The Reforming Nigerian Secondary Education By Teaching
This study examined the reforming Nigerian Secondary education by teaching of thinking. This exercise begins with chapter one which dealt on the overall introduction or backgrounds of the study, statement of the problem which led to the research study, the objective of the study and the significance of the study, scope and limitations, hypothesis is as well the terminologies used in the content. Chapter two emphasized on the definitions of thinking and the Nigerian system of education as well as the reforming of Nigerian secondary education by teaching of thinking. Chapter three focused on the exposition of reforming Nigeria secondary education by teaching of thinking and the problems existing without thinking in Nigerian secondary education. Chapter four was all about the data analysis as well as the application of thinking in Nigeria secondary schools, the best approach to the improvement of children thinking and also educational reformation through thinking (P4C). Chapter five summarizes the findings through conclusion, Educational implications, recommendation, Limitation of the study and suggestion for further studies. There is however bibliography.
1.1 Background of the Study
The ability to see beyond the limits of assumptions makes the failure of planning very rare. The societal growth and development is dependent on the strength of the planning and the level of the implementation. This is because the ability to plan creditably is not the ability to carry the plan to the fullest.
Nigerian secondary education, like its count part in the whole world, is the bedrock or educational growth and development. People are moulded and given the strength to make further achievements in the educational field through their secondary education. This entails that once the foundation is strong, the base for the growth and development of the other areas of life would be assured. Thus, the planning of the Nigeria serious place in the scheme of events. This would be of a great importance to the realization of the country’s goals and aspirations.
When the secondary education is able to make its needed impact, the crisis that could rise in the subsequent areas would be avoided. Suffice this, is to say that the basically ingredients for the emergence of authentic secondary education in Nigeria was not given a serious thought by the departed foreign powers. Even in the planning of the pattern for the implementation approach that does not encourage the thinking among the people. And it is observable that thinking is the stepping stone towards the socio-political and economic development of the people.
The views of Eze showed development gives room for self esteem, freedom and creative initiative of the persons and the country in general. The pressing question becomes what would be the pre-requisite to the realization of this noble trend in the life of Nigeria. Our secondary school is charge with the duty of initiating the child into the basic life racy and innumeracy. It is equally to guide learner in the art of reflective thinking and scientific inquiry. But the realization of this noble role is far from the real.
The study is search for the basic ingredients to the realization of a functional secondary school system that would engender scientific inquiry and the thinking ability in the lives of Nigerians. It is very much assured that the introduction of the critical thinking, creative thinking, caring thinking, systems thinking, synergic thinking, Ecumenical thinking, mathematical thinking and other forms of thinking that make up our higher order thinking that the Nigerian problems of academic enslavery and moral decadence would be solved.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Everybody seems convinced that our youths are far from the expected leaders of tomorrow which we all sign that they are evident that the children initiate what they see in the environment which implies that with the adequate supply of the needed environmental stimuli, the children would live up to the expectations of the society. But the questions remains: are these children playing their roles as we expect of them?
Secondary education is aimed at providing the necessary background to the thinking and problem-solving in the children and also in the adult world. Is this role realizable in our society? Why are our children in the moral quagmire they are in today? Anih stated that the good will alone in our academic curriculum is not alone. Taking it biblicvally he lamented that good will when not followed by action avails us nothing. The next question becomes: How can the children be assisted to think and be reasonable in themselves? How can the foundation of their formed education, which is the secondary school be made to play this role very well? The level of schooling without thinking in the society is pointing to the fact that once the secondary level is very shaky that the effect would spill over to the other levels of education. This could attest to why several of our own graduates become job seekers instead of employment creators. Education in the country has not been able to raise the dependency syndrome which the colonialists systematically put in our inherited formal education.
The teachers are seen as being veritable to the unfolding of education too. This is telling us that the quality of the teacher is very important in the course of the students development. The big question becomes whether our teachers are ground in the facts and skills of thinking. How can a teacher who was not taught to think, be able to teach thinking to secondary school pupils. If it is true that one does not give what he/she does not have, how can the improvement of our secondary education be achieved in the face of modern educational crises?
It is pertinent to note that much of our subjects in the schools are already tabulated. What would thinking do in the already devised education in which the subjects have already been designed pedagogically? The focus of this research would then be the patterns through which thinking can be applied in the learning of English, mathematics, Elementary science, Igbo language, and even other subject in the secondary school curriculum.
The teaching of thinking would engender some kinds of reformation in our society. It is to be convinced as the backbone to the ushering in the pure development of democratic values and the life that would be value-oriented. Unfortunately these are not present in our society today.
