Reducing Unemployment Through Co-operative Movement
This study was conducted to examine how unemployment has been reduced through cooperative movement in Enugu North Local Government Area. This study covers year 2012 to 2015. In the course of this study, research objective and hypothesis were formulated, for which primary and secondary data were collected, and data were men presented in a tabular form.
Based on the above, the findings on the topic are as follows:
- Staff employees of the sample cooperative are averagely qualified for their various jobs and they are given opportunities for further training by the cooperative societies.
- Employees of the sample cooperatives are averagely paid with some necessary allowances.
- Cooperative societies help about 35% of school leavers to be self employed.
- There is a continuous education both to the members and the whole public.
The researchers recommendations includes the followings:
- Government should make it compulsory for every establishment to have its own cooperative.
- Government should set-up more cooperative banks to give loans to individuals and groups that are prospecting to establish cooperative
- In conclusion the research deemed it necessary that every hand must be on desk to encourage the establishment of cooperative enterprises, since its now obvious that the only option left for us it to adopt to social economic model of mutual self-help.
1.1 Background of the Study
Co-operative is a basis for overall transformation of citizenry social and economic problems.
According to Berko (1987 :29), co-operative society is a voluntary and democratic association of persons, with variable membership and variable capital whose members pooled themselves and their resources together on mutual and self help basis to form a business enterprise which seeks to solve the socio-economic problem(s) of these members by directly providing goods and services to them in their capacity as either the owner/customer or owner – employees of the cooperative enterprise.
According to Amahalu (2005 :2), cooperative is defined as an association usually incorporated with economic aims, formed by or for persons or co operations, having common needs, approximately equal voice in management, making approximately equal or proportional contributions to capital, deriving proportionate services and benefits from it.
Co-operative in order to promote the welfare of their members involve themselves in most tangible projects like building of houses, building of schools, building of hospitals, building of recreation centers, markets and building of industries. Co-operative serves as a hold to company and local development agency; it also seek to provide a community owned structure.
1.2 Statement of Problems
Today, there is vast unemployment in Nigeria and Enugu North in particular. After many years of democracy there are graduates of 15 (fifteen) years standing, that room the street in search of white-collar jobs that don’t exist. Unemployment is still on the increased irrespective of federal government budget to curb the scourge. In the year 2000 the Federal government budgeted N10 billion and N20 billion in 2001 to deal with unemployment yet, unemployment increases on daily basis. Both the state and federal governments are lunching out a lot of programmes, on small scale business enterprise, yet unemployment is increasing.
However, the fact remain that no country can succeed in providing a reasonable standard of living for her citizens. It is now obvious that the only option left of us is to adopt the socio – economic model of mutual self help whereby unemployed individuals can voluntarily join together to achieve a common goal through the formation of co-operative enterprise.
Co-operative we know plays multiple roles as institutional frame work for allocating scarce resources, stimulating economic growth and enhancing economic welfare. It raises the income level of the people by providing income earning opportunities. Many reasons have been given for this critical situation concerning jobs, and such reasons include rapid growth of population in our country, the movement of capital to the cheap labour and the impact of new technology.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
This research has the major objectives of finding in comparative terms on the heavy promotion and creation of cooperative enterprise and exploit the economic benefits associated with them in Enugu North Local Government Area from 2000 – 2004.
Specific Objectives Include:
- To identify the socio – economic characteristic associated with cooperative societies.
- To identify the support for modern farming investment for industrial development and expansion of market through cooperative movement.
- To examine the volume of unemployment created by cooperative society.
- To assess the volume of viable cooperative society.
- To identify the problems of cooperative movement in creating job opportunities in Nigeria and Enugu North in particular.
- To make recommendations on how to improve cooperative societies in order to meet the demand of reducing unemployment.
- To find out possible project cooperative can be involve in.
- To find out the number of people employed by cooperative society in Enugu North from 2000 – 2004.
1.4 Significance of the Study
There is the need for reducing unemployment in our society and Enugu North in particular and the only way out is through cooperative movement. This analytical study shows the extent of some particular proposals for solutions to these problem of unemployment in Enugu North Areas and also serve as a basis for offering, informed suggestions for improvement on its social-economic development and growth.
