Readers Perception Of The Role Of Print Media In Sports Development In Nigeria

Project and Seminar Material for Mass Communication

Readers Perception Of The Role Of Print Media In Sports Development In Nigeria


Abstract


The research work examines the role of the print media in the development of sport in Nigeria using complete sport as a case study. The purpose of the research is to investigate the role of print media in the development of sport in Nigeria. Population and the sample size of the study on which the research was carried out composed of media experts, sport experts, and national athletes. Results showed that there was a significant difference between real that there is a significant role or impact of the print media to the development of sport in Nigeria.

The first chapter is concerned with the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, significance of the study, scope of the study, definition of terms etc.

The second chapter examines the literature review which gives a tailed explanation of the role of print media on sport development in Nigeria particularly what different authors have asserted about the subject matter.

The third chapter laid emphasis on research methodology, research design, population of the study, sample size, method of data collection, and instrument of data collection and techniques of data analysis.

The fourth chapter focuses on data presentation and data analysis while the fifth chapter highlighted on the summary of findings, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

Sports was originally a recreational activity, but with the introduction of financial and material benefits and an attendant honour to it, the number of participants, the number of events and the struggle for victory have introduced high level politics into it. Consequent upon the expected rewards, fraud, irregularities and injustices have overshadowed the system. However, a lot of people and groups are now interested in knowing about sporting events. Fixtures, dates, time and place of such events become matters of interest. They equally raise a question about past ones and even the plans for the future.

Thus, information and mass awareness become primary in solving this quest for information and knowledge. A special unit or field in the world of journalism takes it upon itself to report sporting events to the public. The effects of these reports both in shaping the behaviour of the public and management of sports in general demand specialization and skills in sports reporting.

This research in acknowledging these facts, examines the impact of print media in sport development in Nigeria. Sports were a recreational phenomenon till the early 1930’s when the first world sports fiesta was held. The processes of selection among different nations led to stronger and more competitive sports among nations and continents. Thus, competitive sports serve as an integrating force, and source of socio-political relationships. As an incentive and motivation to individuals and nations contending to the throne, financial benefits, international honours, merit awards were introduced. Sports bodies such as Federation International de Football Association (FIFA), Confederation of African Football (CAF) and National Food Authority (NFA) were established and employment opportunities created.

Consequently, various sporting activities, medals, pressure groups and interests emerged. Every day, these groups and interests press or seek to know about the processes and dynamics of these sporting activities, ostensibly with a view to preserve and/or influence certain phenomena.

The print media fill this responsibility gap as they report these activities and provide the necessary information needed to all interested parties far and wide. Beazell W.P. observed this when he wrote, “sports news comes nearer than anything else I know of, to the common denominator of news. There is probably more universal reader interest in the sports pages than in any of the other parts of the modem Newspaper.”

This duty has great influence on the entire socio-cultural, political, and economic structure of nations. Sport commentaries originated nationalistic activities/pressures, fanaticism, and hooliganism in sports. Because of its wider reach, it has become the surest, though the costliest, means of advertising products, services and programmes. It has yielded millions for their organizers and made many analysts, and commentators international personalities/heroes. The struggle for heteronomy among nations has equally been extended to sports. Considering the influence of sports reporting, necessary reporting materials and Concrete facts are needed for quality and objective reporting. They are interested in the means and methods of data gathering. Generally, they obtain the data through personal observation, press association, publications and mass media.

With the introduction of financial and material benefits and an attendant honour to sport, the number of participants, the number of events and the struggle for victory has introduced high level politics into it. Consequent upon the expected rewards, fraud, irregularities and injustices have overshadowed the system. However, a lot of people and groups are now interested in knowing about sporting events. Fixtures, dates, time and place of such events become matters of interest. They equally raise a question about past ones and even the plans for the future.

The sports reporters gather, process, interpret and publish relevant news items needed by interested parties. This responsibility puts them on the move all the time, hunting for facts that will be of immense value to the public. This paper, therefore, x-rays organization Structures of sports reporting, responsibility of sports reporters and technical for effective sports reporting.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

The media in carry out their social responsibility and development role in sport development in Nigeria have been criticised for placing too much emphasis on European sporting promotion and culture to the detriment of indigenous games and talents, calling for a serious re-evaluation of the roles and obligations of sport journalist and media through self-regulation. However, looking at the nature of media ownership and the high cost of media production, industry watchers agree that practitioners have taken to profit maximization which finds a fertile ground in foreign sport portrayal on Nigerian media and the huge advert revenue it attracts for the media than in the local sporting events and activities, which is under-funded, ill equipped and lacks proper promotion, administration, management, branding and packaging.

Meanwhile, there also exists the problem of Nigerian high taste for foreign input in the media, particularly sports, Nigerians prefer staying at their places of work with company of friends and families discussing the outcome of foreign sporting activities or even watching, rather than to pay or tune in to see their local athletes or sporting activities. Trends among scores of Nigerian media organisation equally indicate the little concern and coverage allocated to sporting issues and events and even where such was the case, greater proportion of the stories are about global sporting stars and talents at the expense of our own home-bred professional.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

  1. To know the contribution of print media to sport development
  2. To examine the challenges facing print media in reporting sport activities
  3. To study the aspect of sport which print media give priority?
  4. To know why sport activities are usually placed at the back cover of both the newspaper and magazine.

