Reclamation Measures For Gully Erosion Sites (A Case Study Of Obollo-Etiti, Udenu Local Government Area, Enugu State)

Project and Seminar Material for Agricultural Engineering AE

Reclamation Measures For Gully Erosion Sites (A Case Study Of Obollo-Etiti, Udenu Local Government Area, Enugu State)


Abstract


The incidence of gully erosion in Obollo-Etiti in Udenu Local Government Area of Enugu State has assumed alarming proportions thereby gaining local government recongnition as an ecological disaster.

The aim of this study is therefore to determine and analysis the factors responsible for gully development and with preferring solutions. From my observation, the gully erosion for more than three to four years has been responsible for the loss of farmland, damage of roads, thereby rendering them farmless for varying period of time and loss of livestock which majority of the population depends on for survival.

Congruently, the community have been working on it and even employing indigenous management strategies. However not much progress has been recorded with regard to combating the manace as both community and government carryout intervention measure almost exclusive of each other, with the information gotten is therefore recommends among other things that the management strategies of local government should be harmonized with that of the community with regard for the unique environment and social feature of the study area.


Table of Contents


  • Title page
  • Certification page
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of content

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the study
  • 1.2 Objectives of the study
  • 1.3 Justification of the study

Chapter Two

2.0 Literature Review

  • 2.1 Definition of Gully Erosion
  • 2.2 Classification of gully
  • 2.3 Causes of gully erosion
  • 2.4 Process of gully formation
  • 2.5 Gully reclamation techniques

Chapter Three

3.0 Methodology

  • 3.1 Study Area
  • 3.2 Topographic Survey
  • 3.3 Determination of Soil Properties
  • 3.3.1 Grain size distribution
  • 3.3.2 Atterberg limit test (liquid limit determination)
  • 3.3.3. Specific gravity determination
  • 3.3.4 Permeability determination
  • 3.3.5 Direct shear test determination
  • 3.3.6 Dry and bulk densities determination
  • 3.4 Hydrological analysis
  • 3.4.1 Mean annual Rainfall
  • 3.4.2 Intensity duration curve
  • 3.4.3 Run-off determination
  • 3.4.4 Time of Concentration (TC)
  • 3.5 Selection and design of appropriate control structure
  • 3.5.1 Design of Trapezoidal channel
  • 3.5.2 Design of drop structure
  • 3.5.3 Design of discharge outlet structure

Chapter Four

4.0 Results and Discussion

  • 4.1 Results
  • 4.2 Discussions

Chapter Five

5.0 Recommendation and Conclusion

  • 5.1 Recommendation
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • References

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Disaster have been defined and categorized in diverse by various scholars see for instance, Bates (2002). Hugo (2009), Naik (2009) and Keane (2004). Disaster which may occur from natural or man-made processes often involve large scale alternations of the areas they occurs and suffering of a sizeable number of persons. Human responses to disaster vary according to the nature of the disaster.

Advances in science and technology have aided the human race to stop the events, to predict the events and more out of the ways such disasters or discover ways of recovery after the events had taken place. However, some notable disaster which when they occur, death and loss of property usually result include, gas escapes earthquake, chemical spill oil, oil spills, forest fires, coastal floods generally etc. landslide, causes of loss property death and population displacement when they occur in densely-settled area of the world s within Nigeria landslides occur as follows ups from deep gully incision (Mozie 2010). The most devastating gully erosion in Nigeria are found in South Easter Nigeria in the populated Enugu, Abia, Imo and Anambra State and other lesser area is in Auchi in Edo State of Nigeria.

This project discusses the gully erosion control in Udenu Local Government Area of Enugu State, Nigeria.


1.2 Objectives of the Study

  1. To determine the cause of the gully erosion in the Obollo-Etiti, Udenu L.G.A. gully site.
  2. To construct maintain and unrest in the study are unfrustural works like roads, water schemes and gradual transfer of these to benefiting communities to engage in other activities that will increase agricultural production in the soil.
  3. To design appropriate soil erosion control structures for gully erosion site.

1.3 Justification of the Study

The justification of this project work is seen in the aftermath of the gully development, which includes the destruction of the profile and the topography of the area, thereby hindering development around it. The downstream sedimentation is causing damage to the vegetation of area and a kind of sediment transfer to discharge outlet (which may cause pollution) is being seen effected by the overland flow that originates from the watershed. All these problems will be tackled when this work is successfully completed. The justification of this project work is also seen in the earnestness of the control. This is because the cost of reclamation and control is increasing on daily basis due to the continuous deepening of the gully by run off action and detachment by rain drop action.


Chapter Five


5.0 Recommendation and Conclusion

5.1 Recommendation

The following are recommended for the reclamation measure use in gully erosion at Obollo Etiti, Udenu L.G.A., Enugu State are:

  1. The area, topsoil is removed and stockpiled hearby to enabling the subsoil to be pushed into the channel and the immediate area smoothed to requirements. The valuable topsoil is their replaced to enhance pasture or crop growth. Surplus rock was use to partial fill a gully area.
  2. Bulldoze, should be use to modifies the cross-sectional shape of shallow by lowering both the head and sidewalls to a more stable angle and may need a flume to safety conduct, subsequent surface water to the reclaimed gully floor.
  3. Filling or reshaping is considered unpractical a typical approach is to construct banks which divert surface run-off and a gully head structure water away from the gully head is achieved by the use of spill way banks and a dam constructed upstream of the head will to limit its advance.

5.2 Conclusion

In conclusion, the research work recommend those measures which simultaneously control the gully and restore the affected land, if not to its former state at least to some kind of productive use for fodder and growing crops such as maize. In particular, more attention need to be paid to the use of vegetation wherever possible as this is a more cheaper method of controlling gully than the construction of gabionโ€™s which are expensive and labour intension.

Although most of the data and values, figures use are base on assumption and empirical values but it is indicated that most of the facts and figures are use in every day principle.


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