Ratio Analysis As A Tools For Performance Appraisal In Nigeria Financial Market (A Case Study Of First Bank Of Nigeria Plc, Ilorin Branch)

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Ratio Analysis As A Tools For Performance Appraisal In Nigeria Financial Market (A Case Study Of First Bank Of Nigeria Plc, Ilorin Branch)

Table of Content

Chapter One:


  • 1.1 Background of the study
  • 1.2 Statement of the research problem
  • 1.3 Justification for the study
  • 1.4 Objective of the study
  • 1.5 Research hypothesis
  • 1.6 Scope of the study
  • 1.7 Plan of the study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the study
  • 1.9 Definition of term

Chapter Two:

Literature Review

  • 2.1 Theoretical framework
  • 2.2 User of Financial Statement
  • 2.3 Management of an organization
  • 2.4 Performance evaluation
  • 2.5 Management control system
  • 2.6 Method of performance evaluation
  • 2.7 Analysis and interpretation of financial statement
  • 2.8 Definition and relevance of financial ratio
  • 2.9 Classification of ratio analysis

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Introduction
  • 3.2 Types of Data
  • 3.3 Population and sample size
  • 3.4 Method of data collection
  • 3.5 Method of data analysis
  • 3.6 Brief History of First Bank of Nigeria Plc.

Chapter Four:

Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.0 Introduction
  • 4.1 Socio – demographic characteristic of response
  • 4.2 Presentation of Questionnaire response
  • 4.3 Testing of hypothesis
  • 4.4 Result and Analysis of Liquidity ratio

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • Bibliography

Chapter One


1.1 Background of the Study

The concept of business entity in accounting practices which defines business as a separate entity from the owner brings forth stewardship reporting and accountability in any organization. Mores, the going concern concept anticipates a continuous life a firm within a foreseeable future. That is why the ultimate determined of the remain perpetually.

Moreover, the aim or objective of financial manager is to provide meaningful financial information about business enterprises to the outside world and for internal control and management in decision making. These financial information are presented in financial statement. They are means of conveying to the management interested outside a concise picture of the profitability and financial position of a business. They constitute a report of managerial performance attesting to the managerial success or failure and flashing warning signal of inpending difficulties. (Meigs and meigs 1979), so financial statement obviously important to enable the user that have a clear picture of the position of organization. It reports the liquidity and solvency of the company and the claim of these resources i.e debt owned, the equity of the owner and presents cash present cash position of the company.
It comprises comparative balance sheet, profit and loss account, income statement, cash flow statement, auditors report and some other necessary information base on year’s assessment.

Despite the fixation of financial statement, many user often fail to comprehend fully the information it intended to pass across, thus their desire one not met. This is due to the ambiguity of the financial statement where by the where by the volume of the data and figure mislead the users. In this sense, the analysis and interpretation of the statement are imperative.

Financial statement can be converted and interpreted using three techniques.

1. Vertical or Static Analysis:

It examines relationship within a statement. It deals with the relative percentage value of the statement.

2. Horizontal or Dynamic Analysis:

This involves comparison of financial statement in respect of two more years. A weakness of this analysis is that comparism with the past does not afford any basis for evaluation in absolute terms.

3. Ratio Analysis:

Is a commonly used technique in analyzing financial statement and it involves these of two difference economic units to ascertain performance.

It is obviously paramount since it practically evaluate performance that is check how strong or weak a company is. Therefore its interpretations are easily understand by the users.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

Financial Ratio Analysis is a widely used took assessing the performance of an enterprises.

Financially statement is prepared in terms of historical costs. They do not fully reflect economic resources and managerial, hence poor decision may be made. The users of financial information are carried away by the figures displayed in the financial statement observing the trends of the financial investment while over – looking the performance of management as assess whether their resources have out to effective use. The analytical comparism of a large information is a problem to the users (The management of the company and the external users. Investors, analyst, creditor government and public.

1.3 Justification for the Study

Ratio analysis being what it is are the production of relations for internal and external financial reports are important to summarize key relationship and results in order to appraise financial performance.

