Reducing The Level Of Stress To The Sole Sanitary Landfill Of Nigeria

Project and Seminar Material for Environmental Science

Reducing The Level Of Stress To The Sole Sanitary Landfill Of Nigeria


Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

The pyrolysis organic high grade waste appeared like a more and more attractive way of solve the proliferation of these waste, especially during 1970-75 years.

Pyrolysis is the transformation of chemical compounds by heat without intervention of secondary reagents, (like oxygen). The chemical reactions are complex and transformed the waste into there fractions: solid, liquid, and cias
The pyrolysis method for recycling used tyros is a techniques, which heats whole or shredded rubber 13 softened after which the rubber polymers continuously breakdown into smaller molecules, these small molecules eventually vaporize and exit from the reactor. These vapors can be burned directly to produce power or condensed into an only type liquid, general used as fuel. Some molecules are too small to condense and they remain as solid. When performed well a tyre pyrolysis process is a very clean operation and has nearly no emission or waste. The properties of the gas, liquid and output are determined the type of feed stock used and the process conditions. For instance, whole types contain fibred and street. Slurred tyros have most of the steel and sometimes most of the fiber removed. The steel can be removed from the solid stream with magnets from recycling. The remaining solid materials often referred to as “charcoal”

Pyrolysis can be performed at relatively small scale and at remove locations which enhance energy density of the biomass resource and reduce transport and handling costs. Heat transfer is a critical area in pyrolysis as the pyrolysis process is endothermic and sufficient heat transfer surface has to be provided to meet process heat needs. Pyrolysis offer a flexible and attractive way of converting solid biomass into on easily stored and transported liquid, which can be successfully used for the production of heat, power and chemicals.


1.2 Background of the Study

Pyrolysis is the chemical decomposition of a condensed substance by heating in the absence of oxygen, and it is most commonly used for organic materials, called biomasses it occurs at various high temperatures for different kinds of biomasses. In shorts terms, pyrolysis used organic material and makes it into usable energy by heating at high temperature without oxygen.

Pyrolysis of biomasses results in blowhard and bio-oil. These are both usable energy sources they can be used as safe, environmental friendly fuel option. Pyrolysis also provides opportunity for the process of agriculture residence, wood waste and municipal solid waste into clean energy pyrolysis is often used in the chemical industry. It is used for example, to provide charcoal and activated carbon to turn waste into safety disposable substance, and to produce gasoline from hydrocarbon

BIOMASS LIQUEFACTION VIG PYROLISIS


1.3 Rationes Of Project

The rationale for undertaking this project is listed below:

100 % wastage rubber / type recycling is achieved (no waste left after the process).

  1. No soil, water or air pollution (pollution free) is observed during and after the process
  2. Economically valuable products are produced out of waste type (fuel oil, carbon black and steel).
  3. Raw material (waste type) is cheap to collect.
  4. Each recycled line of tyre preserve it tones of C02, which is a major green house gas.
  5. The process can be applied to all rubber based material.
  6. The system creates an alternate source of energy to replace petroleum product and natural gas.
  7. Provides opportunity government and local administration to deal with the disposal of waste tyre.
  8. Social benefit like the creation of employment and a healthier environment to live in.
  9. It is a worldwide used technology in countries like India, china, Australia, and USA.

The table below shows the waste hierarchy in of environment prefence, with waste disposal been that worst solution. This, waste recycling is found to be more preferred environmental option than land filling.


1.4 Aim and Objective

1.4.1 Objectives Aim

The main objective of this project is to reduce the level of stress to the sole sanitary landfill of Nigeria which has a diminishing life time and also to reduce the amount of non-biodegradable waste ending in the natural environment untreated.

  1. Development of pyrolysis process in a modified environment able to enhance thermal degradation of biomass (steam pyrolysis)
  2. Development of a hybrid multifunctional catalyst that would produce deoxygenated liquid product.
1.4.2 Aim

The specific aims of the project are:

  1. To reduce hazards related to the increased disposal of type waste.
  2. To convert waste tyros into useful products in an environmental friendly manner.
  3. To produce fuel oil, carbon black, steel and gas (which is re-used in the process).

Chapter Five


5.0 Conclusion

5.1 Advantages of pyrolysis Plant

  • Purest quality oil as finished product s of p
  • Use of green technology to achieve environment friendly processes.
  • Pyrolysis plant is energy self sufficient
  • No external fuel required for heating

5.2 Benefit of Pyrolysis Plant

  1. Recovery energy and value from waste in form of waste rubber oil, steel wire scrap and carbon char.
  2. Eco-friendly recycling of tyre
  3. Commercially viable process.
  4. Product is used as substitute to fuel oil
  5. Perfect solution for polymer waste management
  6. Raw material available in huge quantity

5.3 General Conclusion and Recommendation

5.3.1 General Conclusion

This study has tried to show the state of the current knowledge in the field of the pyrolysis of rubber and tyres. During the last ten years considerable progresses have been made from the scientific and technological prints of view.

Nowadays, the basic required for the process development are sufficient.

  1. Pyrolysis plant is a better to dispose the scrap tire and plastic
  2. This process is eco-friendly it carried with proper safety equipment
  3. It can give a reasonable profit to the owner
  4. Use of plastic is better comparing to the interms of oil output
  5. Capital investment can be regained in 2-3years if operated continuously.
5.3.2 Recommendation

The native of research requires continuous investgaton and development of current or promising technologies. Several aspects can be further investigated. Those could include process as well as catalyst optimization and development.

  1. A detailed investigation of the catalyst stability and activity during continuous reaction regeneration cycles in a circulating fluidized bed reactor, which could includes;
    • The effect of the regeneration parameters
    • The effect of accumulated ash in the system
  2. Investigation of the reproductively of the hybrid catalyst
  3. Investigation of catalyst preparation techniques such as
    • Optimization of metal content
    • Other modification techniques of the zeolite such as ion exchange , co-precipitation e.t.c
    • Preparation parameter such as the calcinations temperature, duration.

Reducing The Level Of Stress To The Sole Sanitary Landfill Of Nigeria


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