A Regression Analysis On The Impact Of Smoking Level Of Exercise And Weight On Medical Cost

Project and Seminar Material for Statistics

A Regression Analysis On The Impact Of Smoking Level Of Exercise And Weight On Medical Cost


Abstract


In Nigeria we see a lot of individuals who suffer from one health challenge to the other. Some of these health challenges could have been prevented if detected early or possibly follow some prescribed methods for enhanced living. This study was undertaken to assess the impact of smoking, lack of exercise and weight on medical cost. The study collected data using both primary and secondary sources. The primary data was gathered through the questionnaire and yearly bulletin published by ministry of health. The data from the study was analyzed using the regression method whereby the dependent variables (Smoking, lack of exercise and Weight) was compared to the independent variable (Medical cost). The study found out that medical cost is on the increase while people suffer more. This is because a lot of people are not living a healthy lifestyle. The study recommended regular physical exercise, total abstinence from smoking and proper dieting.


Table Of Content


Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title Page
  • Declaration
  • Approval
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of Content

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the study
  • 1.2 Problem statement
  • 1.3 Purpose of the study
  • 1.4 Significance of the study
  • 1.5 Study hypotheses
  • 1.6 Scope and Limitations of the Study
  • 1.7 Definition of Basic terminologies
  • 1.8 Organization of Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Related and Relevant Literature

  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.2 Conceptual Review
  • 2.3 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.4 Empirical Studies

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Introduction
  • 3.2 Research design
  • 3.3 Specific Research Method
  • 3.4 Type and sources of data
  • 3.5 The Model
  • 3.6 Tools of analysis
  • 3.7 Unit root tests

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation

  • 4.1 Introduction
  • 4.2 Data Presentation
  • 4.3 Data analysis
  • 4.4 Data Interpretation

Chapter Five:

Conclusion, Summary and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Introduction
  • 5.2 Conclusion and Findings
  • 5.3 Summary of the Study
  • 5.4 Recommendation
  • Bibliography
  • Appendix

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the study

Health is a natural facet of liveliness – both by definition and realization. The ancient Indians had attributed the secret of” jivemshardahshatam” – hundred years of vigorous, healthy, happy and creative life – to the total harmony of the mode of living with the Nature and the spiritual inheritance of life. Lifestyle plays an important role in staying healthy. Overall health is what we have placed in our body, we come strictly and consistently to maintain our physical fitness. When it comes to our diet, we understand the important elements of maintaining all health; Eating natural, whole food and commitment to avoiding high food items in fat and oil. But physical fitness, more than anything else, helps in protecting our body from disease and disease and keeps us strong and healthy in the future. How is a healthy life? An effective fitness routine involves exercise that works with your current health and lifestyle. If you are currently sitting, start a fitness routine very slowly – include a small amount of exercise in your daily schedule and Raise your strength and conditioning as you grow is a wonderful exercise that will positively affect your all areas of your body. Fitness and fitness can be easily solved by beginners. Start walking a little bit each day and increase your speed and distance just like you feel strong. In sociology, a lifestyle is the life of a person. Sedentary lifestyle is a big risk factor in common diseases. Psychotic lifestyle is a medical term that is used to denote a type of lifestyle, with any or irregular physical activity. A person who lives in a sedentary lifestyle is known as colloquial, a couch potato is found in both developed and developing countries. There is little or no vigorous physical exercise involved in sitting in sitting activities, reading, viewing television and using computers for a long day. A sedentary life style can contribute to many preventable causes of death. A seamless lifestyle is a lifestyle in which a person is not engaged in adequate physical activity, which is generally considered to be a healthy life. It is marked for long periods of seating, whether it is around TV or computer screen or something, sedentary lifestyle people ignore physical activity and are involved in those activities that rarely require any physical stress. According to a new study, sedentary lifestyle can be more dangerous for your health than smoking. Many researchers have been done on the effects of sedentary lifestyle on a person around the world. The findings of these researches can be mentioned as follows: The main effect of a sedentary life style can be seen on the size of your trouser. Because you are eating many calories and actually not burning any of them, these calories are stored in your body as extra fat. And this is just the beginning of problems. To work efficiently, your heart should get proper blood supply from the blood vessels (coronary arteries). In a sedentary lifestyle, leading blood circulation can slow down and stiffness and block your blood vessels. In severe cases, it can cause arteriosclerosis and cardiac arrest. According to a study, due to lack of physical activity in your Middle Ages, risk of death from heart disease can be 52 percent for men and 28 percent for women.