In this assessment this research will be of immense value in recent knowledge of at the enterprises and managerial achievement. This research is very useful to user of account and financial information. It is also to supplement the existing of the user of financial ratio as guide towards deterring company’s achievement as well as to show how financial ratio analysis can identity the strength and weakness of a company.

The research work can also serve as a material for students who are interested in the study of financial rations as a tools for performance appraise.

1.4 Objective of the Study

The study into financial ratio analysis as a tool for appraising performance is to assist the use of financial information make decision predict the future and monitor possible irregularities in managerial behaviours in business. Thus the main objective of study are:-

  1. To determine the strength, weakness and opportunities based on the firms financial statement or performance and the threats to the continued existence of the organization.
  2. To assess the extent to which ratio analysis serves as techniques aid in decision making by management. To find out the extent, which the management. To find out the extent, which the management of the company has been able to run and control effectively and efficiently, the assets and owners equity between the period under review.
  3. To find out the extent to which the trends indicated ratio are useful for prediction of the future last to make recommendation to the company.

1.5 Research Hypothesis

Hypothesis is assumptions upon which the research base his finding for a data collected. The hypothesis basically formatted to be tested.

  1. Ho – Ratio analysis cannot serve as a tool for measuring managerial performance.
    Hi – Ratio analysis can server as a tool for measuring managerial performance.
  2. Ho – Ratio analysis can not serve as tool for measuring managerial performance.
    Hi – Ratio analysis can serve as a tool for measuring profitability and efficient of a firm.

While chi-square is used to test validity of the hypothesis.

1.6 Scope of the Study

This study has been limited five years financial summarize of First Bank of Nigeria PLC. Profit and loss account the value added statement using ratio and adequate interpretation was analyzed.

The study is carried out base on the fact that account represents a true and fair view of the company’s affair and not misleading.

Moreover, financial ratio will be compared with that of previous years using common size of statement, treads analysis i.e reaction of the economic unit overtime of the firm horizontal analysis.

The period was choosing because of its available financial statement representing its operation within the period 2002 to 2006.

1.7 Plan of the Study

The research is written to examine financial ratio analysis as a tool for performance appraisal.

The study begins with chapter one that deals with background of the study statement of problem justification of the study and definition of terms. Chapter two deal. With the literature review of the work of other author related to this research. Chapter three emphasizes on research methodology: type of data population and sample size, method of data collection, method of data analysis and brief history of First Bank of Nigeria Plc, Ilorin Chapter. Chapter Four embraces the data presentation and analysis testing of hypothesis result and analysis of liquidity ratio. Chapter five deal with summary, conclusion and recommendation.

1.8 Limitation of the Study

In the cause of carrying out the research the following limitation are encumbered. The limitation of the study is majority the limited available and strick access to some data’s demanded by the research from the appropriate body in the organization as a result of high work schedule but however due to continuous patronage the data was later discharge.

Another problem that limited against the smooth conduct of this research work was the high cost of transportation and also strick assess to other schools library but with the help of financial support both from our parent and school authority, the stress or limitation was over come.

1.9 Definition of Term


Is the ability to operate as well as action or achievements consider in relation to how it is (Oxford Advance Learners Dictionary 1995).

Financial statement:

Are the instrument panel of a business enterprises and constitute a report on managerial performance attesting to managerial failure or success and flashing warming signal impending difficulties (Meigs and Meiga, 1979).


Is a simple mathematical expression as well as one member expressed in term of another to show the relation between them and is the most widely use tool in analysis and interpretation of financial statement.

Balance sheet:

A statement that show the financial position which summary or the nature and amount of company asset and liabilities and net worth of company in particular year.

Profit and Loss account:

Is an account that shows either the net or profit of the company usually in a year where by the income of such company are credited while their expenses are debited during the preparation of their account

Working capital:

Is the excess of current asset over current liabilities of the business enterprises.

Cash flow statement:

Is a financial information which provide information about the cash receipts (cash inflow) and cash payment (cash outflow) of an enterprises over a given period of time or in a given accounting year

Chapter Five

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Summary

This chapter deals with summary of the research findings obtained from data analysis. This is followed by conclusion and recommendation.

