Refining Of Vegetable Oil With Enugu Coal

Project and Seminar Material for Chemical Engineering

Refining Of Vegetable Oil With Enugu Coal


This project was carried out using acid activated coal from Enugu coal and the production of ve4getablew oil was monitored using spectrophotometer to measure the absorbance. It was also perform to check the suitability of activated Enugu coal as a bleaching agent for palm oil.

The Enugu coal samples were collected, size reduced, carbonized and activated with acid (phosphoric Acid) before being used for the bleaching process. The bleaching process lasted for 40minutes and it was absorbed that activated coal is a poor absorber of palm oil.

From the result obtained, it was observed t6hat at different temperature rang of 120oc, 150oc and 180oc of 10g of activated coal mixed with 100ml of palm oil, that the co lour absorbance were 1.65, 1.2 and 0.4 respectively. The optimum amount of 10g at bleaching temperatur4e of 180ocfound to be the best for better bleaching.

It was observed that as the temperature increase, the pe4rcentage colour reduction of the oil increase. Beside, it was observed that the smaller the particle size of the activated coal samples, the higher their effect on the oil and the higher the percentage colour reduction.

Table Of Content

  • Title page i
  • Certification page ii
  • Dedication iii
  • Acknowledgement iv
  • Abstract v
  • Table of content

Chapter One

  • 1.1 Introduction
  • 1.2 Scope / Objective Of Project

Chapter Two:

  • Literature Review
  • 2.0 History Of Palm Oil
  • 2.1 Processing Of Palm Oil
  • 2.2 Chemical Composition Of Palm Oil
  • 2.2.1 Carotenes
  • 2.2.2 Fatty Acids
  • 2.2.3 Phospholipids (Phosphatides)
  • 2.2.4 Gums
  • 2.3 Characteristics Of Palm Oil
  • 2.3.1 Spoilage Factors Of Palm Oil
  • 2.3.2 Preve4Nrtive Measures
  • 2.4 Refining Of Crude Palm Oil
  • 2.4.1 Degumming
  • 2.4.2 Neutralisation
  • 2.4.3 Bleaching
  • 2.4.4 Bleachability Of Palm Oil
  • 2.4.5 Chemical Bleaching
  • 2.4.6 Aeration Bleachying
  • 2.4.7 Bleaching By Adsorption
  • 2.5.0 Adsorption
  • 2.5.1 Types Of Adsorption
  • 2.52 Appli8Cation Of Adsorption Process
  • 2.53 Nature Of Adsorbent
  • 2.5.4 Structure Of Adsorbent
  • 2.5.5 Adsorption Equipment
  • 2.6 Coal As An Adsorbent
  • 2.6.1 Mechanism Of Coal Formation
  • 2.7 Types Of Coal And Its Properties
  • 2.7.1 Coal Rank And Classification By Rank
  • 2.7.2 Classification Of Coal
  • 2.7.3 Properties Of Coal Commonly Used In Classification
  • 2.7.4 Physical Properties Oft Coal
  • 2.7.5 Caking Andr Coking Properties
  • 2.76 Calorific Value
  • 2.77 Activated Carbon
  • 2.78 Chemical Propertiesof Coal
  • 2.79 Coal Carbonization
  • 2.80 Adsorption Parameters Of Activated Carbon

Chapter Three:

  • Experimental Procedure
  • 3.10 Material Treatement
  • 3.11 Carbonization Of Coal
  • 3.12 Coal Activated
  • 3.13 Percentage Appearent Poposity Of Activated Cola
  • 3.14 Treatment Of Palm Oil
  • 3.15 Bleaching Operattion
  • 3.16 Effect Of Temperature On Bleaching
  • 3.17 Effect Of Particle Swize On Bleaching
  • 3.18 Experimental Analysis Of Bleaching Oil
  • Test For Specific Gravity Test For Acid Value
  • Test For Saponification Value
  • Test For Iodine Value

Chapter Four

  • 4.0 Experimental Result
  • 4.1 Effect Of Temperature On Bleaching
  • Specific Gravity Value
  • Acid Value
  • Saponification Value
  • Iodine Value

Chapter Five

  • 5.1 Discussion
  • 5.2 Conclusion / Recommendation
  • References

Chapter One


Nigeria is one of the countries of the world richly blessed with weather favorable for the gr4owth of palm tree, the major source of palm oil.

Research and studies over the years helped in the improvement of the quantity of palm oil and transforming it into a high quality vegetable oil which is one of the aims of this project work. The oil is basically used for cooking and soap making. It may also be used for magarines and vegetable ghee, for shortening in pasteries and bread, for pharmacentical and cosmetic products, as a lubricant and emulsion for insecticides and as a fuel for diesel engines. However, the extraction of palm oil from its palm fruits have been a major concern. Thanks to advancement in technology that have always proferred solution to save of reeds. Apart from the tradition of palm oil, there is an improved method of extraction of palm oil which include :sterilization, threshing or stripping, milling and digestion, processing/presssing and clarification and finally drying to reduce the content of water.

Moreso, Enugu coal play important role in the extraction of palm oil as an adsorbent material. Adsorption is a very important process in this project, Enugu coal playing the role in refining of palm oil. Refining operation here include neutralizing of free fatty acid, using sodium hydroxide, bleaching to improve flavour and stability which is the major work of Enugu coal and deodorizing to remove odour.

1.1 Scope / Objective Of The Project

The objective of this project is to develop the technology of producing vegetable oil with Enugu coal and how to improve the efficiency of the adsorptive ability of Enugu coal. Besides comparing the effect of temperature on bleaching of palm oil, effect of particle size and regenerated coal is very essential.

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