, ranging from salaries, job autonomy, job security, workplace flexibility to leadership. Today many teachers feel dissatisfied with their jobs because of increased accountability and stress, heavy, workloads, poor pay and working conditions, a negative school atmosphere and specifically perceived inadequate principal support (Metlife, 2001, Popham, 2004).
Following the release of WAEC results 2014, many principals have been transferred and deployed to other schools in Edo state, there is need to carry out the study on the impact of principal leadership styles on teaching and learning in secondary schools in Benin metropolis, Edo state.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

In the recent past, there has been a widespread teacherā€™s turnover in secondary school in Benin metropolis despite the fact that Edo state is highly developed and productive area. Statistics at Edo state Teachers Service Commission unit showed that the rate of teachersā€™ turnover rose from 12 percent in 2011 to 15 percent in 2012. In 2013, teacherā€™s turnover rose to 20 percent thus portraying a worrying trend. According to Armstrong (2009) high turnover is a mark of low level of job satisfaction. The area environment is conducive for working and not the reason for the high turnover and therefore there is need to carry out the study on influence of principalsā€™ leadership styles on teachersā€™ job satisfaction in public secondary schools in Benin metropolis.


1.3 Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between principalā€™s leadership style and job satisfaction of teachers in secondary schools in Benin metropolis.


1.4 Objectives of the Study

  1. To establish how democratic leadership style influence teachers job satisfaction in public secondary schools in Benin metropolis.
  2. To examine the influence of autocratic leadership style on teachersā€™ job satisfaction in public secondary schools
  3. in Benin metropolis.
  4. To determine how laissez-faire leadership style influence teachers job satisfaction in public secondary schools in Benin metropolis.
  5. To establish how transformational leadership style influence teachers job satisfaction in public secondary schools in Benin metropolis.

1.5 Research Questions

  1. How does democratic style of leadership influence teachersā€™ job satisfaction in public secondary schools teachers in Edo state?
  2. How does autocratic leadership style influence teachersā€™ job satisfaction in public secondary schools in Benin metropolis?
  3. How does laissez-faire leadership style influence teachersā€™ job satisfaction in public secondary schools in Benin metropolis?
  4. How does transformational leadership style influence teachersā€™ job satisfaction in public secondary schools in Benin metropolis?

1.6 Significance of the Study

The research findings from this study could assist in making school principals more cognizant of their own leadership ability and style and assist them in developing their own leadership capacity to support teachers in adequately managing the increased demands placed on them thus improving levels of teacher job satisfaction. The findings may also help Teachers Service Commission to improve terms and working conditions of the teachers in order to increase teachersā€™ levels of job satisfaction. It may also be useful to Nigeria Educational Management Institute (NEMI) as they train schools managers on the leadership styles suited for schools. The study may help other researchers in this area in identifying the areas that require further research so as to fill the information gap and also to add to the pool of currently existing knowledge.


1.7 Scope of the Study

These are boundaries of the study (Best & Kahn, 1998). The study was carried out in Benin metropolis, Edo state only on sampled public schools. Although there are other workers in the school, only teachers and principals provided information. The study excluded teachers from private schools because they have different management systems from public schools.


1.8 Limitations of the Study

According to Best ad Kahn (1998), limitations are conditions beyond the control of the researcher that may place restrictions on the conclusions of the study and their applications to other situations. This includes cases of exaggerated feedback or outright mis-information; it was difficult for the researcher to control the attitude of the respondents as they respond to the questionnaire. However, the respondents were assured of the confidentiality of their identities.


1.9 Definitions of Significant Terms

The following are the definitions of significant terms:

Autocratic Leadership

Refers to giving full empowerment to the leaders with minimal participation from the follower.
Democratic leadership refers to a situation where there is equal work amongleaders and followers.

Job Satisfaction

Refers to how people feel about their jobs and different aspects of their jobs.

Leadership Style

Refers to the perceived behavior that a person exhibits when attempting to influence the activities of others.

Laissez-Faire-Leadership

Refers to a leadership style in which leaders are hands-off and allow group members to make decisions.

Principal Refers

To the chief executive of schools and may be called the head teacher.

Public Secondary Schools

Refer to four years post primary school which is developed equipped and provided with staff out of public funds by the government and parents.

Teacher Attrition

Refers to a component of teacher turn over in which teachers exit the teaching profession altogether due to natural event such as retirement death and/or resignations.

Transformational Leadership

Refers to leaders that do support or emphasize empowerment within their teachers.


1.10 Organization of the Study

The study comprises of five chapters.