There is no doubt about ratio analysis being an important tool for measuring the financial strength and weakness of a firm.

The research findings also show that main objective of ratio is to discover causes, which have contributed there to financial ratio analysis also serve as indicator of firms efficiency and performance.

As a way of facilitating meaningful comparison an attempt to qualify the financial statement of First Bank of Nigeria through the use of method such as liquidity ratio, profitability and efficiency ratio and investment ratio analysis. The average liquidity ratio for five years under review is 2.02. Greeting ratio was not computer because there was no long term debt per share. The profitability ratio was measures in relation to assets capital invest and sales. To further elucidate the analysis, the study was extended to operating cash flow under the investment ratios.

5.2 Conclusion

So far, it has been discovered that financial statement of a company enable an analysis to gain insight into its economic well bring with a clarity that can not be mattered by any other document or sources of information.
In the proceeding chapter the most important ratio had been discussed in respect of first Bank of Nigeria Plc. For the period between 2002–2006. What had been found has thrown some light on the performance of the company for the relevant period e.g It becomes clear that liquidity needs to be over heaved to facilitate its continuous efficiency. It was discovered that the average liquidity ratio is considered standard but the acceptable standard should be 2:1.
According to the results obtained from the analysis of these ratios for the five years under review the performance of the company would not be considered as totally being satisfactory. Some are not the financial ratio used in this study to evaluate the current and part financial position and the result of operation of the First Bank of Nigeria Plc, with the primary objective to determine the best possible estimated and production about the future consideration and performance.

However, the environment in which the company is operating can not be over viewed as it definitely has a great impact on the success of the company.

Some ratio cannot be calculated because concern. However, as have been earlier said what had been carried out in this study is that an intra – comparison of the company’s performance was analysis as a measure of effective performance was analysis as a measure of effective performance and a fair judgment of the state of affair of the business is the strategies pillars upon which the economy of any nation rests.

A chi-square statistical method was also used through the questionnaire distributed to respondents to test management performance and also profitability level of the company.

5.3 Recommendation

Having critically analysis the annual report and accounts of First Bank of Nigeria Plc, through computation of some useful ratio and chi-square method questionnaire some discoveries had been made which now bring about the following recommendations in order to improve the performance of the company. It adequate concern is paid to them.

  1. The liquidity ratio of the bank 2.02:1 which is considered relatively normally for the acceptable standard which is 2:1.
  2. The company should try and work on their liquidity ratio, at least not to fall and remain to an idea level of a ratio 2:1, in order to be able to meet their customer demand for cash any day time.
  3. The asset turnover ratio of the bank had been experiencing and increase overtime and it is very high in 2001 and 2002 respectively, which denotes efficient use of their asset the more because the asset turnover ratio is low in 2003 and can be better than what it is now, it only they will devise better technique of using asset efficiently.
  4. Return on capital employed ratio experience increase and decrease but later increase. The ratio being a better measure of portability the company should ensure that it always increase by devising better ways of managing their capital and investing their capital investment they have already appraised and discover it is worthwhile.
  5. The not profit margin is relatively low which might result from over spending on expenses. The company should watch their expenses analysis it and adhere from expending some funds that are necessary or there is no need for, so as to increase their net profit percentages which is averagely low.
  6. The bank should try and ensure stability in the amount set dividend per share it not an increase, so as to have more investors and not lose their shareholder because average investor will always be concerned about result i.e what accrues to than as income.
  7. There should be an increase in the price earnings ratio of the company, so that the shareholder may have confidence in the future earnings ratio of the company. Nothing the fact that there was a drastic decline in the price of earnings ratio in both 2002 and 2006.
  8. Finally, the management should always use ratio analysis for monitoring of the company performance and managerial profitability measures or performance because it is an effective mechanism for performance evaluation and appraisal.

Ratio Analysis As A Tools For Performance Appraisal In Nigeria Financial Market (A Case Study Of First Bank Of Nigeria Plc, Ilorin Branch)

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