It is envisaged that the findings, suggestions and recommendations of this study will be beneficial to all members and non members of co-operative society and government as well. Specifically, this research will go a long way to encourage people to join co-operative society.
To further the scope of this study, discussion and the possible means of efficient implementation will be based on the followings:
- Enhance economic, social and cultural situation of strata within limited resources and opportunities as well as to promote their initiatives.
- Improve social condition and provide social services in the areas of housing, education, electricity, health and communication.
- Increase personal and national wealth through campaigning against waste. It also impact the element for democratic control of economic activity.
Therefore, since cooperative thinks about the enhancement of their members well being as their prime ideology, it has to work towards the achievement of this target. Also this research study is primarily concerned in addition to the formal pronouncement of cooperative distribution on how to make them functional that is providing as social-economic development and growth thereby creating job opportunities as the prime ingredient to achieving its aim.
1.5 Research Questions.
- What are the number of people employed by cooperative societies in Enugu North?
- What are the projects cooperative can involve in?
- Why do people form a joint co-operative societies?
- What are the problems of cooperative societies in Enugu North?
- What are the number of viable cooperative society?
- What are the socio-economic benefits of belonging to cooperative society.
1.6 Scope and Limitation of the Study
The scope of the research is Enugu North Local Government Area of Enugu State. The research is to determine the impact and effect of unemployment reduction through cooperative movements/societies with specific emphasis on ‘ENUGU NORTH STAFF CREDIT THRIEFT AND LOANS SOCIETY’.
The research covers the operation of co-operation movement with the intension of finding out to what extent they can create employment.
In the course of generating this work, the researcher faced several handicaps which include non cooperative attitude of some officials visited which resulted in not giving all the information required about their operations inadequacy of data. Most of the officers visited were not on sit despite several visitation made by the researcher.
Finance has been a problem to the completion of this research. It limited frequent travels which ought to have made to the sampled cooperative societies.
Despite all this limitation the researcher tried to control several errors which would have affected the findings.
5.0 Summary of Findings, Recommendation and Conclusion.
5.1 Summary of Findings.
From the analysis of the data collected in the course of this project research, the major findings of the research based specifically upon the specially sampled cooperative can be summarized as follows:
Enugu North staff C. T. L. S LTD.
- It has a good financial base.
- Good and necessary accommodation are available.
- Consumer shop with
- Employer meat shop
- Employees for office book keepers.
- Staff/employee are averagely qualified for their various jobs and they are given opportunities for further training by the cooperative society.
- They have a very good potential for further expansion.
- Minimum salary is N5,000 and maximum of N9,000 (including allowances.)
- Business set up.
Meat shop and book keeping office are all in their premises and they don’t pay extra rent, since the society is owned by the employees of Enugu North.
After some critical analysis of the findings in this research on sampled cooperative society, some recommendations were drawn up as follows:
- Government should set up more cooperative banks to give loans to individuals and group that are prospecting to establish cooperative societies especially industries that will in the long – run provide employment opportunities for the populace.
- Institutions of higher learning should offer courses on cooperative studies to foster cooperative image and morals.
- Government should make it compulsory for every establishment/organization to have its own cooperative either service or productive society that will be controlled by workers of that establishment and financial subsidized by the organization concerned.
- Granting of loans and utilization of social amenities should be granted through and only when one belong to a particular cooperative society.
- Good and favourable working conditions and policies should be made aiming at improving the work and employment of employees in cooperative sectors.
The issue of reducing unemployment through cooperative movement in Nigeria and Enugu North in particular is a matter of refilling and recycling system on both the industrial and household levels.
Should we leave the consumers and housing cooperative with the task of development to provide for our needs through the creation of new cooperative and new jobs?
The researcher believed that the answer could be traced to the contribution of social economy to employment detailed in the literature review.
Cooperative organizations are human organization and are young believed if well nurtured will grow into responsible being. We know that employment is basis to one’s security and proud and by way of consequences to the opportunity one will be given to settle these and start a family which will be involved in the development of the economy for the fact that we are seeing employment as a priority issue in economic development programmes, we must by all means encourage the establishment of cooperative enterprises.
Hence from the cooperative world, what we can see in these instance is the principles of self help and mutual aid, being widely implemented .
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