  • Chapter one contains background information of the study, the statement of the problem, purpose of the study, objectives of the study, research questions, significance of the study, delimitations of the study, assumptions of the study, definitions of key terms and organization of the study.
  • Chapter two contains review of related literature, leadership and job satisfaction, how democratic leadership style influences teachersā€™ job satisfaction, how autocratic leadership style influences teachers job satisfaction, how laissez faire leadership style influences teachers job satisfaction, how transformational leadership style influences teachers job satisfaction. It also contains theoretical framework and conceptual framework.
  • Chapter three highlights methodology of the study. This include research design, target population, sample size and sampling procedure, research instruments, validity and reliability of research instruments, data collection procedure, data analysis and ethical considerations.
  • Chapter four consists of data analysis, presentation and interpretation.
  • Chapter five consists of summary of the study, conclusions and suggestions of further research.

Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions And Recommendations

5.1 Introduction

This chapter discusses the summary of the study, conclusions, recommendations and suggestions for further study. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of principalsā€™ leadership styles on teachersā€™ job satisfaction in public secondary schools in Benin metropolis.


5.2 Summary of the Study

The objectives of the study included, to establish how democratic leadership style influence teachers job satisfaction in public secondary schools in Benin metropolis. To examine the influence of autocratic leadership style on teachersā€™ job satisfaction in public secondary schools in Benin metropolis. To determine how laissez-faire leadership style influence teachers job satisfaction in public secondary schools in Benin metropolis. To establish how transformational leadership style influence teachers job satisfaction in public secondary schools in Benin metropolis.

This study adopted the descriptive survey design where the target population for this study was all 427 teachers and principals in all the 28 public secondary schools in Benin metropolis. The study purposely sampled 11 principals using simple random sampling and 128 teachers using stratified random sampling from mixed day schools, girlsā€™ boarding schools and boysā€™ boarding schools.

To collect data, a set of structured questionnaires were used as an interview guide. Before the actual data collection, piloting of questionnaires were done in two secondary schools in Benin metropolis. To establish the reliability of the instrument, the researcher used the test-retest where the second test administration was done one week after the first one. The researcher sought authorization to conduct the research from the National Council of Science and Technology and the District Commissioner Benin metropolis. The study generated both qualitative and quantitative data. Pearson moment correlation coefficient was used to determine the relationships between principals leadership styles/autocratic, democratic, laissez faire and transformational and teachers job satisfaction. Quantitative data was analyzed using descriptive statistics. In this study, mean and standard deviation were used to compute quantitative analysis. In this case the quantitative data was presented in the form of frequency tables, pie charts, percentages and bar graphs.

Findings on democratic leadership style shows that majority of the principals indicated that they often show understanding of staff view point though holding divergent view point with them with a mean of 1.91, they often patiently encourage staff to frankly express fully viewpoints with a mean of 1.91 and often encourage the members of staff to openly express their feelings with a mean of 1.82. The principals often express confidence in staff members despite disagreeing with them with a mean of 2.18, and often give room to group members to present their view points before stating their stand with a mean of 2.09. On the other hand majority of teachers agreed that their principals often are friendly and easy to dialogue with a mean of 2.38 and a standard deviation of 0.97. They also agreed that principals genuinely shares information with staff members with a mean of 2.73 though a good number of principals do it occasionally.

On autocratic leadership majority of principals indicated that they always expect the best from staff with a mean of 1, and always expect high quality from themselves with a mean of 1.27 and a standard deviation of 0.47. In contrast the principals indicated that they always initiate direct goals for the staff with a mean of 1.27 and standard deviation of 0.47. On the other hand majority of teachers agreed that the principals always expect the very best from staff with a mean of 1.50 and a standard deviation of 0.84. Majority agreed that principals have high opinion over what staff does with a mean of 2.48 and a standard deviation of 0.93. However majority of teachers indicated that the principals occasionally suppress new ideas from members of staff with a mean of 3.23 and occasionally blames failure or mistakes for low performance on staff with a mean of 3.09.

