Relationship Between Principals’ Financial Management Strategies And Teachers ’ Task Performance In Secondary Schools

Educational Management Project and Seminar Material

Relationship Between Principals’ Financial Management Strategies And Teachers ’ Task Performance In Secondary Schools


Abstract


This study investigated the relationship between principals’ financial management strategies and teachers’ task performance in secondary schools in Onitsha Education Zone. Guided by three research questions and three null hypotheses. Two questionnares-How principals provide fund questionnaire (HPPFQ) and the principal s’ rate on level of teachers’ task performance questionnaire (PRLTPQ) were used to collect t he data. Proportionate stratified random sampling technique was employed to select to a sample of 495 respondents. Pearson product moment correlation was used to answer the research questions, while t -test was used to test the hypotheses at the 0.05 level of significance. The major finding revealed that the relationship between principals’ financial management strategies and teachers’ teaching performance, discipline of students and involvement in co -curricular activities in secondary schools in Onitsha Edu cation Zone could be described high and positive. The conclusion was that there was a significant relationship between principals’ financial management strategies and teachers’ task performance in Onitsha Education Zone. Recommendations included the organization of regular seminars and workshops for both principals and teachers in order to improve financial ma nagement strategies of principals’ and boast teachers’ task performance.


Chapter One


Introduction

Background of the Study

The present economic crisis which has affected the Nigerian nation has been biting so hard that the various social services such as education which the government used to provide has been adversely affected. Public attention has been drawn by the school administrators to the inadequate funding in public schools in this country. Both government and the general public have always responded in different ways to the financial crisis in Nigeria by granting aid or giving more financial support to schools. It introduced education task fund (ETF) to help to provide financial needs both for the student and teachers.

Ezeocah (1985) states that for any venture to function, it must be financially viable. Finance is needed for any business organization to succe ed. Prudent management of the financial resources of an organization is vital to the achievement of organization goals. J udicious management of educational finance is necessary just like any business that needs finance.

Financial management is the raising a nd administering of funds. It deals with how to plan, programme, budget for, secure and maintain both material and financial resources in order to attain the institutions objective. It is an obvious fact that no institution can survive or carry out its functions effectively and efficiently without utilizing properly its financial resources. According to Pandy (1979), financial management is considered a vital and integral part of the overall management. In this broad view, the central issue of financial policy is the “wise utilization of funds”.

Adequate financial management strategies bring about job satisfaction which according to Ndu, Ocho and Okeke (1997) has to do with a high level of emotional stability of an individual in his job such that his mo rale is also high and consequently he aspires to do more for the organization goals. This implies that the more teachers are rewarded, the more likely they are to work hard. The greater the extent in which an employee’s needs are satisfied in his job, the greater the extent to which he will response, presumably with gratitude or loyalty and effective productivity on that job .

Every nation would want to give her citizens the best of education she can afford within the limits of her resources, since education is regarded as a prime instrument for social, economic, technological and moral dynamism. Consequently , the federal government of Nigeria has adopted education as an instrument per excellent for effecting national development. Infant education is so expensive now that the government finds it difficult to finance it alone. The government now encourages the local communities, individuals, companies and others to assist in financing education. Parents deny themselves a lot of things to keep their children in the school. With the help of government and these groups of people, substantial amount of money is raised for the school use. The amount provided is often not enough .

Despite these efforts, one of the most serious problems facing the educational institutions today remains that of ineffective funds management strategies. Teachers find it extremely difficult to achieve educational goals, to provide services for which schools are set up these days. The problem could be brought about by inadequacy of funds. It is obvious that if the funds were adequate, enough instructional materials will be provided that will induce teachers to positive actions. At the same time, if the funds are grossly mismanaged, teachers will not fulfill their obligations to the schools. Principals therefore are required to use what resources, particularly subvention they have to motivate teachers so as to get what is wanted in this era of self -reliance. To ensure maximum task performance of teachers, principals’ must motivate teachers by providing them with instructional and their material needs
Task performance in this study implies work or job performance. It is also the responsibilities or obligations teacher have to fulfill. Whawo (1995) enumerates task performance of teachers to include admission of students, classification, registration, student’s welfare services, teaching, and evaluation of class work, reports to parents and guardians, co -curricular activities and issues of students discipline. Ogunna (1992) writes that the material needs of the workers can be satisfied through adequate and regular payment of salaries and fringe benefits. Workers should be adequately remunerated for their efforts in order to secure their commitment and dedication to their task.