1.4 Research Questions

  1. Do print media contribute to sport development in Nigeria?
  2. What are the challenges facing sport reporters and sport desk in reporting sport activities?
  3. Why do Nigeria Sport reporters pay more attention to foreign sport activities than local sport?
  4. Why are sports activities usually placed at the back cover of both the newspaper and magazine?

1.5 Significance of the Study

There is no doubt about the fact that work like this will be beneficiary to some set of people and entity. Meanwhile, this work on the role of print media in sport development will benefit the following people, journalists, media owners, sport fans, government and future researchers.

Journalists:

Sport writers and sport editors will at the end of this work realize the importance of their work in entertaining the people this will make them do more.

Media Owners:

The research findings will enables media owners to earmark reasonable amount of money, equipment and other logistics to support their sport desk.

Government:

Government at all levels will see reasons for developing local sport so that local sport will be given more priority than the foreign ones. While government should make available some important gadget for sport reporting.

Future Researcher:

Researchers who will be exploring on this or related Research will find the work interesting and as a reference point.


1.6 Scope of the Study

The scope of the study is limited to the role of the print media in sports development in Nigeria within the context of complete sport newspaper. Although, the basic objective of the project is to examine the impact of print media in sport development in Nigeria, this can not be effectively studied without considering the contribution complete sport newspaper has made to the development of sport in Nigeria.


1.7 Limitations of the Study

The study concentrates mostly on influence of media ownership on the professionalism especially programmes and contents credibility and objectivity of complete sport news paper. These factors will be linked up with the absolute power the owner of tunes media has on journalists and news editors, because he who pay the pipers dictate the tunes.

Time:

Time constraint has posed a lot of limitations to this work as it took me a lot of time to gather enough literature materials while it was stressful to travel to different places.

Finance:

Inadequate finance for this project is another hindrance: there was no enough money to browse extensively for the needed materials.

Materials:

At present there was little literature materials available for this work as researchers were not really focus on this aspect.

However, despite the difficulties facing in course of this research, positive result were achieved.


1.8 Definition of the Terms

Role:

This means the contribution, impact or simply put as the functions of print media in sport development.

Newspaper:

This is a printed publication of loose folded sheets containing news, advertisements, sport, and correspondence e. t. c

Sport Activities:

These are games or competitive activity played outdoors and involving physical exertion, e.g. cricket, football, racing e.t.c for the purpose of entertainment.


Chapter Five


Summary, Recommendation and Conclusion

5.1 Summary

The research work examined the role of the print media in the development of sport in Nigeria using complete sport news paper as a case study.

The research work clearly shown that the print media has contributed immensely to the development of sport in Nigeria.

When it comes to sport, the functions of the print media as well as sports journalists can not be over emphasized.

Sports journalism is an essential element of any news media organization. Sports journalism includes organizations devoted entirely to sports reporting — newspapers such as Complete Sport news paper.


5.2 Conclusion

Sport in Nigeria has grown from a humble beginning as an entertainment and recreational past time to a prominent phenomenon whose influence is felt in all facets of lives of the citizenry.

Nigerians are sports loving people with very high appetite for winning. Success at competitions creates a euphoric atmosphere with an injection of vibrancy and pride in the citizens.

Conversely, poor performance by Nigerian athletes at international competitions results in a lingering sourness and a contagious sadness that envelope everybody with negative effect on their health, psyche and activities. Sport is therefore as important to Nigerians as the basic necessities of life, like food, clothing and shelter. Consequently, sport has become an important aspect of the Nigerian culture due to its popularity amongst the citizenry.

The Nigeria State recognizes the power of sports and had used it to pursue its foreign policy and diplomatic agenda as well as foster national unity and socio-cultural integration. Examples are:

  1. The boycott of the 1978 Commonwealth Games by Nigeria in protest against the apartheid regime in South Africa.
  2. The hosting of the 1973 All Africa Games after the Nigerian civil war to demonstrate to the world that Nigeria is united, safe and secure.
  3. The introduction of the National Sports Festival in 1973 as a means of fostering unity and cultural integration after the Nigerian civil war.

Both print media like complete sport news paper and sports itself have therefore contributed to the oneness of the geographical entity called Nigeria and has equally brought about our binding spirit. In sports, Nigerians are detribalized


5.3 Recommendation

For print media to further contribute to sports development in Nigeria, elite athletes should be projected to enhance awareness and spectatorship.

Furthermore, the media should also project the campaign against bad health practice that promotes drugs in sports.

This would go a long way to promote the positive contribution of sport to healthful living among participants and spectators.

The sports development policy has to be properly and publicly inaugurated at all levels to drum up awareness for its existence and consequent compliance with. It is only by so doing those stakeholders, no matter at what level they are operating, will be aware of the existence of the policy.


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