On laissez faire majority of principals rarely are less concerned about group performance towards attainment of schools goals with a mean of 4.36 and a standard deviation of 0.92. They rarely govern the group through nonintervention in what they are doing with a mean of 4.18 and standard deviation of 0.98. The principals indicated that they supervise teachers in their teaching/learning assignment with a mean of 4.55 and have belief in self and others attaining goals with a mean of 4.64. However in contrast they occasionally avoid at all costs interfering with groupā€™s work with a mean of 2.82 and also agreed that contribution in the staff serve as basis for suggestions or questions with a mean of 2.18 and a standard deviation of 0.60. On the other hand majority of teachers indicated principals seldom pays attention to individualā€™s interests in their work place with a mean of 3.56 and a standard deviation 0.99 and seldom governs the group through non-intervention in what they are doing with a mean of 3.65 and a standard deviation 0.91. However teachers also indicated that principals occasionally gives room to group members to present their view points before stating a stand with a mean of 2.70 and a standard deviation of 1.13 and allows staff contributions/suggestions and further questions with a mean of 2.73 and a standard deviation of 1.17.

Findings on transformational leadership style shows that majority of principals indicated that they always give encouragement to members of staff to initiate new and creative ideas to benefit school and the rest of staff members with a mean of 1.64 and standard deviation of 0.50. Majority indicated that they are risk takers (try new adventurous ideas in dealing with situations) with a mean of 1.45 and a standard deviation of 0.52. Majority of principals strongly agreed that they are patient with progress being made by the staff towards goals attainment with a mean of 1.73 and a standard deviation of 0.47. In addition majority indicated that they occasionally readily accept even unwarranted blame or mistake in the school with a mean of 2.55 and a standard deviation of 0.82.

On the other hand majority of teachers indicated that principals are occasionally patient with progress being made by the staff towards goal attainment with a mean of 2.87 and occasionally allows the staff members to take center stage in discussions in staff meetings and informal meetings with a mean of 2.58. The teachers also indicated that principals often acknowledge all members efforts towards attainment in school affairs with a mean of 2.35. In addition the principals often initiate direct goals for the school with a mean of 2.23.

On the job satisfaction the study established that with regard to working conditions, majority of the teachers reported that they were somewhat satisfied with the amount of teaching load allocated to them per week with a mean of 2.21. The standard deviation however shows a lot of disparity showing that there is a level of discontent with a standard deviation of 1.04. Other variables like special services provided such as free lunch and tea provided by the school with a mean 2.80; extent to which teachers are provided with materials and equipment with a mean 2.26; the pupil teacher ratio in classrooms in the school with a mean 2.73; and the spelling out of their job description by the principals with a mean 2.44 caused some satisfaction to the teachers. However there was disparity in their responses and significant discontent on availability of transport facilities provided to them by the school with a mean of 3.95.

On pay and promotion majority of teachers were not satisfied with salary with a mean of 3.78 and benefits (health insurance, Life insurance etc) with a mean of 3.84. There was high disparity and undecided teachers on whether they were satisfied with recognition for work accomplished with a mean of 3.01, and opportunities for promotion with a mean of 3.30. However the teachers were somewhat satisfied with job security with a mean of 2.45.
On working relationships majority teachers were dissatisfied and others undecided on support for additional training and education with a mean of 3.34, the extent to which teachers are recommended for further education and training with a mean of 3.43. The information availed by the principals on available training opportunities with a mean of 3.29, the encouragement and assistance received from the principals to participate in service course and seminars related to their job with a mean of 3.25 and the willingness of the principals to assist them acquire study leave. There was high consensus on the extent to which teachers are recommended for further education and training with a standard deviation of 0.90. However majority of teachers were somewhat satisfied and had a consensus on relationship with other teachers with a mean of 1.81 and a standard deviation of 0.86 and relationship with the principals with a mean of 2.29 and a standard deviation of 0.90. Relationships with other subordinates had a mean of 2.13 and a standard deviation of 0.83, while the use of skills and abilities with a mean of 1.95 and a standard deviation of 0.87.

On recognition majority of teachers were somewhat satisfied and others undecided on the way the teachersā€™ views are taken by the principals with a mean of 2.83 and a standard deviation of 0.99. They were also somewhat satisfied and undecided on variety of job responsibilities with a mean of 2.74 and a standard deviation of 0.95. The rest of the variables had little consensus reached upon by teachers and had a disparity where majority of teachers were satisfied with the level of challenge they attach to their job, the extent to which they are allowed to make job-related decisions and the personal satisfaction that they derive from their teaching job. However the majority of teachers were dissatisfied with involvement in choosing the kind of incentives to be given in the school with a mean of 3.24.

On administration and supervision majority of teachers indicated that they are somewhat satisfied with degree of independence associated with their work roles with a mean of 2.28 and a standard deviation of 0.94. Majority of teachers were satisfied with the supervisory procedures used by the principals to evaluate their work with a mean of 2.60, though there were disparities in their responses. They were also satisfied with the extent to which the principals allow them to make independent decisions related to their work with a mean of 2.54. They were undecided on adequate opportunity for periodic changes in duties with a mean of 2.99. Half of the teachers were undecided and dissatisfied with job performance appraisal practices employed by principals with a mean of 2.71 and the type of feedback they receive from principals with a mean of 2.70.