Nigeria’s economy is so bad (continuous inflation and devaluation of naira) that government’s allocation to education is not equivalent to school requirements. Schools are expected to maintain existing services, pay staff salaries and allowances, purchase instructional materials and meet other recurrent expenditure in order to motivate teachers to carry out their task effectively and effectively. Whawo (1995) opines that teachers must be motivated with adequate compensation. The z eal and enthusiasm in teachers should be sustained by providing them with enough benefits not minding their locations, gender and teaching experience.

This study thereby aims at identifying the relationship that between secondary school principals’ financial (subvention) management strategies and teachers’ task performance.


Statement of Problem

Principals’ as administrators of schools are expected to provide the required instructional materials that would influence the teachers to perform their task to a reasonable standard. Teachers on the other hand are expected to be committed to their task performance to achieve the goals and objectives of the schools. Whawo (1995) stresses that the major task of educational administrators is to utilize all available resources in an effort to achieve the objective for which schools are established. Unfortunately , principals mismanage the grants given to schools in the name of subvention to boost their financial resources. As a result teachers manifest signs of lo w job satisfaction, lack of sense of accomplishment, physical breakdown, unhappiness as well as various vices (Amoo and Adenle, 2003). Since instructional materials cannot be provided by principals, teachers exhibit laxity and truancy in their jobs. Many of them go to classes to teach at their own will, no longer care for the discipline of students, show less concern in extra curricular activities, etc.

The consequences of effective financial management strategies by principals on teachers’ task performance remain under researched. Is effective financial management strategies related to teachers’ teaching performance ? How does financial management relate to discipline of students by teachers and teachers involvement in extra curricular activities? These problems present the problem of this study


Purpose of Study

The purpose of this study is to find out the relationship between principals’ financial management strategies and teachers’ task performance in secondary schools in Onitsha Education Zone.

Specifically the study investigates:

  1. The relationship between principles’ financial management strategies and teachers’ teaching performance.
  2. The relationship between principals’ financial management strategies and teachers’ discipline of students.
  3. The relationship between principals’ financial management strategies and teachers’ involvement in co-curricular activities.

Significance of the Study

Maslow (1954) has implicated the role of motivation on the attainment of educational goals when Maslow postulated a theory of hierarch of human needs states that, it is only when a man gets all his needs that he can be satisfied. This theory can be applied in this study, teachers need to be motivated to perform optimally. This study will therefore be significant in the sense that it will find out the relationship between effective financial management and teachers task performance in secondary schools in Onitsha Education Zone. The study will be beneficial to teachers because it will reveal to them those things that will be provided for them to be motivated and bring out their best .

Principals on their own will benefit from the study in that it will throw light on factors that may pose problems in financial management and as a factors that impedes teachers task performance.

Also, both government and public would see the need through the findings of the study for more financial grants to schools, monitor the usage to minimize mismanagement by principals. The study will help the government to know that delay in payment of teachers salaries contributes to their inefficiency.

In addition, this study will help students to contribute money among themselves to provide some instructional materials to the schools and draw the attention of their rich relations to help provide some of the materials needed in the schools. This will motivate their teachers to perform better . Finally, the findings will be of good help or contribution to research findings the relationship between financial management strategies and teachers’ task performance, on the other hand it will be of immense benefit to the researchers in the field.


Scope of the Study

This study covered all state government secondary schools in Onitsha Education Zone. The content was limited to the relationship between principals’ fina ncial management strategies and teachers’ task performance. Financial management concentrates on government grants to education. Teachers’ task performance was investigated in terms of teaching performance, discipline of students and involvement in co -curricular activities.


Research Questions

The following research questions were formulated to guide the study:

  1. Is there a relationship between principals’ financial management strategies and teachers’ teaching performance?
  2. What is the nature of the rel ationship between principals’ financial management strategies and teachers’ discipline of students?
  3. To what extent does a relationship exist between principals’ financial management strategies and teachers’ involvement in co-curricular activities?

