Question Formation In Kono Language

Project and Seminar Material for Linguistics and Communication

Question Formation In Kono Language

Chapter One


1.0 General Background

The objective of this research work is to study question formation that is how question are formed in Kono language.

Kono people are found in Kauru Local Government Area of Kaduna State.

1.1 Historical Background

The Kono people are said to have migrate from a deep forest where they were surrounded by mountains in the northern part of Kaduna.

The Kono people do not have a written history of their language but the elders of Kono can only say orally what was told as story by their fore father.

Western civilization brought a lot of changes to the Kono community which includes mode of dressing, cultural, and traditional beliefs and religion.

1.2 Sociocultural Profile

This section examines the socio cultural profile of the Kono people. We shall discuss their cultural heritage and the socio linguistics of Kono. Driving the socio cultural profile of Kono are; mode of dressing, religion, festival and ceremony. These are followed by the sociolinguistics.

1,2.1 Sociocultural Profile Occupation

The major occupation of the Kono people are subsidized farmers through commercial farming is also practiced. The major crop in Kono is sugar-cane. They also have other food crops like Yam, Millet, Corn, Cassava e.t.c it is also said that there is a yam which is not planted but grows itself, it is called “Mọrọngo”, the yam can only be eating but it can’t be pounded according to the people of Kono. Hunting is done during dry season when farm work would have reduced. Marriage

Kono has a distinct way by which marriage is done. it indicates that a lazy man cannot marry a Kono child, that is any man who is ready for marriage must first get the girl a carved wood and axe for house shore because the carved wood will be used to carry fire wood from the farm.

Also, a man that marries a Kono lady apart from being qualified age-wise will have to farm for the family of the lady he intend to marry before and after marriage and this is done till date in Kono. Another important thing about Kono marriage system i that no marriage ceremony comes up during raining season because people will be busy with farm activities. Festival

The Kono people don’t really have many festivals but some of the festivals they have are called ‘Burkama’ and Kono day.

Most of the festival done in Kono comes up during the dry season because of farm work. Burkama festival which the people always look forward to especially those that does not stay in the community. The term ‘Burkama’ means king or creator, during this festival; people show appreciation to their creator for sparing their lives up to another harvest period.

Kono day is a period when Kono people from all field of works in life come together to celebrate their tribe and this comes up usually during Christmas. The Konos and the non-native of Kono celebrate together during this festival. Religion

Before the arrival / coming of the Europeans into Africa and to Nigeria, the Kono people are mainly traditional worshipers. When the Europeans came and introduced Christianity. Christianity took over as a result of the missionaries who came and today we have about 95% of Kono that are Christians while 50% are either Muslim or idol worshiper. Mode of Dressing

Before the coming of the Europeans the Kono men use to dress in animal skin to cover their private parts, they called it ‘Gupansu’ while the women used leaves and animal skin. However the arrived of the Europeans brought changes to the dressing of the people and they embraced the western way of dressing. Naming Ceremony

The Kono people do their naming ceremony on the day the child is born by giving the child his or her name, unlike today where we have to wait for a week in other to celebrate in full. They do not believe in such celebration before now. Burial Rites

The major way burial is done is after death. The person is been washed and wrapped with mat and the ground will be digged and the dead body will be lead in the grave.

The family of the deceased will have hair barbed, the extracts from the remains of guinea corn that is use for eating and the lips are been pierced. Circumcision

The Kono people even before their contact with religion normally have circumcision of only male children at the age of ten and below. This is usually done traditionally by some people who are said to be professionals in circumcision. This people use knife made by blacksmith called Jọpore.

1.3 The Sociolinguistics Of Kono

The Kono community is surrounded by different towns and communities such as Kinuhu, Dingi, Gure, Kiwapa and Gbure. Some of these communities speak Kono. They are Padan kono and Gbure communities. Hausa and Fulani speaking people are close to the Kono community.

Christian missionaries brought Christian religion and western education to the Kono people. So, there are schools. A white woman known as (majinmja) built a church which later became a school.

Following the Greenberg (1963) of language classification which is considered to the Benue – Congo language family. The language has over 17,000 speakers. According to (2009). The genetic tree below shows the origin of Kono language from the Niger-Congo language phylum.

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