1.3 Significant of the Study
The first beneficiary to the introduction of thinking in the secondary education is our teacher education and the teachers themselves. The instruments for the effective teaching should be the effective teaching should be the concern of efficient teachers. In our conceptions of the teacher as an academic midwife, it is evident that no teacher would be happy if the academic progress is still born. The teachers in the field and the teachers in the colleges of education would see this innovations as the path to the unlocking of the children’s thoughts. They would find the classroom interesting when the community of inquiry approach is utilized to usher in thinking in the pupils.
The study would be of a strong benefit to the pupils. The introduction of thinking in the secondary section is the path to their self realization. This would entail that the products of this great reformation would be free from the schedule patterns of learning that colonizes and dehumanizes. The outcome of this work would serve as boost to the freedom of the learners who would be made to reason through thinking in place of memorizing through rote-learning and cramming of the pre-determined learning outcome.
The experts in curriculum planning would use this in the coming of the problems of live up its educational challenges. They would use this study as a guide to the there eddying of the schooling without thinking which is presently constituting the cog in the wheel of our development. Finally, this study would be a boost to the development of moral functional and personnel development in Nigeria. The outcome could be a pointer to the reasons behind the kind of life that our school leavers are living. Thinking creates room for reflection and this is the path to deeper understanding of phenomena. The improvement of the secondary section is the improvement of the over all facts of the society.
1.4 Scope and Limitation of the Study
This study would x-ray the meaning of thinking, the various types of thinking and the use of thinking in the community of inquiring in the secondary schools and the patterns of instruction while use thinking in the various subjects of the secondary schools. The researcher would equally look into the possible constraints to the improvement of the secondary education through the use of thinking and then the recommendation of the possible solutions to the identified problems
a) Availability of Research Material:
The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study
The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
The finance available for the research work does not allow for wider coverage as resources are very limited as the researcher has other academic bills to cover.
1.5 Objective of the Study
The main objective of the study is to ascertain how to reform Nigerian secondary education by teaching; to aid the completion of the study, the researcher intends to achieve the following specific objectives:
- To ascertain the effect of education reform on the quality lesson thought in secondary schools
- To evaluate the impact of quality teachers on the quality of education impacted on the student
- To ascertain if there is any relationship between education policy and education reform
- To ascertain the role of government in reforming Nigeria’s secondary education
1.6 Research Hypotheses
To aid the completion of the study, the following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher:
- H0: education reform has no effect on the quality of lessons thought in secondary schools
H1: education reform has effect on the quality of lessons thought in secondary schools
- H02: teacher’s quality has no impact on the quality of education impacted on the student
H2: teacher’s quality has impact on the quality of education impacted on the student
1.8 Organization of the Study
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows
- Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), statement of problem, objectives of the study, research question, significance or the study, research methodology, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
- Chapter two highlight the theoretical framework on which the study its based, thus the review of related literature.
- Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
- Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
- Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
It is important to ascertain that the objective of this study wasto ascertain how to reform Nigerian secondary education by teaching.
In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given. In this chapter, certain recommendations made which in the opinion of the researcher will be of benefits in addressing the challenges of educational reform by teaching.
There is data from other nations supporting sound educational policy decisions. In order to support primary and secondary school operations, the school site principal or supervising administrator has been given the authority by the school board to enforce and implement programs consistent with state board of education policy, federal mandates, and the states statues. This is consistent with school operational procedures in Nigeria. The secondary education curriculum and administrative policy agenda should be aligned with the goals of needs and the constitutional provisions in order to ensure human-capital, economic, and political development. This will enable the new education President to strengthen the role of the federal government, and this generation and future generations of Nigerians to demonstrate a commitment to the fundamental principles of democracy and to the political and economic goals.
Practitioners of education management, policy makers education officers, teachers and head teachers, parents, Parent Teacher Association, Board of Governors and school sponsors should base their management functions, decisions and actions on the suggestions of this study. This will help education stakeholders to have conceptual illumination of the art of head teachers‟ supervisory role in secondary schools and will also discourage them from relying on haphazard personal experiences or subjective expert judgments in the management of educational institutions.
It is recommended that secondary education teachers should have access to innovative classrooms, materials, opportunities to practice new ways of teaching, practical experiences, possibilities to discuss elements of reforms with peers, coaches and supervisors. Others include collegial cooperation or exchange between science teachers, social science teaching and art. secondary teachers practical knowledge can be seen as the core of a teachers professionalism and it should accordingly be given the necessary attention in the preparation and in-service training of teachers.
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