Regular exercise helps control the level of blood glucose. According to studies conducted by researchers at Duke University Medical Center, intense exercise can significantly improve the body’s ability to control blood glucose levels. Due to lack of exercise results, blood sugar levels have increased, which puts more pressure on your pancreas (which hides the insides of the hormone insulin). This increases the likelihood of type 2 diabetes. On the other hand, Great changes have taken place in the cigarette product in recent decades. In 1954, the average “tar” yield of the sales-weighted average cigarette was 37 mg and average nicotine yield was 2 mg. In 1930, the comparable figures are expected to be less than 14 mg of “tar” and leas than 1 mg of nicotine. No cigarette marketed in the United States in 1979 yielded more than 30 mg of “tar.“l Smokers have turned to these new products because of health concerns. In the 19509, cigarette manufacturers introduced cigarette filters as “health protection” and advertised them widely. The 1964 Report of the Surgeon General’s Advisory Committee on Smoking and Health did not discuss cigarette smoke filtration, but in 1966 the Public Health Service reviewed the issue of smoke constituents.

That report stated, “The preponderance of scientific evidence strongly suggests that the lower the ‘tar’ and nicotine content of cigarette smoke, the less harmful would be the effect.” Thereafter, Government and tobacco industry scientists conducted studies of cigarette engineering and tobacco cultivation that could lead to lower “tar” and nicotine yields. Later, when new products appeared, cigarette manufacturers aggressively promoted them through advertising. The technology of producing lower “tar” cigarettes has progressed well beyond a simple reduction in the amount of tobacco in the cigarette or the removal of a portion of the “tar” by filtration. Present technology has achieved “tar” reduction by alterations in plant genetics, changes in the cultivation and processing of the tobacco leaf, and changes in cigarette paper and filtration of the cigarette. But what is the effect of smoking on medical cost? These and many more is what this study seeks to address.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

The increase in the number of people who are ill in the various health establishments has risen geometrically overtime. Most of these illnesses may be as a result of unhealthy lifestyles and habits. Amongst this various unhealthy lifestyles and habits are smoking, lacks of exercise, weight, poor dietary just to mention but a few. In Nigeria specifically, a lot has been said about smoking and lack of exercise. Smokers as they say are liable to die young, though a lot of publicity has gone out to this regard, most smokers have rather not taken heed to this meaning but have rather seen it as a normal jingle without really pondering over it them to make changes in their life styles and bad habits.

Lack of exercise “as deadly as smoking” is now causing as many deaths as smoking in Nigeria and across the world. This has also contributed to the unprecedented rise in illness across Nigeria.

Strong evidence shows that lack of exercise which leads to physical inactivity increases the risk of many major adverse health conditions including:

Death (from any cause), coronary heart disease, high blood pressure, stroke, metabolic syndrome (including obesity and abnormal blood cholesterol levels), breast and colon cancer, depression etc.

It estimated that overall, physical inactivity which is caused by lack of exercise caused more than 5.3 million of the 57 million deaths that occurred worldwide in 2008 which Nigeria is not excluded. The researchers suggest this is equivalent to the 5 million deaths attributed to smoking in 2000 (Kingsley 2012: 42).

It is generally believed that a regular exercise helps to

  • Reduce the risk of falling ill
  • Controls your weight
  • Improve your mental health and mood
  • Improve your ability to do daily activities
  • Increase your chances of living longer, etc.

There may also be a relationship between the weight of a person and the propensity to fall ill. This study helps to explore those unique relationship between the various parameters mentioned earlier in this study.


1.3 Aims and objectives of the study

The following are the objectives of the study:

  1. To know if there is a relationship between smokers and their weight.
  2. To study the impact of smoking and lack of exercise on health conditions of patients.
  3. To know the nature of relationship between smoking, weight, level of exercise on the medical cost of patients.
  4. To study the relationship between weight and health care cost of patients.

1.4 Significance of the study

The importance of this study seeks to unveil the impact of smoking, level of exercise, and weight on medical cost of patients in Nigeria. With the view of advising the generality of Nigeria based on the statistical discoveries made from the study.

