Reducing The Problems Encountered By Students In Learning Social Studies In Secondary Schools

Social Studies Project Topic

Reducing The Problems Encountered By Students In Learning Social Studies In Secondary Schools


Abstract


This study was carried out to ascertaining the strategies required to reduce the problems encountered by students in learning social studies in secondary schools in Igueben, Edo state. The study was specifically set to assess the school based problems encountered by students in learning social studies in secondary schools in Igueben, Edo state, assess the teachers based problems encountered by students in learning social studies in secondary schools in Igueben, Edo state, and ascertain the strategies required to reduce the problems encountered by students in learning social studies in secondary schools in Igueben, Edo state. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of teachers and students of some selected junior secondary schools in Igueben, Edo state. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 229 respondents and 210 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using mean scores. While the hypotheses were tested using T-test statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that the teachers based problems encountered by students in learning social studies in secondary schools in Igueben, Edo state includes: lack of classroom management skill, poor relationship with the students, lack of pedagogical knowledge, and inability to adopt instructional method suitable for learning. Furthermore the result of the strategies required to reduce the problems encountered by students in learning social studies in secondary schools includes; enhancing school infrastructures, improving classroom conditions, employment of qualified teachers, improving students study habit through Counseling, and enhancing the provision of instructional materials. Therefore, it is recommended that school proprietors’ should as a matter of policy, purchase instructional aids which should be used by the teachers in their teaching of the student. If all these are done, they will go a long way in solving the problem of poor performance of students in Social Studies. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Social studies as a growing and dynamic subject have been firmly entrenched in the curricula of Nigerian schools and colleges. It is operational at the Junior Secondary School level and al the colleges of Education and even at the University level. The subject is also very prominent among many subjects at the Primary and junior secondary schools conventional subjects offered. Nevertheless, there are many emerging issues that need urgent attention in social studies Education. Series of definitions have been given to what social studies is. We should be conscious of the fact that social studies covers a wide range of studies since it takes and uses concepts, ideas, skills, knowledge, attitudes and values from the social science subjects like geography, government., economics, religion, sociology and a host of others (Fadelye 2005). Therefore, there is no single definition of social studies that is universally accepted. Fadeiye (2006), defines it as the study of man, as he interacts with his different environment.

The teaching of Social Studies is meant to provide coordinated, systematic study which draws upon such disciplines as anthropology, economics, geography, history, law philosophy, political science religion and sociology, as well as appropriate contents from the humanities, mathematics and natural sciences. The primary purpose of Social Studies is to help young people develop the ability to make informed and reasoned decisions for the problem as good citizens of a culturally diverse and democratic society in an inter- dependent world.
According to National Council for the Social Studies (NCSS)(2017), two main characteristics distinguish Social Studies as a field of study; it is designed to promote civic competence and it is integrative as it incorporates many fields of endeavour. Social Studies programmes help students construct a knowledge base and attitude drawn from academic disciplines in specialized ways of viewing reality. From the premises above, the objectives of Social Studies could be seen to be three -fold namely: To help learners acquire knowledge, skills and attitudes and values.

Despite the relevance, values and objectives of social studies in Nigeria, a lot of problems have been identified that hinders the effective teaching and learning of social studies in junior secondary schools. Social studies teachers are faced with lots of instructional challenges which affect proper teaching and learning of social studies in junior secondary schools. (Offorma, 2006). The major problems, among others, include: insufficient qualified social studies teachers, location barriers, unconducive learning environment, inadequate instructional materials, poor curriculum planning, lack of motivation of teachers and Government failure to update teachers teaching skills (Mezieobi & Onyeanusi, 2012). These problems seem to be age – long problems that have eaten deep in preventing the effective teaching and learning of social studies in junior secondary schools in Nigeria. In view of the above, the quest of this study is to ascertain the strategies for reducing the problems encountered by students in learning social studies in secondary schools.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Despite the importance of Social Studies in national development and stakeholders’ efforts to improve the study the subject, students continue to encounter bad experiences in the subject (Agara, 2010). Omabe (2006) stated that students’ social studies achievement is weak. Despite this, a variety of factors have been identified as leading to poor performance on the social studies junior certificate test. The instructional methods used in the subject’s teaching are one of these features. Social studies, according to Igu (2012), is an activity-based subject that relies on instructional methodologies for effective teaching. Good instructional materials, according to Omabe (2006), are crucial in the teaching and learning of social studies since, regardless of a teacher’s efficiency, lesson delivery efficacy cannot be guaranteed without the use of instructional methods. Instructional techniques aid in the acquisition of abstract concepts by helping to concretize ideas and inspire learners’ imaginations, according to Esu, Enukoha, and Umoren (2004). Similarly, Mathew (2012) asserted that using instructional techniques improves teaching effectiveness by allowing students to actively participate in classroom instruction. All of these schools of view contend that adopting the right instructional methods boosts student achievement.