The study therefore concluded that the principals exercised a high level of democratic leadership which positively influences teachersā€™ job satisfaction. The principals rarely practice laissez faire leadership style as they are concerned about group performance. The principals practice transformational leadership by giving encouragement to members of staff to initiate new and creative ideas to benefit school and thus improving teachersā€™ job satisfaction. On job satisfaction the working conditions are relatively good. However the teachers were not happy with salary, and benefits. The teachers were also not happy with issues to do with training, in-service courses from principals and recommendation for study leave by principals. On administration and supervision issues of concern to teachers included job appraisal practices employed by principals.

The study recommends improvement of working conditions and provision of transport for teachers by school vehicles. The principals should encourage and offer equal opportunities for training, seminars/ in-service courses and offer assistance such as recommendations to attend. The principals should actively improve on communication by giving feedback on inquires on a timely basis and improve on job appraisal practices to be competitive and fair. The researcher suggests the following areas for further study. This study should be carried again in some other sub counties for comparative purpose. The study also recommends that aspects of promotion prospects such as advancement opportunities, opportunity for inservice training and opportunity for growth should be enhanced. The study recommends that there is need for school administration to come up with modalities of improving job satifaction so that teachers job satifaction can be enhanced. Principals should enhance their supervisory support to enhance teachers job satisfaction. For further research a study should be carried out in other sub-counties. A study should also be carried out on how teachers demographic variables influence teachersā€™ job satifaction. A study on how learners characteristics influence teachers job satifaction should also be carried out.


5.3 Conclusions

The study concluded that the principals exercised a high level of democratic leadership which enhances teachersā€™ job satisfaction. The principals were good listeners to the group, shows understanding of teachers viewpoints, are patient and encourages staff to be frank and express their view points, they also encourages staff members to openly express their feelings. On autocratic leadership the study concluded that some principals are autocratic especially when it came to directing goals of the staff and occasionally suppressing new ideas from members of staff and occasionally blaming failure or mistakes for low performance on staff thus which negatively influences teachers job satisfaction.

The principals rarely practice laissez faire leadership style as they are concerned about group performance, govern the group through intervention and supervise teachers in their teaching/learning assignment even though occasionally avoid at all costs interfering with groupā€™s work. This negatively influences teachersā€™ job satisfaction. The principals to a great extent practice transformational leadership by giving encouragement to members of staff to initiate new and creative ideas to benefit school and the rest of staff members and are risk takers (try new adventurous ideas in dealing with situations). This positively influences teachersā€™ job satisfaction.

On job satisfactions, the working conditions are not good even though there was no consensus on the level of dissatisfaction but with significant numbers admitting that they are dissatisfied. The teachers were not happy with salary, benefits and a significant number of teachers were not happy with recognition and opportunities for promotion. The teachers were not happy with issues to do with recommendation for training, encouragement and assistance to attend seminars and in-service courses from principals and recommendation of study leave by principals. In addition most were dissatisfied with level of involvement in choosing the kind of incentives to be given in the school. On administration and supervision there were disparities with no consensus as regards to issues relating to provision of chance to lead, and adequate opportunity for periodic changes in duties. Other issues of concern to teachers included job appraisal practices employed by principals and the feedback received from principals.


5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study the following were the recommendations.

  1. The study recommends that aspects of promotion such as advancement opportunities, opportunity for in-service training and opportunity for growth should be enhanced.
  2. The study recommends that there is need for school administration to come up with modalities of improving job satisfaction so that teachersā€™ job satisfaction can be enhanced. Principals should also enhance their supervisory support to enhance teachersā€™ job satisfaction.
  3. The study also recommends that some aspects of reward system such as fringe benefits, recognition by school administration, rewards for job well done should be enhanced in the school.
  4. The principals should actively improve on communication, giving feedback on inquires on a timely basis and improve on job appraisal practices to be competitive and fair.

5.5 Suggestions for Further Studies

The researcher suggests the following areas for further study.

  1. A study should be carried out in some other districts for comparative purpose
  2. A study should also be carried out on how teachers demographic variables influence teachersā€™ job satifaction
  3. A study on how learners characteristics influence teachers job satifaction should also be carried out.


The Relationship Between Principals Leadership Style And Job Satisfaction Of Teachers In Secondary Schools In Benin Metropolis


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