Quality Of Work-Life And Employee Turnover

Project and Seminar Material for Human Resource Management (HRM)

Quality Of Work-Life And Employee Turnover


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine the quality of work-life and employee turnover using EMENITE PLC, Lagos state as a case study. The study was specifically carried out to ascertain whether there is a significant relationship between quality of work life and employees turnover, determine the factors required for creating an effective work life quality, determine whether inadequate work life quality result to employees’ turnover intentions, and find out whether optimal quality of work life will positively nurture a more flexible, loyal, and motivated workforce in the organization. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of employees of EMENITE PLC, Lagos state. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 57 respondents and 50 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables, and mean scores. While the hypotheses were tested using Pearson correlation statistical tool, SPSS v23. The result of the findings reveals that there is a significant relationship between quality of work life and employees turnover. The study also revealed that optimal quality of work life positively nurture a more flexible, loyal, and motivated workforce in the organization. Therefore, it is recommended that private sector organizations generally speaking tend to be less aware of the importance of quality of work life. For companies to attain a good performance by their employees, they must first restructure their businesses in way that satisfies standardized criteria of quality if work life. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Human element is the most powerful factor in directing organizations towards failure or success; therefore, this element has always been stressed on. Work has a vital meaning in human`s life, work can direct the energy of life to a meaningful purpose and has a role in having an efficient usage of time. Furthermore it has a big role in having a relaxed mental health as an outcome from being satisfied. Humans are spending most of their times in the workplace, their performance and productivity increases due to their satisfaction level (Çetinkanat & Kösterelioğlu, 2016). However, work is not only a financial support for human beings, but it is one factor behind making humans more social and self-governing, it leads to a developed environment, consequently having a high quality of work life for individuals in organizations is important for obtaining better-off employees. The term quality of work life contains many different themes in the realm of theorists by employees and employers. Quality of work life is an extensive topic that contains ethics, different facts about work conditions, safety, insurances, employee satisfaction, work-life balance, and integrity. The quality of work of the world is defined as “the quality of the relationship between the employee and the work environment where the human dimension is added to the technical and economic dimensions” (Çetinkanat & Kösterelioğlu, 2016).

Quality of work life was introduced as a mere concept of companies, later on, quality of work life embraced and covered other different areas such as education and examining quality of work life in such fields was started. The aim of education is to make sure that individuals are having chances in order to adjust the social orders, the modern world, and to train employees with knowledge and abilities that are needed for responding the modern age or changes that are occurring in the society or the world a whole. (Çetinkanat, A.C & Kösterelioğlu, M.A, 2016).
Organizations are always after some new ways in order to challenge and meet the needs of the recent dynamic businesses, regardless of the amount of time or the energy they are spending, it is important for employees to be satisfied and happy about their work, especially nowadays that employees are bearing major responsibilities and tasks between home and job and are expected higher job expectations (Glass & Finley, 2002; Van der Lippe, 2007, as cited in Sinha 2012). The role of human resources in companies is big for moving organizations forward and in making the organization to perform its best. Many factors are affecting the management of human resources; one of these factors is quality of work life. For example, according to Cambridge Dictionary, quality of work life is “the level of happiness and satisfaction of an organization‟ employees at their work.” Quality of work life is viewed as a philosophy, or a set of principles which treats people as an asset that is trustworthy, accountable, and capable of making appreciated influence, i.e. the way employees are treated should be with trust and dignity. There are some fundamental components relating to an individual`s quality of work life, for instance, physical environment, tasks, social environment, administrative system and the work life balance Therefore, the general term of quality of work life refers to the quality of association between workers and the entire working atmosphere or environment. Quality of work life is the grade in which in an organization; work is expected to play both, a materialistic and psychological role in the well-being of employees. Also, it refers to the quality of the relationship between employees and the overall working atmosphere. Typically the definition of quality of work life includes four key areas which are: safe work environment, work-related health care, appropriate working time and suitable salary. (Reddy, L & Reddy, M., 2010).


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Lately the expression “quality of work life” has been increased to define the humanistic and the environmental values that are ignored by industrialized societies in terms of technology advancement, industrial productivity, and economic growth. Nevertheless, dissatisfaction has always been a problem in working life, and it always affects all the employees unrelatedly to their position or grade. Managers are trying to reduce the level of dissatisfaction of employees even though that it is costly for both employees and organizations. Many modern organizational investigators are looking for developing the productivity and quality of work life for the organization this can be counted as a complex problem due to the difficulty of separating and identifying the influence of all the features of quality of work life (Walton, 1973). At the present time for an organization in order to accomplish its goals and aim, it is essential to satisfy their employees at their work, and this is due to the importance of the work place in people`s life as they are spending most of their time at the work place, for the same reason surroundings might not only have an influence over physical body but that they are affecting the social, psychological and health at a high level which is showing a negative impact on commitment and productivity. In other words, the employee that is having a spiritual well-being is more committed and productive than the employee with a low level of psychological well-being (Wright and Bonettm 2007, Wright and Cropanzano, 2004, as cited in Sinha, 2012).

Today`s educated employees are expecting more than just a pay for their work that is why the modern work place environment is paying attention to the importance of human needs and technology of work-place (Kang, L.S & Deepak, 2014). The role of quality of work life is to increase job satisfaction and job performance as well as the effectiveness of an organization for attaining involvement and commitment of its employees while decreasing absenteeism and turnover (Golkar, 2013, as cited in Chooran & Azadehidel, 2015). Quality of work life is used for increasing motivation when following a strategy of job enrichment and it includes domains such as job protection, satisfaction, ease and build trust in employee (Elmi and Hashemzadeh, 2009, as cited in Chooran, & Azadehidel, 2015).