Hypotheses

The hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance

  1. The relationship between the mean ratings of principals and teachers on the principals’ financial management strategies and teachers’ teaching performance is not significant.
  2. School location is not a significant factor in the relationship between the respondents’ mean ratings of the principals financial management strategies and teachers’ discipline of students.
  3. There is no significant relationship between the mean ratings of male and female respondents on principals’ financial management strategies and teachers’ involvement in co – curricular activities .

Chapter Five


Discussion of Findings, Implication, Conclusion Recommendation and Summary

In this chapter, the findings of the study are discussed and concluded. A presentation of the implications and limitations of the findings follow a conclusion of the discussions. Some recommendations and suggestions for further research are profiteered.


Discussion of Findings

Relationship bet ween principals’ financial management strategies and teachers’ teaching performance.

Responses to Research Question 1 suggested a high positive relationship between principals’ financial management strategies and teachers’ teaching performance. Further, t he test of Hypothesis 1 revealed that this relationship was significant going by the mean ratings of both principals and teachers. When one considered the mean responses to the questionnaire items for research question one, one might argue that this relationship may be because the principals are providing the necessary materials needed for teaching and learning.

The teachers on their own teach to their best knowledge since instructional materials are available. The significant positive correlation suggested that just as principals are willing to manage the subvention given to them appropriately, this has a direct association with the level of teachers teaching performance. This is to say that proper financial management strategies by principals brings about job satisfaction that leads to high productivity on the teachers side. This findings supports that of Whawo (1995:104) who observed that instructional aids should be made available in schools for instructional purposed thereby enhancing the teaching functions of a teacher.” This finding is also consistent with earlier findings of Ahamba (1995) that a willing worker without tools is less productive through task performance than an unwilling worker. Where a worker is unwilling and also lacks work tools, the n a production disaster result.

Relationship of principals financial management Strategies and teachers discipline of students

Hypothesis 2 tested the influence of school location on the respondents’ mean ratings of relationship of principals’ financial management strategies and teachers discipline of students and found a no significant school location difference on the relationship between the mean ratings of two variables. This shows that there was no significant difference in the relationship between the mean rating of both urban and rural respondents on the principals financial management strategies and teachers discipline of students. This is consistent with the findings of Whawo (1991). Howeber, Whawo )1995) opposed the provision of care. According to

Whawo, the use of care on children is no longer an accepted way to enforced discipline in schools. Counseling by experts to diagnose the cause of misbehavior is a modern approach to finding solution to causes of indiscipline. The findings revealed that teachers need to be encouraged in order to discipline students. For according to Ahamba (1995) as earlier mentioned, discouragement kills initiative, damages the will, sets in frustration and reduces efficiency.

Relationship between principals’ financial management strategies and teachers involvement in co -curricular activities.

Responses to research question 3 showed a high positive relationship between the principals’ financial management strategies and teachers involvement in co -curricular activities. In addition; the test of hypothesis 3 found that there is no significant gender different in the relationship between principals’ financial management strategies and teachers involvement in co -curricular activities. This suggests that as principals are ready to provide found for organization of co -curricular activities and give incentives to teachers for participation, teachers are ready to comply/participate and the strengths of this positive association was unconnected with the gender of respondents. This suggestion is in line with Whawo (1995) who said that the school head, assisted by his teachers, should take full responsibility for the organization of co-curricular activities. This finding also supports the finding of Ezeocha (1990) and Whawo (1995), that reported a significant high positive correlation between principals’ financial management strategies and teachers involvement in co -curricular activities.


Conclusion

In the light of the discussed findings, it is obvious that principal in Onitsha Education zone employed good finical management strategies to provide funds/materials needed for teaching, displine of students and co -curricular activities. Accordingly, teachers exhibited high level of task performance to match the principals’ fund provision. It is also apparent that the management strategies adopted to sustain teachers task performance to march the principals’ fund provision. It is also apparent that the management strategies adopted to sustain teachers task performance, have positive linear relationship with the nature of teachers commitment to duties. More so the significant positive relationship between principals’ financial management strategies and the corresponding nature of teachers task performance was to dependen t on the respondents’ status, gender and school location.

On the basis of the foregoing, the researcher concludes that there is a significant positive relationship between principals financial management strategies and teachers task performance in Onitsha education zone.