According to Mocho (2012), poor instructional approaches are to blame for Social Studies underachievement. Furthermore, Odundo (2013) asserts that social studies teachers have a proclivity to employ well-known pedagogical tactics such as lecturing, drilling, and questioning, which may have a negative impact on student learning outcomes. However, it is for these reasons that secondary school social studies performance currently falls short of expectations. Despite poor performance in social studies, few studies have been conducted to ascertain the strategies for reducing the problems encountered by students in learning social studies in secondary schools.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

This study aims at identifying the strategies required to reduce the problems encountered by students in learning social studies in secondary schools. Other specific objectives includes:

  1. Assess the school based problems encountered by students in learning social studies in secondary schools in Igueben, Edo state.
  2. Assess the teachers based problems encountered by students in learning social studies in secondary schools in Igueben, Edo state.
  3. Ascertain the strategies required to reduce the problems encountered by students in learning social studies in secondary schools in Igueben, Edo state.

1.4 Research Questions

The study will be guided by the following questions;

  1. What are the school based problems encountered by students in learning social studies in secondary schools in Igueben, Edo state?
  2. What are the teachers based problems encountered by students in learning social studies in secondary schools in Igueben, Edo state?
  3. What are the strategies required to reduce the problems encountered by students in learning social studies in secondary schools in Igueben, Edo state?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

  • Ho: There is no significant difference on the opinion of teachers and students on the strategies required to reduce the problems encountered by students in learning social studies in secondary schools.
  • Ha: There is a significant difference on the opinion of teachers and students on the strategies required to reduce the problems encountered by students in learning social studies in secondary schools.

1.6 Significance of the Study

The study gives various insights into the problems encountered by students in learning of social studies in junior secondary schools in Nigeria. These highlighted problems will enable stakeholders in the education sector to take adequate measures in tackling these challenges, and make learning of social studies a lot easier for both teachers and students in junior secondary school levels. Empirically, the study will add to the body of existing literature and serve a s reference material to scholars and student who wishes to conduct further studies on related topic.


1.7 Scope of the Study

The scope of this study boarders on the strategies required to reduce the problems encountered by students in learning social studies in secondary schools. The study will be carried out among junior secondary schools in Igueben, Edo state.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

This research project, like all human endeavors, had some challenges that threatened to derail the study’s completion. One of the reasons is that the time allotted for this work was so limited that the researcher did not have enough time to complete the task thoroughly. During data collection, the researcher also had to put forth extra effort to understand the respondents’ interview schedules, several of whom fell into the incomprehensible age group. Also, there were financial and transportation constraints to deal with. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire, interview).


1.9 Definition of Terms

Social Studies:

Is the “integrated study of the social sciences and humanities to promote civic competence. Social studies is most commonly recognized as the name of a course or set of courses taught in primary and secondary schools or elementary, middle, and secondary schools, but may also refer to the study of aspects of human society at certain post-secondary and tertiary schools around the globe.


1.10 Organizations of the Study

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, abnd selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the strategies required to reduce the problems encountered by students in learning social studies in secondary schools in Igueben, Edo state. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to ascertaining the strategies required to reduce the problems encountered by students in learning social studies in secondary schools in Igueben, Edo state. The study was specifically carried out to assess the school based problems encountered by students in learning social studies in secondary schools in Igueben, Edo state, assess the teachers based problems encountered by students in learning social studies in secondary schools in Igueben, Edo state, and ascertain the strategies required to reduce the problems encountered by students in learning social studies in secondary schools in Igueben, Edo state..

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 210 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are teachers and students of some selected junior secondary schools in Igueben, Edo state.


5.3 Conclusion

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher concluded that;

  1. The school based problems encountered by students in learning social studies in secondary schools in Igueben, Edo state includes: poor availability of finance, lack of adequate infrastructures(Classrooms, Study halls, etc), recruitment of qualified teachers, and over population.
  2. The strategies required to reduce the problems encountered by students in learning social studies in secondary schools includes; enhancing school infrastructures, improving classroom conditions, employment of qualified teachers, improving students study habit through Counseling, and enhancing the provision of instructional materials.

5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.

  1. Infrastructural facilities should be improved upon in other to make social studies more appealing to both teachers and students
  2. Social studies teachers should undergo periodic training in other to meet up with the new standard of teaching the subject
  3. Government should employ qualified teachers, who can confidently teach social studies.
  4. Social studies curriculum should be redesigned and restructured to include teaching methods that promote students’ academic performance by curriculum designers.
  5. There is need for the employment of qualified teachers who are knowledgeable in Social Studies. This will improve the teaching and learning of the subject.
  6. Teachers are implored to teach with adequate teaching aids and instructional materials, improve their methods of teaching among others.
  7. School proprietors’ should as a matter of policy, purchase instructional aids which should be used by the teachers in their teaching of the student. If all these are done, they will go a long way in solving the problem of poor performance of students in Social Studies.

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