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The main objective of the study is to examine the quality of work-life and employee turnover. The study will specifically;

  1. Ascertain whether there is a significant relationship between quality of work life and employees turnover.
  2. Determine the factors required for creating an effective work life quality.
  3. Determine whether inadequate work life quality result to employees’ turnover intentions.
  4. Find out whether optimal quality of work life will positively nurture a more flexible, loyal, and motivated workforce in the organization.

1.4 Research Questions

The study will be anchored by the following question;

  1. Is there any significant relationship between quality of work life and employees turnover?
  2. What are the factors required for creating an effective work life quality?
  3. Does inadequate work life quality result to employees’ turnover intentions?
  4. Will optimal quality of work life positively nurture a more flexible, loyal, and motivated workforce in the organization?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

  • Ho: There is no significant relationship between quality of work life and employees turnover.
  • Ha: There is a significant relationship between quality of work life and employees turnover.

1.6 Significance of the Study

By following the rapid changes in the business environment, the human resource function is becoming more globalized; hence managing organizations in a satisfactory way is becoming more complex for this reason companies are trying their best to attract the best quality of human resource for bringing the most valuable assets, humans, in the company to beat their competitors. Having a high quality of work life is crucial for having a good performance of employees. So in order to spread awareness among KRG companies and employees, this study is necessary to do for its importance. Quality of work life has emerged as one of the most crucial aspects of job satisfaction. Workers nowadays are working for salary and they carry on the work as long as their work environment is motivating (Kaur, 2016) . It seems that the concept of quality of work life has being less popular among KRG companies, so developing quality of work life among companies is one of those subjects demanding a good attention in business organizations. This study is trying to attract the attention of new business, startups and even ancient companies to provide the best quality of workforce life to their employees. Because quality of work life is a procedure wherein organizations identify their responsibilities for improving job security and conditions of working that are the best for both organization and employee and it is important to have a high quality of work life to continue in attaining and attracting employees, also quality of work life is a phrase used to define a wider range of job-related practices that an employee is experiencing (Kaur, 2016).

This study is emphasizing on the work life needs and the quality of the work in order to face and resolve a low performance by employees. Emphasizing on such subject is important because quality of work life program has become significant in companies due to below reasons:

  • Increase demands at work.
  • Loss of long-term employee agreements.
  • The need for enhanced work-place skills.
  • Greater competition for talent.
  • Increased women in work force

A decent quality of work life will help in having an atmosphere with a good impersonal relation and it will help in having motivated employees who seek improvement. Employees nowadays are looking for managers who can fulfill their needs and they meet their expectations by improving facilities such as restructuring job, re-designing job, and job improvement, physical conditions of work, thus, quality of work life will be developed as well. At that point, when the quality of work life is improved workers will be focused on both individual and the whole group which leads to the wide-range of development (Kaur, 2016).


1.7 Scope of the Study

This study is structured to generally examine the quality of work-life and employee turnover. Specifically the study will ascertain whether there is a significant relationship between quality of work life and employees turnover, determine the factors required for creating an effective work life quality, determine whether inadequate work life quality result to employees’ turnover intentions, and find out whether optimal quality of work life will positively nurture a more flexible, loyal, and motivated workforce in the organization.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

This research project, like all human endeavors, had some challenges that threatened to derail the study’s completion. One of the reasons is that the time allotted for this work was so limited that the researcher did not have enough time to complete the task thoroughly. During data collection, the researcher also had to put forth extra effort to understand the respondents’ interview schedules, several of whom fell into the incomprehensible age group. Also, there were financial and transportation constraints to deal with. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire, interview).


1.9 Definition of Terms

Turnover Intention:

Refers to one’s intention to leave their existing employing organization which indicates a breach in the relationship between individuals and the organization (Chang, 1999).


1.10 Organizations of the Study

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, abnd selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the quality of work-life and employee turnover using EMENITE PLC, Lagos state as a case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to examine the quality of work-life and employee turnover using EMENITE PLC, Lagos state as a case study. The study was specifically carried out to ascertain whether there is a significant relationship between quality of work life and employees turnover, determine the factors required for creating an effective work life quality, determine whether inadequate work life quality result to employees’ turnover intentions, and find out whether optimal quality of work life will positively nurture a more flexible, loyal, and motivated workforce in the organization.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 50 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent were employees of EMENITE PLC, Lagos state.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher concluded that;

  1. There is a significant relationship between quality of work life and employees turnover.
  2. The factors required for creating an effective work life quality includes: adequate financial compensation, good working conditions, suitable opportunities for growth and development, workers’ participation in management and ensuring social justice in the organization.
  3. Inadequate work life quality result to employees’ turnover intentions.
  4. Optimal quality of work life positively nurture a more flexible, loyal, and motivated workforce in the organization.

5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.

  1. This research recommends that for new businesses or startups to be aware more about the work environment, rules and regulation regarding work life balance. How employee`s performance is impacted by not allowing them to use their abilities and skills and opportunities that motivates them to use their best.
  2. The study recommends transparency inside the workplace. Transparency is one element managers have to think of; employees should be given full information to know more about their job not only to perform well but to come up with new ideas and creativity regarding their work.
  3. The study recommends hiring employees in their specialties. Another issue that was noticed during the interview was that, companies who are not hiring employees based on specialty matching positions. This leads to lowering performance as the employee will not be able to use his or her skills and abilities cultivated in their specialty. Instead they will be working in a different specialty which they cannot be creative at. Thus, it is always better and for the benefit of both, the company and the employee to select the latter based on merits versus job description.
  4. Private sector organizations generally speaking tend to be less aware of the importance of quality of work life. For companies to attain a good performance by their employees, they must first restructure their businesses in way that satisfies standardized criteria of quality if work life.

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