Implicit in this finding is the assumption that the application of proper financial management strategies by principals and the high level of teachers task performance are not peculiar to certain respondents of different status, gender an d school locations. That is to say that principals and teachers irrespective of status, gender and school location are bound to appropriate financial management strategies and levels of task performance to achieve the desirable school goals.


Recommendations

Based on these findings, it is recommended that:

  1. Principals should improved in releasing funds for instructional materials and facilities needed in schools to sustain teachers willingness to work.
  2. Principals should design and adopt appropriate financial management strategies in order to ensure maximum task performance of teachers,
  3. Teachers should reciprocate by carrying out their task when the materials and facilities are provided.
  4. Government and school management boards should organize regular workshops and seminars on financial management to keep principals abreast of the demands, trends and innovations in effective schools financial management.
  5. Regular meetings, workshop and seminars for teachers with task performance so as to remind them of their duties.
  6. Pre-service and in-service training for principals and teachers should intensify the training in appropriate financial management skills for school improvement.

Limitations of the Study

The major limitations of this study were the inability of the researcher to investigate other intervening variables that might link principals financial management strategies with teachers task performance in schools and the inability to use all the schools in Anambra State for this study may have peculiar characteristics that might not be shared by the other schools used for the study. Therefore, the results of this study should be generalized across the state with caution.


Suggestions for Further Research

In depth studies need to be conducted on the relationship between principals financial management strategies and teachers task performance using other intervening variables that were not covered in this study. Also, the relationship of principals financial management strategies and students academic performance can be investigated replication of the study in other education zone of Anambra State is also feasible.


Summary

This study investigated the relationship between principal financial management strategies and teachers task performance ins secondary schools in Onitsha education zone of Anambra state. Three research questions and three null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. A review of related literature that covered theoretical, conceptual and empirical frameworks reveled that the issues of the interconnections between the application of proper financial management strategies to address teachers teaching performance, discipline of students and teachers involvement in co-curricular activities warranted further research.

Two sets of questionnaire-How principals provide funds questionnaire (HPPFQ) and principals rate on level of teachers task performance questionnaire (PRLTTPQ) were constructed by the researcher and were subjected to expert validation and reliability. From a population of 1,615 principals and teachers in Onitsha education zone, proportionate stratified random sampling technique was employed to select a sample of sample of 485 teachers and 10 principals from both rural and urban schools. Pearson product moment correlation was used to provide answers to the research questions, while the t -test were computed to test the appropriate hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance.

The following finding were made:

  1. The relationship between principals’ financial management strategies and the teachers teaching performance, discipline of students and teachers involvement in co -curricular activities in secondary schools in Onitsha education zone could be described as high and positive.
  2. There was a significant positive relationship between the financial management strategies used by principals and teachers teaching.
  3. There was a significant positive relationship between the mean ratings of urban and rural respondents on the relationship between principal between principals financial management strategies and teachers discipline of students.
  4. There was a significant positive relationship between the mean ratings of male and female respondents on the principals financial management strategies and teachers involvement in co-curricular activities.

Based on the findings, it was concluded that there was a positive relationship between principals financial management strategies and teachers task performance in secondary schools in Onitsha education zone. The implications, limitation of the study and suggestions for the further research were stated. Recommendations included the organization of regular workshops and seminars for both principals and teachers in order to improve financial management strategies of principals and boost teachers task performance in secondary school in Onitsha education zone.


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Frequently Asked Questions


Does the principal’s leadership style affect students’ performance?

From the literature reviewed and observations in the school system that the principal’s leadership style have a profound effect on teachers’ job performance, and ultimately on students’ academic performance.

What is the role of a principal as an instructional leader?

As the NSDC (2002) principals, as instructional leader; focus on helping teachers to improve their classroom performance and make academic instruction as their schools top priority. In one way (MoE, 2010) argued that principals need to have the theoretical knowledge, skill and adequate experiences in school leadership and management.

What are the principles and responsibilities of sound financial management?

Each unit head shall adopt the following principles and responsibilities to ensure sound financial management. II. Principles Principle 1: A budget must be established to provide a tool to: detect substantial changes in circumstances or business conditions.

Why supervising skills of principals are important in schools?

The supervising skills of the principals will help in rating teachers, help the teachers to use various measures of self-evaluation and to a large extent make the principal to provide suitable enabling environment for teaching/learning activities. There are various reasons behind supervision in schools. 

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