This study also seeks to study the relationship between weight of patients on medical cost of patients, smokers and their medical cost and level of exercise of patients and their corresponding medical cost. All these would assist in advising smokers and people who don’t exercise based on the findings from the study.


1.5 Research Hypotheses

Hypothesis 1
  • H0: there is no relationship between smoking and medical cost of patients.
  • H0: there is a relationship between smoking and medical cost of patients.
Hypothesis 2
  • H0: there is no relationship between lack of regular exercise and medical cost of patients.
  • H0: there is a relationship between lack of regular exercise and medical cost of patients.
Hypothesis 3
  • H0: there is no relationship between smoking, lack of regular exercise and medical cost of patients
  • H0: there is a relationship between smoking, lack of regular exercise and medical cost of patients

1.6 Scope and Limitation of the study

The scope of this study is centered on the impact of smoking, less exercising on the weight and health care cost of patients using the federal medical center Owerri Imo state as a case study.

Limitation of the study
Time constraint

The major limitation of the study is the time constraint; the researcher was inhibited by time as there was no enough time to cover all patients in the hospital.

Financial constraint

Another constraint of this study is financial constraints, lack of adequate finances in printing enough questionnaires for the patients and to equally interview the health practitioners.


1.7 Definition of Terms

Smoking:

The activity or habit of smoking cigarettes.

Exercise:

A physical or mental activity that you do to stay healthy or become stronger. It can equally be a set of movements or activities that you do to stay healthy

Weight:

How heavy somebody or something is which can be measured in kilograms or pounds.

Medical:

Connected with illness and injury and their treatment.


1.8 Organization/Plan Of The Study

The research work will be divided into five chapters:

  • Chapter one is the introduction part, which covers the background of the study, statement of the problem, the objectives of the study, research hypotheses, and significance of the study, scope and limitations of the study, definition of terms and organization of the study.
  • Chapter two contains the literature review and theoretical framework. In this chapter the views relating to the study of early writers on the topic are considered imperative.
  • Chapter three contains the research methodology which covers the research method (instrument) or approach, the population of the study, the sample and technique, the method of data collection and the method for data analyses and interpretation.
  • Chapter four contains the data presentation, analysis and interpretation. In this chapter, the data gathered from the respondents will be presented, analyzed and interpreted.
  • Chapter five contains the summary, conclusion.

Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Introduction

It is important to reiterate that the objective of this study was to examine the impact of smoking level, lack of exercise and Over weight on Medical Cost.

In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given. In this chapter, certain recommendations made which in the opinion of the researcher will be of benefits in examining the impact of smoking level, lack of exercise and Over weight on Medical Cost.


5.2 Summary

This study was undertaken to appraise the impact of smoking level, lack of exercise and Over weight on Medical Cost. The study was introduced with chapter one where the statement of the problem was clearly defined. The study objectives and research hypothesis were defined and formulated respectively. The study reviewed related and relevant literatures. The chapter two gave the conceptual framework, empirical and theoretical studies. The third chapter described the methodology employed by the researcher in collecting both the primary and the secondary data. The research method employed here is the descriptive survey method. The study analyzed and presented the data collected in tables and tested the hypotheses using the time series statistical method with aid of E-view software 9.0. While the fifth chapter gives the study summary and conclusion.


5.3 Conclusion

A healthy person can reasonably be proud of his possession. The healthy person, even if he is a man of moderate means, can find pleasure in ordinary activities like walking and sports. When health is impaired men have to spend a lot of money in order to recover it. For a ‘change’ they go to hilly or sea-side resorts. They take costly tonics and capsules and injections. In these days the fee of a specialist doctor is also alarming. Loss of health can produce endless misery and make a young man feel like an over-aged one, ‘Sans teeth, sans taste, sans everything’. Exercise not only makes you physically fitter but it also improves your all body health and general sense of well-being.

Physical activity or exercise can reduce the risk of developing several diseases like type 2 diabetes, cancer and cardiovascular disease. Daily exercise can reduce stress and anxiety, boost happy chemicals, improve self-confidence, increase the brain power, sharpen the memory and increase our muscles and bones strength. Physical activity and exercise can have immediate and long-term health benefits. Most importantly, regular activity can improve your quality of life.


A Regression Analysis On The Impact Of Smoking Level Of Exercise And Weight On Medical Cost


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A Regression Analysis On The Impact Of Smoking Level Of Exercise And Weight On Medical Cost


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